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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 323, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies about Quality of Life (QoL) in autistic children (ASD) have put forward the negative impact of factors such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) severity, psychiatric comorbidities and adaptive behaviour impairment. However, little is known about the relation of these factors to school adjustment, measured with the International Classification of Functions disability and health (ICF) framework (World Health Organization, 2001), and QoL evolutions. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the determinants of behaviours, school adjustment and QoL changes in 32 children in an ASD inclusion program over one academic year. METHODS: Using Bayesian methods, we studied the impact of ASD severity, psychiatric comorbidities, adaptive behaviour level and a diagnosis of Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) on evolutions of behaviour, school adjustment (measured with the ICF) and QoL. RESULTS: As predicted, adequate adaptive behaviour levels were associated with better progress of behaviours and school adjustment whereas psychiatric comorbidities were related to worse outcome of school adjustment. Contrary to our hypotheses, severe ASD was associated to better evolution of adjustment at school. PDA was not discriminant. We did not find any association between the studied factors and the evolution of QoL over the academic year. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the assessment of adaptive behaviour levels, psychiatric comorbidities and ASD severity level may be useful predictors to discriminate of school adjustment evolution (assessed by teachers within the ICF model) over a one-year period in autistic children. The assessment of this time course of school adjustment was sensitive to change and adapted to differentiate evolutions in an inclusive education framework. The investigation of quality of school life of autistic children as well as its determinants may therefore be relevant to improving academic adaptation. However, further research in larger groups, over longer periods and in different personalized school settings for autistic children is needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 149, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393403

RESUMO

Gene dosage disorders (GDDs) constitute a major class of genetic risks for psychopathology, but there is considerable debate regarding the extent to which different GDDs induce different psychopathology profiles. The current research speaks to this debate by compiling and analyzing dimensional measures of several autism-related traits (ARTs) across seven diverse GDDs. The sample included 350 individuals with one of 7 GDDs, as well as reference idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 74) and typically developing control (TD; n = 171) groups. The GDDs were: Down, Williams-Beuren, and Smith-Magenis (DS, WS, SMS) syndromes, and varying sex chromosome aneuploidies ("plusX", "plusXX", "plusY", "plusXY"). The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) was used to measure ARTs at different levels of granularity-item, subscale, and total. General linear models were used to examine ART profiles in GDDs, and machine learning was used to predict genotype from SRS-2 subscales and items. These analyses were completed with and without covariation for cognitive impairment. Twelve of all possible 21 pairwise GDD group contrasts showed significantly different ART profiles (7/21 when co-varying for IQ, all Bonferroni-corrected). Prominent GDD-ART associations in post hoc analyses included relatively preserved social motivation in WS and relatively low levels of repetitive behaviors in plusX. Machine learning revealed that GDD group could be predicted with plausible accuracy (~60-80%) even after controlling for IQ. GDD effects on ARTs are influenced by GDD subtype and ART dimension. This observation has consequences for mechanistic, clinical, and translational aspects of psychiatric neurogenetics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Humanos
4.
Behav Res Ther ; 152: 104068, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serious games are a promising means of fostering socio-emotional skills in children on the autism spectrum (AS). However, empathy and related constructs have not yet been addressed comprehensively and together with emotion recognition, and there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to investigate skill maintenance and the transfer to functional behavior. METHOD: The manualized, parent-assisted serious game Zirkus Empathico (ZE) was tested against an active control group, in a six-week multicenter RCT. Eighty-two children aged 5-10 years on the AS were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Empathy and emotion recognition skills were defined as the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes included measures of emotional awareness, emotion regulation, autism social symptomatology (Social Responsiveness Scale), and subjective therapy goals. RESULTS: Training effects were observed after the intervention for empathy (d = 0.71) and emotion recognition (d = 0.50), but not at follow-up. Moderate effects on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and autism social symptomatology were indicated by the short and mid-term assessments. Parents reported treatment goal attainment and positive training transfer. CONCLUSION: While a six-week training with ZE failed to induce lasting changes in empathy and emotion recognition, it may be effective for improving emotional awareness and emotion regulation, and mitigate general autism symptomatology. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Zirkus Empathico - Promoting socioemotional competencies in 5- to 10-year-old children with autism spectrum conditions using a computer-based training program; https://www.drks.de/; DRKS-ID: DRKS00009337; Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1175-5451.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Regulação Emocional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Humanos , Pais
5.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 41(2): 123-131, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416175

