Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.475
Filtrar
1.
Res Dev Disabil ; 108: 103822, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience considerable amounts of stress and impaired emotional well-being. Consequently, it is likely that these have been adversely impacted by COVID-19 outbreak due to disruptions to the schedules of children with ASD. AIM: This study investigated the stress and emotional well-being of parents of children with ASD in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The study obtained quantitative data from 150 parents of children with ASD from different regions in Saudi Arabia using an online survey. The data collected included demographic data of the parents, ASD status of the family, ASD support during COVID-19 pandemic, severity of ASD behaviours in comparison to the pre- COVID-19 status eating behaviour of the child with ASD, Parental Stress, and emotional well-being. The PSI-short form (PSI-SF) (Abidin, 1995) scale was utilised to obtain data related to parental stress and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) (Goldberg, 1992) scale was utilised to obtain data related to parents' emotional well-being. RESULTS: The study found that family ASD status (in particular, age and gender of child with ASD, and severity of his/her symptoms) had a significant impact on parental stress and emotional well-being. Moreover, parental stress and emotional well-being were negatively impacted by the frequency and usefulness of ASD support received during COVID-19 pandemic. These were also adversely impacted by the change in severity of ASD behaviours of the children with ASD. Finally, parental stress was found to have a negative impact on the emotional well-being of parents. Overall, the study found that the parental stress and emotional well-being of parents of children with ASD in Saudi Arabia had been unfavourably impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the study found that the parental stress and emotional well-being of parents with ASD in Saudi Arabia had been unfavourably impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. This study recommends the involvement of the Saudi Ministry of Health to establish and extend support services to support parents of children with ASD. Moreover, the provision of training programs to help parents deal with the characteristic behaviour of their children with ASD such as, the ability to maintain routines, aggressive or repetitive behaviour, is also recommended.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Saúde da Família , Poder Familiar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17182, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057003

RESUMO

The notion of "vitality form" has been coined by Daniel Stern to describe the basic features of action, which may reflect the mood or affective state of an agent. There is general consensus that vitality forms substantiate social interactions in children as well in adults. Previous studies have explored children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)'s ability in copying and recognizing the vitality forms of actions performed by others. In this paper we investigated, for the first time, how children with ASD express different vitality forms when acting themselves. We recorded the kinematics of ASD and typically developing (TD) children while performing three different types of action with two different vitality forms. There were two conditions. In the what condition we contrasted the three different types of action performed with a same vitality form, while in the how condition we contrasted the same type of action performed with two different vitality forms. The results showed a clear difference between ASD children and TD children in the how, but not in the what, condition. Indeed, while TD children distinguished the vitality forms to be expressed by mostly varying a specific spatiotemporal parameter (i.e. movement time), no significant variation in this parameter was found in ASD children. As they are not prone to express vitality forms as neurotypical individuals do, individuals with ASD's interactions with neurotypical peers could therefore be difficult to achieve successfully, with cascading effects on their propensity to be tuned to their surrounding social world, or so we conjecture. If this conjecture would turn out to be correct, our findings could have promising implication for theoretical and clinical research in the context of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27712-27718, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087573

RESUMO

Any defects of sociality in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are standardly explained in terms of those individuals' putative impairments in a variety of cognitive functions. Recently, however, the need for a bidirectional approach to social interaction has been emphasized. Such an approach highlights differences in basic ways of acting between ASD and neurotypical individuals which would prevent them from understanding each other. Here we pursue this approach by focusing on basic action features reflecting the agent's mood and affective states. These are action features Stern named "vitality forms," and which are widely assumed to substantiate core social interactions [D. N. Stern, The Interpersonal World of the Infant (1985); D. N. Stern, Forms of Vitality Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, Arts, Psychotherapy, and Development (2010)]. Previously we demonstrated that, although ASD and typically developing (TD) children alike differentiate vitality forms when performing actions, ASD children express them in a way that is motorically dissimilar to TD children. To assess whether this motor dissimilarity may have consequences for vitality form recognition, we asked neurotypical participants to identify the vitality form of different types of action performed by ASD or TD children. We found that participants exhibited remarkable inaccuracy in identifying ASD children's vitality forms. Interestingly, their performance did not benefit from information feedback. This indicates that how people act matters for understanding others and for being understood by them. Because vitality forms pervade every aspect of daily life, our findings promise to open the way to a deeper comprehension of the bidirectional difficulties for both ASD and neurotypical individuals in interacting with one another.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Compreensão , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16699, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028829

