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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21946, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899028

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a form of pervasive developmental disorder manifested by impairment in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although genetic contribution is strongly suspected in autism, the specific genetic factors remain unidentified. Hyperserotoninemia has been reported in some autistic patients, and several studies have demonstrated an association between 5-hydroxytryptamine-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms and rs25531 single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (solute carrier family 6 member 4; SLC6A4) and ASD, indicating a possible involvement of the serotonin system in the etiology of ASD.To explore this situation further, a case-control association study of 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms on Thai ASD patients was conducted. A total of 188 ASD cases fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria (156 males and 32 females) and a total of 250 normal controls were recruited from the same ethnic backgrounds. 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (Long, L; Short, S) and rs25531 (A/G) single nucleotide polymorphism were genotyped and compared between the patients and normal controls using chi-square statistics.The L/L genotype was more common in patients than in the controls (13.8% vs 5.2%, P = .006), and the LA haplotype was found in patients more than the controls (16.9% vs 12.2%, P = .048). When male patients were analyzed alone (156 individuals), the associations were also statistically significant with P = .017 for L/L genotype, and P = .019 for LA haplotype distribution.Our findings support previous reports suggesting an association between the 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms of SLC6A4 and patients with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tailândia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4873, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978376

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. Despite this heterogeneity, previous studies have shown patterns of molecular convergence in post-mortem brain tissue from autistic subjects. Here, we integrate genome-wide measures of mRNA expression, miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation from ASD and control brains to identify a convergent molecular subtype of ASD with shared dysregulation across both the epigenome and transcriptome. Focusing on this convergent subtype, we substantially expand the repertoire of differentially expressed genes in ASD and identify a component of upregulated immune processes that are associated with hypomethylation. We utilize eQTL and chromosome conformation datasets to link differentially acetylated regions with their cognate genes and identify an enrichment of ASD genetic risk variants in hyperacetylated noncoding regulatory regions linked to neuronal genes. These findings help elucidate how diverse genetic risk factors converge onto specific molecular processes in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic testing is recommended for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Pathogenic yield varies by clinician and/or patient characteristics. Our objectives were to determine the pathogenic yield of genetic testing, the variability in rate of pathogenic results based on subject characteristics, and the percentage of pathogenic findings resulting in further medical recommendations in toddlers with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of ASD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 500 toddlers, 18 to 36 months, diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ASD (mean age: 25.8 months, 79% male). Subject demographics, medical and neuropsychological characteristics, and genetic test results were abstracted. Genetic results were divided into negative or normal, variants of unknown significance, and pathogenic. Subject characteristics were compared across results. Manual chart review determined if further recommendations were made after pathogenic results. RESULTS: Over half of subjects (59.8%, n = 299) completed genetic testing, and of those, 36 (12.0%) had pathogenic findings. There were no significant differences in Bayley Scales of Infant Development cognitive (P = .112), language (P = .898), or motor scores (P = .488) among children with negative or normal findings versus a variant of unknown significance versus pathogenic findings. Medical recommendations in response to the genetic finding were made for 72.2% of those with pathogenic results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the importance of genetic testing for toddlers diagnosed with ASD given the 12% yield and lack of phenotypic differences between subjects with and without pathogenic findings. The majority of pathogenic results lead to further medical recommendations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos 13-15 , Cognição , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Mosaicismo , Destreza Motora , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 555-563, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758449