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by emotional and social deficits, which can be associated with sympathetic dysregulation. Thus, we aimed to analyze the electrodermal activity (EDA) using time, and novel spectral and nonlinear indices in ASD. The cohort consisted of 45 ASD boys and 45 age-matched controls. EDA was continuously recorded at rest. The EDA indices were evaluated by time-, spectral-, and nonlinear-domain analysis. Our results revealed increased non-specific skin conductance responses, spectral parameters in high and very-high frequency bands, approximate and symbolic information entropy indicating sympathetic overactivity in ASD vs. controls (p < 0.05, for all). Surprisingly, the nonlinear index from detrended fluctuation analysis α1 was lower in ASD vs. controls (p = 0.024) providing thus distinct information about qualitative features of complex sympathetic regulation. Concluding, the complex time, spectral, and nonlinear EDA indices revealed discrete abnormalities in sympathetic cholinergic regulation as one of the potential pathomechanisms contributing to cardiovascular complications in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 115-123, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with subclinical autistic traits exhibit a pattern of eye avoidance similar to that of typical autism. Our study aimed to test the efficacy of group cognitive behavioral therapy (G-CBT) in promoting gaze toward the eye area of facial expressions, specifically orienting to emotional faces, in individuals with high autistic traits (high AT). METHODS: Twenty-six high AT individuals and 30 low AT individuals participated. High AT individuals were assigned to eight sessions of G-CBT intervention. Eye-tracking measurements were acquired before and after treatment. RESULTS: We observed the following: (a) the eye avoidance in high AT individuals was prominent for all facial expressions in relative to low AT individuals; (b) G-CBT primarily improved gaze toward the eyes of happy and fearful faces but not for neutral face expressions in high AT individuals; (c) after 8 sessions of G-CBT, the fixation time on the eyes of emotional faces improved significantly. For happy faces, the fixation time on the eyes of faces was markedly increased in epochs between 500 ms and 1000 ms after the face onset; for fearful faces, the improvement in participants existed between about 1000 ms and 1500 ms after the face appeared. LIMITATION: Our results may not be generalized to other patients with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that G-CBT significantly promotes gaze toward the eyes of emotional faces in high AT individuals. These results are encouraging, and suggest that the emotional face processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might stand to benefit from similar psychotherapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Emoções , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular , Humanos
7.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(3): 171-180, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244867

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings regarding anxiety and trauma-related disorders in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (autism), focusing on the distinct ways in which these conditions may be expressed, as well as advances in evidence-based assessment and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Current findings suggest both anxiety and trauma-related disorders may be more prevalent, yet more complicated to address in autistic relative to non-autistic children. Overlapping symptoms and distinct manifestations of these disorders pose challenges for the accurate identification, assessment, and treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders in autistic children. Emerging evidence recommends adapting traditional assessment and treatment approaches to better meet the needs of autistic children. Recent research suggests autism-centered conceptualizations, which accommodate complexity in how anxiety and trauma-related disorders are experienced and expressed by autistic people, are needed to enhance the psychiatric care of this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Psicoterapia
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(4): 1364-1373, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253192