RESUMO

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is among the most dangerous concerns in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often requiring detailed and tedious management methods. Sensor-based behavioral monitoring could address the limitations of these methods, though the complex problem of classifying variable behavior should be addressed first. We aimed to address this need by developing a group-level model accounting for individual variability and potential nonlinear trends in SIB, as a secondary analysis of existing data. Ten participants with ASD and SIB engaged in free play while wearing accelerometers. Movement data were collected from > 200 episodes and 18 different types of SIB. Frequency domain and linear movement variability measures of acceleration signals were extracted to capture differences in behaviors, and metrics of nonlinear movement variability were used to quantify the complexity of SIB. The multi-level logistic regression model, comprising of 12 principal components, explained > 65% of the variance, and classified SIB with > 75% accuracy. Our findings imply that frequency-domain and movement variability metrics can effectively predict SIB. Our modeling approach yielded superior accuracy than commonly used classifiers (~ 75 vs. ~ 64% accuracy) and had superior performance compared to prior reports (~ 75 vs. ~ 69% accuracy) This work provides an approach to generating an accurate and interpretable group-level model for SIB identification, and further supports the feasibility of developing a real-time SIB monitoring system.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/classificação , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Movimento , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5140, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046712

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is thought to result from deviation from normal development of neural circuits and synaptic function. Many genes with mutation in ASD patients have been identified. Here we report that two molecules associated with ASD susceptibility, contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) and Abelson helper integration site-1 (AHI1), are required for synaptic function and ASD-related behavior in mice. Knockdown of CNTNAP2 or AHI1 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the developing mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) reduced excitatory synaptic transmission, impaired social interaction and induced mild vocalization abnormality. Although the causes of reduced excitatory transmission were different, pharmacological enhancement of AMPA receptor function effectively restored impaired social behavior in both CNTNAP2- and AHI1-knockdown mice. We conclude that reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the PFC leads to impaired social interaction and mild vocalization abnormality in mice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica
8.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5272, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077750

RESUMO

16p11.2 and 22q11.2 Copy Number Variants (CNVs) confer high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD), but their impact on functional connectivity (FC) remains unclear. Here we report an analysis of resting-state FC using magnetic resonance imaging data from 101 CNV carriers, 755 individuals with idiopathic ASD, SZ, or ADHD and 1,072 controls. We characterize CNV FC-signatures and use them to identify dimensions contributing to complex idiopathic conditions. CNVs have large mirror effects on FC at the global and regional level. Thalamus, somatomotor, and posterior insula regions play a critical role in dysconnectivity shared across deletions, duplications, idiopathic ASD, SZ but not ADHD. Individuals with higher similarity to deletion FC-signatures exhibit worse cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Deletion similarities identified at the connectivity level could be related to the redundant associations observed genome-wide between gene expression spatial patterns and FC-signatures. Results may explain why many CNVs affect a similar range of neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16157, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999327

RESUMO

Sensory processing deficits and altered long-range connectivity putatively underlie Multisensory Integration (MSI) deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study set out to investigate non-social MSI stimuli and their electrophysiological correlates in young neurotypical adolescents and adolescents with ASD. We report robust MSI effects at behavioural and electrophysiological levels. Both groups demonstrated normal behavioural MSI. However, at the neurophysiological level, the ASD group showed less MSI-related reduction of the visual P100 latency, greater MSI-related slowing of the auditory P200 and an overall temporally delayed and spatially constrained onset of MSI. Given the task design and patient sample, and the age of our participants, we argue that electro-cortical indices of MSI deficits in ASD: (a) can be detected in early-adolescent ASD, (b) occur at early stages of perceptual processing, (c) can possibly be compensated by later attentional processes, (d) thus leading to normal MSI at the behavioural level.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
11.
Rev Neurol ; 71(8): 285-291, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience changing routines as a major challenge. For that reason, the need for adaptation during COVID-19 pandemic may have brought major problems to families with children with this pathology. AIM: To explore how children with ASD and their parents experienced the social isolation during COVID-19 outbreak period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study. We applied an anonymous questionnaire that included children's demographic and clinical characteristics, along with the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in different aspects of family's daily life. RESULTS: Out of 99 questionnaires obtained, 43 were related to children with ASD and 56 to control group. Children with ASD predominantly had changes in behavior, while children from control group mostly found no changes. The majority of parents of ASD children reported a negative impact in emotion management against those in control group reporting mostly positive or no impact. Caregivers reported higher mean scores of anxiety levels in themselves than in their children. ASD children and their parents had higher levels of anxiety than healthy ones. In the group with ASD, children that did not maintain routines had higher mean levels of anxiety than children that maintained routines. CONCLUSION: Our results show a potential important psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic not only in children with neurodevelopmental disorders but in their caregivers as well. Physicians must be prepared for the post-pandemic surveillance of mental disorders among families.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etiologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 263-264, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058519