RESUMO

Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome (HVDAS) is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with intellectual disability/developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple medical comorbidities. HVDAS is caused by mutations in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP). A recent study identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in 22 individuals with HVDAS, adding to the group of neurodevelopmental disorders with an epigenetic signature. This methylation signature segregated those with HVDAS into two groups based on the location of the mutations. Here, we conducted an independent study on 24 individuals with HVDAS and replicated the existence of the two mutation-dependent episignatures. To probe whether the two distinct episignatures correlate with clinical outcomes, we used deep behavioral and neurobiological data from two prospective cohorts of individuals with a genetic diagnosis of HVDAS. We found limited phenotypic differences between the two HVDAS-affected groups and no evidence that individuals with more widespread methylation changes are more severely affected. Moreover, in spite of the methylation changes, we observed no profound alterations in the blood transcriptome of individuals with HVDAS. Our data warrant caution in harnessing methylation signatures in HVDAS as a tool for clinical stratification, at least with regard to behavioral phenotypes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Metilação de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 356, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex human health conditions with etiological heterogeneity like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often pose a challenge for traditional genome-wide association study approaches in defining a clear genotype to phenotype model. Coalitional game theory (CGT) is an exciting method that can consider the combinatorial effect of groups of variants working in concert to produce a phenotype. CGT has been applied to associate likely-gene-disrupting variants encoded from whole genome sequence data to ASD; however, this previous approach cannot take into account for prior biological knowledge. Here we extend CGT to incorporate a priori knowledge from biological networks through a game theoretic centrality measure based on Shapley value to rank genes by their relevance-the individual gene's synergistic influence in a gene-to-gene interaction network. Game theoretic centrality extends the notion of Shapley value to the evaluation of a gene's contribution to the overall connectivity of its corresponding node in a biological network. RESULTS: We implemented and applied game theoretic centrality to rank genes on whole genomes from 756 multiplex autism families. Top ranking genes with the highest game theoretic centrality in both the weighted and unweighted approaches were enriched for pathways previously associated with autism, including pathways of the immune system. Four of the selected genes HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-G, and HLA-DRB1-have also been implicated in ASD and further support the link between ASD and the human leukocyte antigen complex. CONCLUSIONS: Game theoretic centrality can prioritize influential, disease-associated genes within biological networks, and assist in the decoding of polygenic associations to complex disorders like autism.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Teoria do Jogo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: African American (AA) children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience delays in diagnosis and obstacles to service access, as well as a disproportionate burden of intellectual disability (ID) as documented in surveillance data recently published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Our objective in this study was to analyze data from the largest-available repository of diagnostic and phenotypic information on AA children with ASD, and to explore the wide variation in outcome within the cohort as a function of sociodemographic risk and specific obstacles to service access for the purpose of informing a national approach to resolution of these disparities. METHODS: Parents of 584 AA children with autism consecutively enrolled in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange across 4 US data collection sites completed event history calendar interviews of the diagnostic odysseys for their children with ASD. These data were examined in relation to developmental outcomes of the children with autism and their unaffected siblings. RESULTS: The average age of ASD diagnosis was 64.9 months (±49.6), on average 42.3 months (±45.1) after parents' first concerns about their children's development. The relationship between timing of diagnosis and ASD severity was complex, and ID comorbidity was not predicted in a straightforward manner by familial factors associated with cognitive variation in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings document significant opportunity to expedite diagnosis, the need to further understand causes of ID comorbidity, and the necessity to identify effective approaches to the resolution of disparities in severity-of-outcome for AA children with autism.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Diagnóstico Tardio/tendências , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21013, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664106

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious nervous system disease, and the cause is not known. Sialic acid (SA) is an indispensable nutrient for early brain development. In previous study, it was found that the SA level of ASD group was lower than that of control group. However, the reason for this has not well explained. A case-control study was conducted to understand the association between the SA synthase enzyme regulatory gene and ASD. The study sample included 65 ASD children and 64 healthy children. The levels of the GNE gene were measured, which encodes UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE), a key enzyme in SA biosynthesis. The symptom severity, intelligence development level, and behavioral performance of ASD children were estimated. There was a significant difference in the levels of GNE between the ASD and control groups (t = 2.028, P = .045). Moreover, the levels of GNE were negatively related to stereotypical behaviors according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) assessment (r = -0.386, P = .039). However, there is no the correlation between the levels of GNE and autistic severity. As evaluated through the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the levels of GNE were negatively associated with autistic mannerisms scores, social cognition scores and SRS total scores in the children with ASD (r = -0.314, P = .020). These results indicate that the GNE gene may be associated with autism spectrum disorder, and it is also related to autistic behavioral performance, such as stereotypical behaviors, autistic mannerisms, and social cognition ability. Our data suggest that future studies to explore the causal relationship between GNE and the etiology of ASD may be needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614901

RESUMO

The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder encompassing a broad phenotypic and genotypic variability. The short (S)/long (L) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has a functional role in the regulation of extracellular serotonin levels and both alleles have been associated to ASD. Most studies including European, American, and Asian populations have suggested an ethnical heterogeneity of this polymorphism; however, the short/long frequencies from Latin American population have been under-studied in recent meta-analysis. Here, we evaluated the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in Colombian individuals with idiopathic ASD and reported a non-preferential S or L transmission and a non-association with ASD risk or symptom severity. Moreover, to recognize the allelic frequencies of an under-represented population we also recovered genetic studies from Latin American individuals and compared these frequencies with frequencies from other ethnicities. Results from meta-analysis suggest that short/long frequencies in Latin American are similar to those reported in Caucasian population but different to African and Asian regions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , América Latina , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRC5335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578677

RESUMO

Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for several congenital malformations in the world, some of these are associated to telomeric/subtelomeric deletions. The abnormalities involving the telomere of chromosome 12 are rare, with few reports of deletions involving 12q24.31 region in the literature, and, to our knowledge, only four of them in the 12q24.31-q24.33 region. We report a further case of interstitial deletion of bands 12q24.31-q24.33 associated with autism spectrum disorder. A 2-year-old boy with global developmental delay associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The Human Genome CGH Microarray 60K confirmed the diagnosis of 12q deletion syndrome. This study made a review of the current literature comparing our patient with previously reported cases. These detailed analyses contribute to the development of genotype/phenotype correlations for 12q deletions that will aid in better diagnosis and prognosis of this deletion.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Humanos , Masculino
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008185, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392212

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and associated with a wide variety of social adversity and physical health problems. Using genetic liability (rather than phenotypic measures of disease) as a proxy for psychiatric disease risk can be a useful alternative for research questions that would traditionally require large cohort studies with long-term follow up. Here we conducted a hypothesis-free phenome-wide association study in about 330,000 participants from the UK Biobank to examine associations of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for five psychiatric disorders (major depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) with 23,004 outcomes in UK Biobank, using the open-source PHESANT software package. There was evidence after multiple testing (p<2.55x10-06) for associations of PRSs with 294 outcomes, most of them attributed to associations of PRSMDD (n = 167) and PRSSCZ (n = 157) with mental health factors. Among others, we found strong evidence of association of higher PRSADHD with 1.1 months younger age at first sexual intercourse [95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.25,-0.92] and a history of physical maltreatment; PRSASD with 0.01% lower erythrocyte distribution width [95%CI: -0.013,-0.007]; PRSSCZ with 0.95 lower odds of playing computer games [95%CI:0.95,0.96]; PRSMDD with a 0.12 points higher neuroticism score [95%CI:0.111,0.135] and PRSBP with 1.03 higher odds of having a university degree [95%CI:1.02,1.03]. We were able to show that genetic liabilities for five major psychiatric disorders associate with long-term aspects of adult life, including socio-demographic factors, mental and physical health. This is evident even in individuals from the general population who do not necessarily present with a psychiatric disorder diagnosis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 587-595, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359473

RESUMO

Despite evidence that deleterious variants in the same genes are implicated across multiple neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been considerable interest in identifying genes that, when mutated, confer risk that is largely specific for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we review the findings and limitations of recent efforts to identify relatively "autism-specific" genes, efforts which focus on rare variants of large effect size that are thought to account for the observed phenotypes. We present a divergent interpretation of published evidence; discuss practical and theoretical issues related to studying the relationships between rare, large-effect deleterious variants and neurodevelopmental phenotypes; and describe potential future directions of this research. We argue that there is currently insufficient evidence to establish meaningful ASD specificity of any genes based on large-effect rare-variant data.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Incerteza , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Nature ; 581(7809): 452-458, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461655

RESUMO

The acceleration of DNA sequencing in samples from patients and population studies has resulted in extensive catalogues of human genetic variation, but the interpretation of rare genetic variants remains problematic. A notable example of this challenge is the existence of disruptive variants in dosage-sensitive disease genes, even in apparently healthy individuals. Here, by manual curation of putative loss-of-function (pLoF) variants in haploinsufficient disease genes in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)1, we show that one explanation for this paradox involves alternative splicing of mRNA, which allows exons of a gene to be expressed at varying levels across different cell types. Currently, no existing annotation tool systematically incorporates information about exon expression into the interpretation of variants. We develop a transcript-level annotation metric known as the 'proportion expressed across transcripts', which quantifies isoform expression for variants. We calculate this metric using 11,706 tissue samples from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) project2 and show that it can differentiate between weakly and highly evolutionarily conserved exons, a proxy for functional importance. We demonstrate that expression-based annotation selectively filters 22.8% of falsely annotated pLoF variants found in haploinsufficient disease genes in gnomAD, while removing less than 4% of high-confidence pathogenic variants in the same genes. Finally, we apply our expression filter to the analysis of de novo variants in patients with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability or developmental disorders to show that pLoF variants in weakly expressed regions have similar effect sizes to those of synonymous variants, whereas pLoF variants in highly expressed exons are most strongly enriched among cases. Our annotation is fast, flexible and generalizable, making it possible for any variant file to be annotated with any isoform expression dataset, and will be valuable for the genetic diagnosis of rare diseases, the analysis of rare variant burden in complex disorders, and the curation and prioritization of variants in recall-by-genotype studies.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/normas , Distribuição de Poisson , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353026

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by major social, communication and behavioural challenges. The cause of ASD is still unclear and it is assumed that environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors influence the risk of ASD occurrence. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 21-25 nucleotide long RNA molecules which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play an important role in central nervous system development; therefore, dysregulation of miRNAs is connected to changes in behaviour and cognition observed in many disorders including ASD. Based on previously published work, on diagnosing ASD using miRNAs, we hypothesized that miRNAs can be used as biomarkers in children with suspected developmental disorders (DD) including ASD within Bosnian-Herzegovinian (B&H) population. 14 selected miRNAs were tested on saliva of children with suspected developmental disorders including ASD. The method of choice was qRT-PCR as a relatively cheap method available in most diagnostic laboratories in low to mid-income countries (LMIC). Out of 14 analysed miRNAs, 6 were differentially expressed between typically developing children and children with some type of developmental disorder including autism spectrum disorder. Using the most optimal logistic regression, we were able to distinguish between ASD and typically developing (TD) children. We have found 5 miRNAs as potential biomarkers. From those, 3 were differentially expressed within the ASD cohort. All 5 miRNAs had shown good chi-square statistics within the logistic regression performed on all 14 analysed miRNAs. The accuracy of 5-miRNAs model training set was 90.2%, while the validation set had a 90% accuracy. This study has shown that miRNAs may be considered as biomarkers for ASD detection and may be used to identify children with ASD along with standard developmental screening tests. By combining these methods we may be able to reach a reliable and accessible diagnostic model for children with ASD in LMIC such as B&H.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/análise , Saliva/química
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(3)2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459403

RESUMO

In observational studies, significant associations have often been identified between antidepressant drug prescription during pregnancy, on the one hand, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on the other. Interpreting these associations is problematic because they are based on analyses that could not adjust for inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown confounds. Recent clinical data suggest that a genetic relationship exists between depression and neurodevelopmental disorders. A very recent study identified many genetic loci that were common to depression, ASD, and ADHD. These findings suggest the possibility that depression in a pregnant woman may predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring through shared genes and not through antidepressant use during pregnancy. Previous studies that significantly associated gestational exposure to antidepressants with adverse pregnancy outcomes could not adjust for genetic factors because they were unknown confounds at the time. Now that common risk loci have been identified, at least some of the unknown (genetic) confounds are no longer unknown; however, unless specifically examined in prospective studies, they will remain as unmeasured confounds that will continue to compromise the interpretation of study results. The possibility of confounding by inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown risk factors must therefore be considered before indicting antidepressant use during pregnancy in neurodevelopmental risks. In this context, the importance of genetic factors as unmeasured and unknown confounds must be acknowledged.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 513-524, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243819

RESUMO

The identification of functional regions in the noncoding human genome is difficult but critical in order to gain understanding of the role noncoding variation plays in gene regulation in human health and disease. We describe here a co-localization approach that aims to identify constrained sequences that co-localize with tissue- or cell-type-specific regulatory regions, and we show that the resulting score is particularly well suited for the identification of rare regulatory variants. For 127 tissues and cell types in the ENCODE/Roadmap Epigenomics Project, we provide catalogs of putative tissue- or cell-type-specific regulatory regions under sequence constraint. We use the newly developed co-localization score for brain tissues to score de novo mutations in whole genomes from 1,902 individuals affected with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings in the Simons Simplex Collection. We show that noncoding de novo mutations near genes co-expressed in midfetal brain with high confidence ASD risk genes, and near FMRP gene targets are more likely to be in co-localized regions if they occur in ASD probands versus in their unaffected siblings. We also observed a similar enrichment for mutations near lincRNAs, previously shown to co-express with ASD risk genes. Additionally, we provide strong evidence that prioritized de novo mutations in autism probands point to a small set of well-known ASD genes, the disruption of which produces relevant mouse phenotypes such as abnormal social investigation and abnormal discrimination/associative learning, unlike the de novo mutations in unaffected siblings. The genome-wide co-localization results are available online.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Irmãos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202868, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293683

RESUMO

Importance: Advanced parental age has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children. However, little is known about the association between grandparental age at the time of birth of the parent and the risk of ASD in the grandchildren. Objective: To estimate the associations between parental and grandparental age and ASD risk in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, multigenerational cohort study used data from Danish national health registries. A parental age cohort was constructed to evaluate the association between parental age and ASD in 1 476 783 singleton children born from 1990 to 2013, and a multigenerational cohort was also constructed including 362 438 fathers and 458 234 mothers born from 1973 to 1990 for whom information on grandparental age was available. Data analyses were conducted from November 1, 2018, through February 7, 2020. Exposures: Parental age at childbirth and grandparental age at the time of the birth of the parent. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of ASD in children were obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (1994-2017). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between parental or grandparental age and ASD in children. Results: Of the 1 476 783 children born from 1990 to 2013, 758 066 (51.3%) were male, and 27 616 (1.9%) had ASD (20 467 [74.1%] were male). Advanced paternal or maternal age over 30 years was monotonically associated with increased ASD risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.45-1.68) for maternal age 40 years and older and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.39-1.78) for paternal age 50 years and older, compared with parents aged 25 to 29 years. In the multigenerational cohort, 9364 grandchildren (1.7%) had ASD. This study found U-shaped associations, in that ASD risk was higher among grandchildren of younger (≤19 years) maternal grandmothers (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.52-1.85), younger maternal grandfathers (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26-1.78), and younger paternal grandmothers (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.34), and older (≥40 years) paternal grandmothers (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.90) compared with the grandchildren of grandparents who were aged 25 to 29 years at the time of giving birth to the parents. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings corroborate previous studies suggesting that advanced parental age is independently associated with increased ASD risk in children. This study also found that children with young maternal grandparents and children with young and old paternal grandparents had elevated ASD risk. Possible transmission of ASD risk across generations should be considered in etiological research on ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Avós , Padrões de Herança , Idade Materna , Pais , Idade Paterna , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 10055-10066, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312822

RESUMO

Synaptic activity in neurons leads to the rapid activation of genes involved in mammalian behavior. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers such as the BAF complex contribute to these responses and are generally thought to activate transcription. However, the mechanisms keeping such "early activation" genes silent have been a mystery. In the course of investigating Mendelian recessive autism, we identified six families with segregating loss-of-function mutations in the neuronal BAF (nBAF) subunit ACTL6B (originally named BAF53b). Accordingly, ACTL6B was the most significantly mutated gene in the Simons Recessive Autism Cohort. At least 14 subunits of the nBAF complex are mutated in autism, collectively making it a major contributor to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Patient mutations destabilized ACTL6B protein in neurons and rerouted dendrites to the wrong glomerulus in the fly olfactory system. Humans and mice lacking ACTL6B showed corpus callosum hypoplasia, indicating a conserved role for ACTL6B in facilitating neural connectivity. Actl6b knockout mice on two genetic backgrounds exhibited ASD-related behaviors, including social and memory impairments, repetitive behaviors, and hyperactivity. Surprisingly, mutation of Actl6b relieved repression of early response genes including AP1 transcription factors (Fos, Fosl2, Fosb, and Junb), increased chromatin accessibility at AP1 binding sites, and transcriptional changes in late response genes associated with early response transcription factor activity. ACTL6B loss is thus an important cause of recessive ASD, with impaired neuron-specific chromatin repression indicated as a potential mechanism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Hipocampo/patologia , Actinas/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/fisiologia , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Dendritos/genética , Dendritos/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Nat Rev Genet ; 21(6): 367-376, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317787

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often grouped with other brain-related phenotypes into a broader category of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In clinical practice, providers need to decide which genes to test in individuals with ASD phenotypes, which requires an understanding of the level of evidence for individual NDD genes that supports an association with ASD. Consensus is currently lacking about which NDD genes have sufficient evidence to support a relationship to ASD. Estimates of the number of genes relevant to ASD differ greatly among research groups and clinical sequencing panels, varying from a few to several hundred. This Roadmap discusses important considerations necessary to provide an evidence-based framework for the curation of NDD genes based on the level of information supporting a clinically relevant relationship between a given gene and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética
19.
Neuron ; 106(5): 759-768.e7, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243781

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more prevalent in males; however, the etiology for this sex bias is not well understood. Many mutations on X-linked cell adhesion molecule NLGN4X result in ASD or intellectual disability. NLGN4X is part of an X-Y pair, with NLGN4Y sharing ∼97% sequence homology. Using biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging, we show that NLGN4Y displays severe deficits in maturation, surface expression, and synaptogenesis regulated by one amino acid difference with NLGN4X. Furthermore, we identify a cluster of ASD-associated mutations surrounding the critical amino acid in NLGN4X, and these mutations phenocopy NLGN4Y. We show that NLGN4Y cannot compensate for the functional deficits observed in ASD-associated NLGN4X mutations. Altogether, our data reveal a potential pathogenic mechanism for male bias in NLGN4X-associated ASD.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Transporte Proteico/genética
20.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 26-30, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150709

RESUMO

Advances in genetics have been able to support the clinical suspicion on the large hereditary component of most of these neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Initial studies on heritability, linkage or association showed from the beginning the great contribution of genotypic variation to the clinic in general, and to NDD in particular. The effectiveness of genetic studies in clinical practice, targeted to aetiological diagnosis, should not be ignored. Most of these are protocolized in the study of disorders such as intellectual disability and autism; within these, the array comparative genomic hybridization have supported a greater diagnostic effectiveness with respect to historical cytogenetic techniques (3 vs. 10% respectively). However, the irruption and success of molecular genetic sequencing techniques, particularly the exome and genome in trio, analyzing the parents (diagnostic rates of 30-50%), are conditioning the modification of the genetic algorithms in the diagnosis of different NDD. The greater knowledge of causal variants in intellectual disability and autism is also modifying the polygenic theoretical models established to date.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
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