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a broad diagnostic category describing a group of neurodevelopmental disorders which includes the autistic disorder. Failure to develop normal social relationships is a hallmark of autism. An inability to understand and cope with the social environment can occur regardless of IQ. One of the hypotheses of the appearance of ASD symptoms is associated with the theory of mind (TOM). ASD patients do not have the ability to attribute the full range of mental states (goal states and epistemic states) to themselves and to others. Eye-tracking allows for observation of early signs of TOM in ASD individuals, even before they are 1 year old, without the need of developed motor and language skills. This provides a window for looking at the very basics of mindreading - detecting intentionality and eyes in our environment. Studies show that ASD children fail to recognize biological motion, while being highly sensitive to physical contingency within the random movement. Their perception of faces seems disorganized and undirected, while object recognition is intact. Evidence suggests that this orientation of attention following gaze cues is diminished in ASD patients. Available data also show deficits in emotion recognition, that cannot be accounted for by impairments in face processing or visual modality alone. Such observations provide an insight into disturbances of information processing and offer an explanation for poor social functioning of ASD patients. When combined with other methods, Eye-tracking has the potential to reveal differences in processing information on a neural circuitry level. Thus, it may help in understanding the complexity of TOM mechanisms, and their role in social functioning.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Teoria da Mente , Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Lactente , Motivação
9.
Mol Autism ; 13(1): 15, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eye tracking (ET) is a powerful methodology for studying attentional processes through quantification of eye movements. The precision, usability, and cost-effectiveness of ET render it a promising platform for developing biomarkers for use in clinical trials for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The autism biomarkers consortium for clinical trials conducted a multisite, observational study of 6-11-year-old children with ASD (n = 280) and typical development (TD, n = 119). The ET battery included: Activity Monitoring, Social Interactive, Static Social Scenes, Biological Motion Preference, and Pupillary Light Reflex tasks. A priori, gaze to faces in Activity Monitoring, Social Interactive, and Static Social Scenes tasks were aggregated into an Oculomotor Index of Gaze to Human Faces (OMI) as the primary outcome measure. This work reports on fundamental biomarker properties (data acquisition rates, construct validity, six-week stability, group discrimination, and clinical relationships) derived from these assays that serve as a base for subsequent development of clinical trial biomarker applications. RESULTS: All tasks exhibited excellent acquisition rates, met expectations for construct validity, had moderate or high six-week stabilities, and highlighted subsets of the ASD group with distinct biomarker performance. Within ASD, higher OMI was associated with increased memory for faces, decreased autism symptom severity, and higher verbal IQ and pragmatic communication skills. LIMITATIONS: No specific interventions were administered in this study, limiting information about how ET biomarkers track or predict outcomes in response to treatment. This study did not consider co-occurrence of psychiatric conditions nor specificity in comparison with non-ASD special populations, therefore limiting our understanding of the applicability of outcomes to specific clinical contexts-of-use. Research-grade protocols and equipment were used; further studies are needed to explore deployment in less standardized contexts. CONCLUSIONS: All ET tasks met expectations regarding biomarker properties, with strongest performance for tasks associated with attention to human faces and weakest performance associated with biological motion preference. Based on these data, the OMI has been accepted to the FDA's Biomarker Qualification program, providing a path for advancing efforts to develop biomarkers for use in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos
10.
J Neurodev Disord ; 14(1): 18, 2022 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in adaptive skills among individuals with Down syndrome. Few studies, however, have focused on the early developmental period or on the potential sources of variability in adaptive skills. This study characterizes adaptive skills in young children with Down syndrome and investigates child characteristics associated with adaptive skills. METHODS: Participants were 44 children with Down syndrome ranging in age from 2.50 to 7.99 years (M = 4.66 years, SD = 1.46). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-3 (VABS-3) Comprehensive Interview Form was used to assess adaptive behavior in the three core domains: socialization, daily living, and communication skills. Caregivers also reported on motor skills and autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Child cognitive abilities were assessed. RESULTS: Analyses comparing mean standard score performance across the three VABS-3 core domains demonstrated significant differences between all pairs of domains, resulting in a group-level pattern of socialization > daily living > communication skills. At the individual level, 10 different patterns of relative strength and weakness were identified, with only 18% of participants evidencing significant differences between adaptive skill domain standard scores corresponding to the group-level pattern of significant differences. Child characteristics (cognitive abilities, motor skills, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms) were significantly associated with VABS-3 adaptive domain standard scores. CONCLUSION: These findings underscore the importance of individualizing intervention programs focused on improving the adaptive skills of young children with Down syndrome based on consideration of the child's relative adaptive strengths and weaknesses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Síndrome de Down , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Socialização
11.
Autism Res ; 15(5): 904-914, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289115

RESUMO

We investigate whether autistic people's vulnerability is taken into account at each stage of the criminal justice system (CJS). Defense lawyers from 12 nations were included in the study although the sample was predominantly from the UK. Lawyers completed an online survey regarding one case in which they had defended an autistic client between January 2015 and January 2020; and on one case in which they had defended a nonautistic client charged with a similar offense, to provide a comparison group. Ninety-three lawyers (85% in the UK) reported on one autistic case, and 53 also reported on one nonautistic case. 75% of autistic clients were not given reasonable adjustments during the process. Only 43% were offered an appropriate adult during police investigations, even though they had an existing diagnosis of autism. 59% of prosecution barristers and 46% of judges said or did something during the trial that made the lawyers concerned that they did not have an adequate understanding of autism. Lawyers were 7.58 times more likely to be concerned about their autistic client's effective participation in court and were 3.83 times more likely to be concerned that their autistic clients would engage in self-harm, compared with their nonautistic clients. There is a failure to identify and address autistic peoples' disability within the CJS. There is a need for mandatory autism training for police officers and the judiciary, with a focus on identifying autism and understanding the needs of autistic people so that reasonable adjustments are offered in all cases. LAY SUMMARY: This study sought to investigate if the needs of autistic people are being overlooked by the police and other professionals within the CJS. Results show that autistic people are not always given the support they need during police questioning or in court. The experience of being involved with the police may also have a more negative impact on autistic peoples' mental health than that of nonautistic people.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Direito Penal , Humanos , Polícia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Neurol ; 74(6): 181-188, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The state of emergency and national lockdown declared in Spain over the coronavirus pandemic markedly impaired routines and access towards health services supports for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This population is of particular vulnerability towards sudden changes and is distinguished by their complex management. OBJECTIVES: The main goal was to qualitatively assess the psychosocial and mental state of children diagnosed with ASD affiliated to the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, during and after the first lockdown period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survey was administered to relatives of 65 boys and girls with a main diagnosis of ASD. RESULTS: A worsening of key A symptoms was reported during lockdown. In addition, the use of new technologies, intake between meals, and anxiety symptoms increased. Recovery after lockdown was not complete in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need for planning specific supports for minors with ASD and for resources to reverse the effects on routines, habits, and school returnal.


TITLE: Análisis del impacto de la COVID-19 en menores de edad con trastorno del espectro autista.Introducción. La declaración del confinamiento domiciliario a raíz de la pandemia de la COVID-19 alteró profundamente las rutinas y el acceso a soportes sociosanitarios en menores de edad con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA). Esta población se distingue por su elevada complejidad de manejo y vulnerabilidad ante cambios. Objetivos. Evaluar cualitativamente el estado psicosocial en menores con TEA atendidos en el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona durante el confinamiento y pasado éste. Pacientes y métodos. Se administró una encuesta, elaborada específicamente para este estudio, a los cuidadores principales de 65 niños y niñas con diagnóstico principal de TEA. Resultados. Se observó una regresión en la sintomatología nuclear del TEA. Además, aumentó el uso de nuevas tecnologías y la ingesta entre comidas, y apareció una sintomatología ansiosa. La recuperación tras el confinamiento no fue total en nuestra muestra. Conclusiones. Los resultados ponen de relieve la necesidad de planificación de soportes específicos para los menores con TEA y de recursos para revertir las afectaciones en las rutinas, los hábitos y la incorporación escolar.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , COVID-19 , Quarentena/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 161, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include difficulties in processing and interpreting socioemotional information. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test (RMET) is a validated measurement for processing socioemotional ability. However, previous RMET studies did not explore patterns of incorrect answers and the emotional valence of the test items. This study used the Taiwanese version of the RMET and the network analysis methods to examine the differences in underlying mechanisms of socioemotional processes between 30 males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age = 18 years) and 30 healthy control males (mean age = 17 years). For each test item, a picture of a person's eyes and partial face was shown with four words describing the emotional status on picture corners. Participants were instructed to choose one of the four words that best matched the person's thinking or feeling. We further classified the words into three valences of emotional categories to examine socioemotional processes. RESULTS: Our results showed that ASD males performed poorer on the RMET than the controls. ASD males had higher network density and in-degree scores, especially in negative words, than control males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that males with ASD might have deficits in mapping the best emotional concept words to the target item, especially for processing negative emotion.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1435-1449, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Numerous studies have identified individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with deficits in unichannel emotion perception and multisensory integration. However, only limited research is available on multichannel emotion perception in ASD. The purpose of this review was to seek conceptual clarification, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest directions for future research. METHOD: We conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 1989 and 2021, following the 2005 framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Data relating to study characteristics, task characteristics, participant information, and key findings on multichannel processing of emotion in ASD were extracted for the review. RESULTS: Discrepancies were identified regarding multichannel emotion perception deficits, which are related to participant age, developmental level, and task demand. Findings are largely consistent regarding the facilitation and compensation of congruent multichannel emotional cues and the interference and disruption of incongruent signals. Unlike controls, ASD individuals demonstrate an overreliance on semantics rather than prosody to decode multichannel emotion. CONCLUSIONS: The existing literature on multichannel emotion perception in ASD is limited, dispersed, and disassociated, focusing on a variety of topics with a wide range of methodologies. Further research is necessary to quantitatively examine the impact of methodological choice on performance outcomes. An integrated framework of emotion, language, and cognition is needed to examine the mutual influences between emotion and language as well as the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural differences. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19386176.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Percepção da Fala , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Gestos , Humanos , Fala
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4120, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260744

RESUMO

Psychological studies have generally shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have particularity in the processing of social information by using static or abstract images. Yet, a recent study showed that there was no difference in their use of social or non-social cues in dynamic interactive situations. To establish the cause of the inconsistent results, we added gaze cues in different directions to the chase detection paradigm to explore whether they would affect the performance of participants with ASD. Meanwhile, eye-tracking methodology was used to investigate whether the processing patterns of gaze cues were different between individuals with ASD and TD. In this study, unlike typical controls, participants with ASD showed no detection advantage when the direction of gaze was consistent with the direction of movement (oriented condition). The results suggested that individuals with ASD may utilize an atypical processing pattern, which makes it difficult for them to use social information contained in oriented gaze cues in dynamic interactive situations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Sinais (Psicologia) , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Fixação Ocular , Humanos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5399, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354898

RESUMO

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has rapidly increased in the past decades, and several studies report about the escalating use of antibiotics and the consequent disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiome leading to the development of neurobehavioral symptoms resembling to those of ASD. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether depletion of the gastrointestinal microbiome via antibiotics treatment could induce ASD-like behavioral symptoms in adulthood. To reliably evaluate that, validated valproic acid (VPA) ASD animal model was introduced. At last, we intended to demonstrate the assessed potential benefits of a probiotic mixture (PM) developed by our research team. Male Wistar rats were used to create antibiotics treated; antibiotics and PM treated; PM treated, VPA treated; VPA and PM treated; and control groups. In all investigations we focused on social behavioral disturbances. Antibiotics-induced microbiome alterations during adulthood triggered severe deficits in social behavior similar to those observed in the VPA model. Furthermore, it is highlighted that our PM proved to attenuate both the antibiotics- and the VPA-generated antisocial behavioral symptoms. The present findings underline potential capacity of our PM to improve social behavioral alterations thus, indicate its promising therapeutic power to attenuate the social-affective disturbances of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Probióticos , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais , Masculino , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Roedores
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 124: 104195, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standards in education emphasize the role of metacognition in successful academic outcomes for those with and without learning challenges. Research into metamemory in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has produced mixed outcomes, with some studies finding children with ASD to have spared metacognitive accuracy and others finding it impaired. While most research has used item-by-item metamemory judgements, the novelty of the current study was to use global judgments-of-learning (global JOLs). METHOD: Twenty-three children with and twenty without ASD were presented with two lists of action words during a learning phase and were asked to either act out the words in a self-performed task or just listen to them being read aloud in a verbal task (control condition). Typically, self-performance produces memory benefits called the enactment effect. For both tasks, children also made pre-learning and post-learning global JOLs, stating how many words they thought they would recall. RESULTS: Both groups demonstrated the enactment effect, but neither predicted its beneficial effect. Compared to controls, participants with ASD were found to be less accurate in predicting their future memory performance, specifically in the self-performed task. Both groups were comparable in terms of metacognitive monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings suggest that success or failure in metacognitive tasks in ASD might depend on task difficulty, and the type of metacognitive judgement used.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Metacognição , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Julgamento , Aprendizagem , Rememoração Mental
18.
J Cogn Psychother ; 36(1): 24-41, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121677

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered best practice for treating anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic settings. However, there is significant need to translate CBT into school settings. This paper presents two case illustrations of students who participated in the Facing Your Fears: School-Based program (FYF-SB), a manualized, group CBT intervention for anxiety in ASD, adapted for delivery in schools by interdisciplinary school providers. Students showed improvement in anxiety across multiple domains following intervention, according to clinical interview and parent- and self-report. These outcomes suggest that anxious youth with ASD can benefit from CBT delivered by interdisciplinary school providers. Importantly, decreases in anxiety symptoms were evident in domains that were not explicitly targeted during intervention. Overall, these case illustrations help frame areas of future research, including examining how treatment gains may generalize across anxiety domains as well as whether corresponding improvement in school functioning occurs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adolescente , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Medo , Humanos
19.
J Med Life ; 15(1): 26-33, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186133

RESUMO

Sexual behavior is influenced by social and communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is a serious challenge for parents who lack effective strategies for providing sexual education to their children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian parents' experiences of psychological distress in dealing with the sexual behaviors of their children with ASD. This qualitative study was designed following the conventional content analysis approach. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 parents of children with ASD aged 8-34 years. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were collected through purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. The worries theme was extracted from data interpretation using qualitative content analysis, and this theme entailed four subthemes: 1) sexual vulnerability, 2) unintended social consequences, 3) psychological suffering, and 4) confusion about the future of a child's sex life. This study emphasized the importance of paying attention to parents' concerns about the sexual behaviors of children with ASD. Parents' psychological distress is a major obstacle to proper coping with sexual behaviors, and using coping strategies may help reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Therefore, it is necessary to design, implement, and evaluate culture-appropriate educational programs to address parents' concerns regarding the sexual health of a child with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been increasing for the past two decades. Parents with autism have been known to be at risk of psychological distress and maladaptation, but many parents were able to overcome this adversity and lead to a good quality of life. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted among 21 parents of children with ASD. Interviews were transcribed and evaluated using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The analysis discovered three main themes: acceptance and positive outlook, reaching for helping hands, and understanding autism and finding its solutions. CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings cannot be generalised to other populations with ASD, this study provides a detailed perspective on their unique coping strategies. Insights gained from this study could help health care providers, authorities, and communities to address a specific need and able to advocate relevant support measures to assist them.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Angústia Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Malásia , Qualidade de Vida
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