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated preference of children with autism spectrum disorder of near average to above average intelligence (high functioning autism - HFA) for remote learning. While many children with HFA excel at the academic curriculum, the majority struggle with the so-called hidden curriculum, which includes such things as social rules and societal norms. Explicit teaching of the hidden curriculum is often lacking in mainstream education classes and can be a tremendous stumbling block for children with HFA. The result is often anxiety and depression which can be exacerbated or sometimes even caused by the intense demands for sociability and flexibility required in most mainstream educational settings. Remote learning, while not a legitimate option until now, has provided these children with an opportunity to flourish at home and improve not only their grades but also their mental health. While remote learning or hybrid models may continue to be appropriate for some children, understanding of the hidden curriculum is necessary beyond the school years. Both mental health and academic proficiency will flourish to the degree we are able to make the hidden curriculum more explicit to children with HFA.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Telecomunicações
13.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(8): 285-291, 16 oct., 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194287

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) a menudo experimentan el cambio de rutinas como un desafío importante. La necesidad de adaptación durante la pandemia por la COVID-19 puede haber causado problemas a estos niños. OBJETIVO: Conocer cómo vivieron los niños con TEA y sus familias el aislamiento social durante la cuarentena. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal y analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario anónimo que incluía las características demográficas y clínicas de los niños, junto con el impacto que tuvo la pandemia en diferentes aspectos de la vida diaria de las familias. RESULTADOS: De los 99 cuestionarios obtenidos, 43 eran niños con TEA y 56 niños del grupo control. Los niños con TEA tuvieron predominantemente cambios en el comportamiento, a diferencia de los del grupo control. La mayoría de los niños con TEA tuvo un impacto negativo en el manejo de las emociones frente a los del grupo control, que expresaron un impacto mayoritariamente positivo/nulo. Los cuidadores puntuaron niveles de ansiedad más altos en ellos mismos que en sus hijos. Los niños con TEA y sus padres tenían niveles más altos de ansiedad que los controles. En el grupo con TEA, los niños que no mantuvieron las rutinas tuvieron niveles de ansiedad más altos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados muestran un potencial impacto psicológico de la pandemia de la COVID-19 no sólo en los niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo, sino también en sus cuidadores. Debe estarse preparado para la vigilancia de los trastornos mentales en las familias tras la pandemia de la COVID-19


INTRODUCTION. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience changing routines as a major challenge. For that reason, the need for adaptation during COVID-19 pandemic may have brought major problems to families with children with this pathology. AIM. To explore how children with ASD and their parents experienced the social isolation during COVID-19 outbreak period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study. We applied an anonymous questionnaire that included children’s demographic and clinical characteristics, along with the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in different aspects of family’s daily life. RESULTS. Out of 99 questionnaires obtained, 43 were related to children with ASD and 56 to control group. Children with ASD predominantly had changes in behavior, while children from control group mostly found no changes. The majority of parents of ASD children reported a negative impact in emotion management against those in control group reporting mostly positive or no impact. Caregivers reported higher mean scores of anxiety levels in themselves than in their children. ASD children and their parents had higher levels of anxiety than healthy ones. In the group with ASD, children that did not maintain routines had higher mean levels of anxiety than children that maintained routines. CONCLUSION. Our results show a potential important psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic not only in children with neurodevelopmental disorders but in their caregivers as well. Physicians must be prepared for the post-pandemic surveillance of mental disorders among families


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Emoções , Estudos Transversais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22018, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, which lacks specific medical treatment. Intervention is the key point of rehabilitation training for ASD. Social stories (SS) are a commonly used intervention practice in individuals with ASD. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of SS. Thus, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess studies of the effects of SS for children and adolescents with ASD. METHODS: To identify relevant studies, we will search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and trials registers (the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registration Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Chinese Clinical Trial Register) from inception to May 2020. In addition, we will also perform handsearching of grey literature, such as conference proceedings and academic degree dissertations. Only the randomized control trials will be accepted, no matter what the languages they were reported. We will first focus on the effectiveness of the intervention on the behavior of the targets. Then we will do further analysis of the study design, including the length and intensity of intervention, the characteristics of participants and interveners, the methods of assessment, the place, the medium, and the economic feasibility. Two independent reviewers will carry out literature identification, data collection, and study quality assessment. Discrepancies will be resolved by a third reviewer. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to evaluate the risk of bias of the randomized controlled trials. Data analysis will be calculated using the STATA 13.0 software. RESULT: This study will offer new evidence whether the SS is an appropriate intervention of benefiting the children and adolescents with ASD, and to determine which factors affect the effectiveness of SS. CONCLUSION: The conclusion drawn from this systematic review will benefit the children and adolescents with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Metanálise como Assunto , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Nat Protoc ; 15(10): 3464-3477, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895524

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and other behavioral abnormalities. The three-chamber social preference test is often used to assess social deficits in mouse models of ASD. However, varying and often contradicting phenotypic descriptions of ASD mouse models can be found in the scientific literature, and the substantial variability in the methods used by researchers to assess social deficits in mice could be a contributing factor. Here we describe a standardized three-chamber social preference protocol, which is sensitive and reliable at detecting social preference deficits in several mouse models of ASD. This protocol comprises three phases that can all be completed within 1 d. The test mouse is first habituated to the apparatus containing two empty cups in the side chambers, followed by the pre-test phase in which the mouse can interact with two identical inanimate objects placed in the cups. During the test phase, the mouse is allowed to interact with a social stimulus (an unfamiliar wild-type (WT) mouse) contained in one cup and a novel non-social stimulus contained in the other cup. The protocol is thus designed to assess preference between social and non-social stimuli under conditions of equal salience. The broad implementation of the three-chamber social preference protocol presented here should improve the accuracy and consistency of assessments for social preference deficits associated with ASD and other psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Análise do Comportamento Aplicada/métodos , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/fisiopatologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15019, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929157

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that autistic traits influence the neuronal habituation that underlies the processing of others' pain. Based on their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), two groups of participants were classified according to their autistic traits: High-AQ and Low-AQ groups. Their event-related potentials in response to trains of three identical audio recordings, exhibiting either painful or neutral feelings of others, were compared during three experimental tasks. (1) In a Pain Judgment Task, participants were instructed to focus on pain-related cues in the presented audio recordings. (2) In a Gender Judgment Task, participants were instructed to focus on non-pain-related cues in the presented audio recordings. (3) In a Passive Listening Task, participants were instructed to passively listen. In the High-AQ group, an altered empathic pattern of habituation, indexed by frontal-central P2 responses of the second repeated painful audio recordings, was found during the Passive Listening Task. Nevertheless, both High-AQ and Low-AQ groups exhibited similar patterns of habituation to hearing others' voices, both neutral and painful, in the Pain Judgment and Gender Judgment Tasks. These results suggest altered empathic neuronal habituation in the passive processing of others' vocal pain by individuals with autistic traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Empatia , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Dor/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 880-890, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in language ability and emotional-behavioral problems according to the severity of social communication impairments (SCI) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We grouped 113 children with ASD aged 3-12 years according to the severity of SCI and RRB, and investigated language differences and emotional-behavioral problems among the severity groups. If differences in language abilities between the groups were observed, they were further subdivided to examine possible predictors of both receptive and expressive language abilities. RESULTS: In cluster analyses using subdomains of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-revised, severe SCI individuals showed lower language ability than their milder counterparts, while RRB showed no differences. Receptive and expressive language in the severe SCI group was negatively predicted by social communication and social motivation, respectively. The severe RRB group showed significantly higher levels of anxiety/distress, somatic complaints, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior, while the severe SCI group was reported to be more withdrawn. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the severity of SCI greatly affects language ability. In children with severe SCI, social communication and social motivation negatively predicted receptive language and expressive language, respectively. Children with severe RRB may have more emotional-behavioral problems that require active intervention.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15515, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968156

RESUMO

The hypothesized link between gut bacteria and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been explored through animal models and human studies with microbiome assessment after ASD presentation. We aimed to prospectively characterize the association between the infant/toddler gut microbiome and ASD-related social behaviors at age 3 years. As part of an ongoing birth cohort gut bacterial diversity, structure, taxa, and function at 6 weeks (n = 166), 1 year (n = 158), 2 years (n = 129), and 3 years (n = 140) were quantified with 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 101 six weeks, n = 103 one year). ASD-related social behavior was assessed at age 3 years using Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) T-scores. Covariate-adjusted linear and permutation-based models were implemented. Microbiome structure at 1 year was associated with SRS-2 total T-scores (p = 0.01). Several taxa at 1, 2, and 3 years were associated with SRS-2 performance, including many in the Lachnospiraceae family. Higher relative abundance of Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Ruminococcus torques at 1 year related to poorer SRS-2 performance. Two functional pathways, L-ornithine and vitamin B6 biosynthesis, were associated with better social skills at 3 years. Our results support potential associations between early-childhood gut microbiome and social behaviors. Future mechanistic studies are warranted to pinpoint sensitive targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes Psicológicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA