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1.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(1-2): 43-49, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057203

RESUMO

Background and purpose: With improving treatment options, more attention is being paid to the neurocognitive symptoms related to hepatitis C infection (HCI). While HCI-related neurocognitive impairments are frequently subclinical, they can influence patients' quality of life and fitness to work. Objective - The aim of this study was to assess HCI patients' neurocognitive functions and explore the correlations between disease variables and neurocognitive symptoms. Methods: The study was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. All patients with HCI were included in the study who were registered at the Hepatology Outpatient Clinic of Szent István and Szent László Hospitals, met inclusion criteria and volunteered to participate. Patients' sociodemographic data and medical history were recorded in a questionnaire designed for the study. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to detect depressive symptoms. Six computerized tests were used to evaluate patients' neuropsychological functions. Results: Sixty patients participated in the study. In comparison with general population standards, patients demonstrated poorer performance in several neurocognitive tests. Neuropsychological performance was correlated with age, sex, length of time since HCI diagnosis, Fibroscan score and the number of previous antiviral treatments. Conclusion: The study's main finding is that compared to general population standards, patients with hepatitis C virus-related disease exhibit impaired neuropsychological functioning in visuomotor and visuospatial functions, working memory, executive functions, and reaction time. Executive functions and reaction time were the most sensitive indicators for the length and severity of the disease. Deterioration in these functions has a major negative effect on work performance particularly in certain occupations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Depressão , Hepatite C , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(5): 163-168, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984775

RESUMO

There is an absolute and relative increase in the proportion of the elderly population especially in the European countries, but this tendency can be also observed universally. By the continuous increase of the proportion of the elderly population, the medical and social related financial burdens are also increasing because of the significant decrease in health condition among older adults. The process of aging includes not only the constant decline of the general health condition and daily functioning, but also includes the decrease of the mental and cognitive performance, which further impairs the everyday life of the older adults. These findings warrant the necessity of preventive interventions in the future. According to previous findings, physical activity can be used to improve cognitive functioning and prevent further decline. In this article we provide a brief review of the literature on physical activity effects on cognition in general and with referring to three different specific forms of physical exercise; moreover, briefly discuss the important future directions of research. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(5): 163-168.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício , Exercício , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Psychiatr Prax ; 47(1): 29-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910458

RESUMO

Formal thought disorders are common in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among them, concretism stands for deficiencies in the understanding of idiomatic expressions, metaphors and proverbs. However, little is known as to whether concretism is a correlate of the acuteness or severity of schizophrenia within patients. In this pilot study data of 28 patients was collected in the process of implementing a proverb test for screening purposes as part of an enhancement to the standard assessment of the general cognitive functioning of the patients. Our findings support the argument for such a coherence as a significant correlation between the degree of acuteness and concretism was found. However, the proverb test also correlated significantly with our standard cognitive assessment so the question as to which degree the proverb test will add further information regarding the general cognitive functioning needs to be addressed. Finally, the question as to whether there is an indication to specifically approach concretism in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia is discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos , Metáfora , Projetos Piloto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e89-e96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility to treat complex internal carotid aneurysms by superficial temporal artery trunk-radial artery-middle cerebral artery (STAT-RA-MCA) bypass combined with balloon occlusion of internal carotid artery. METHODS: Postoperative clinical symptoms, the patency of bridge vessels (radial artery graft [RAG]), STAT and RAG diameters, RAG flow, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT) were observed in 14 cases. Their correlations were analyzed. RESULTS: Except 1 case, RAG was patent in 13 cases. Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4 in one case and 5 in 13 cases. In the 13 cases with postoperative RAG patency, the mean diameter of STAT increased from 2.1 mm before operation to 3.0 mm on the first day after operation; the mean diameter of RAG was 3.7 mm on the first day after operation. In 3 of the 13 cases, STAT and RAG diameters further increased to 4.0 mm and 4.7 mm, respectively, 3 months after operation. There was a positive correlation between STAT and RAG diameters (P = 0.0005). The STAT (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and RAG (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0042) diameters were positively correlated with RAG flow and CBF, but the STAT (r2 = 0.762, P < 0.0001) and RAG (r2 = 0.54, P = 0.0042) diameters were negatively correlated with MTT. CONCLUSIONS: STAT-RA-MCA bypass combined with balloon occlusion of internal carotid artery is feasible for the treatment of complex internal carotid aneurysms.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Artéria Radial/transplante , Artérias Temporais/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/etiologia , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemiplegia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Life Sci ; 241: 117163, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837337

RESUMO

AIMS: The high sugar and lipid content of the Western diet (WD) is associated with metabolic dysfunction, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and it is an established risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders. Our previous studies reported negative effects of the WD on rodent emotionality, impulsivity, and sociability in adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of the WD on motor coordination, novelty recognition, and affective behavior in mice as well as molecular and cellular endpoints in brain and peripheral tissues. MAIN METHODS: Female C57BL/6 J mice were fed the WD for three weeks and were investigated for glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, liver steatosis, and changes in motor coordination, object recognition, and despair behavior in the swim test. Lipids and liver injury markers, including aspartate-transaminase, alanine-transaminase and urea were measured in blood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, the density of Iba1-positive cells and concentration of malondialdehyde were measured in brain. KEY FINDINGS: WD-fed mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, a loss of motor coordination, deficits in novel object exploration and recognition, increased helplessness, dyslipidemia, as well as signs of a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like syndrome: liver steatosis and increased liver injury markers. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by decreased SERT expression, elevated numbers of microglia cells and malondialdehyde levels in, and restricted to, the prefrontal cortex. SIGNIFICANCE: The WD induces a spectrum of behaviors that are more reminiscent of ADHD and ASD than previously recognized and suggests that, in addition to the impairment of impulsivity and sociability, the consumption of a WD might be expected to exacerbate motor dysfunction that is also known to be associated with adult ADHD and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Feminino , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos Motores/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/imunologia
6.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 175-178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407081

RESUMO

Five frontal systems circuits connect with the basal ganglia and other structures to control and regulate thinking and behavior. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke following anterior circulation aneurysms typically disrupt these circuits, sometimes markedly affecting a patient's function. This article reviews the primary pathways and associated brain functions. The principles of cognitively and behaviorally rehabilitating these functions are also discussed by creating external structure and building on what the brain is still capable of doing.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Gânglios da Base , Encéfalo , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/reabilitação
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105328, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639583

RESUMO

Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties with visual search that may impede their ability to recognize landmarks and cars while driving. The main objective of this study was to investigate visual search performances of both billboards and cars in patients with PD using a driving simulator. A second objective was to examine the role of cognitive functions in performing the visual search task while driving. Nineteen patients with PD (age: 68 ±â€¯8yo, sex (Men/Women): 15/4) and 14 controls (age: 60 ±â€¯11yo, sex: 7/7) first performed a battery of cognitive tests. They then drove in a simulator and were instructed to follow a lead vehicle while searching for billboards with the letter A (stationary target) or red cars (moving target) among other distractors. Accuracy and response times of visual search were the main outcome variables. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) was the secondary outcome. During driving, patients were less accurate in identifying the targets, particularly for the stationary billboards located in the outer periphery. Within the group of patients, significant correlations were found between several measures of cognitive tests and simulator-based visual search accuracy. By contrast, only the score on the MOCA test correlated significantly with visual search accuracy in controls. Findings suggest that patients with PD have impaired visual search for more eccentric stationary targets while driving a simulator, which is likely due to cognitive deficits. Difficulties identifying objects in the outer periphery may have implications for driving safety. Decreased functional field of view under increased cognitive load may have attributed to the difficulties identifying these landmarks. This may impact the ability to identify, anticipate, and respond to important information (e.g., pedestrians, navigation signs, landmarks), especially in complex driving situations (e.g. urban driving or intersections).Future studies should be conducted in a larger sample size to determine whether a visual search task on a driving simulator may predict on-road driving performances.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cognição/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
8.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(9. Vyp. 2): 10-17, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825384

RESUMO

Cognitive decline is one of the main manifestations of brain damage especially in the elderly. In some cases, cognitive dysfunction stayed within normal aging and do not lead to social dis-adaptation, while in other cases severe cognitive impairment develops when daily activity and domestic independence is affected. However, these disturbances are preceded by prolonged intermediate stage, when cognitive deficit do not reach the degree of dementia, but already do not match normal aging. Initial terms (for example benign senescent forgetfulness) were interpreted as aging phenomena. Later this state named as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered as prodromal phase of demented disease. Up to date studies allow us consider MCI as an integral part of the complex structure of overlapping syndromes ('pre-cognitive impairment'), the allocation of which have not only theoretical, but also pragmatic meaning, allow us, on the one hand, to plan clinical trials series with various therapeutic targets, and, on the other hand, to form rational approach to the modern management of patients with MCI and pre-MCI in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória
9.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(9. Vyp. 2): 37-43, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825388

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease of the elderly caused by the neurodegenerative process in different parts of the brain, which resulted in motor and non-motor symptoms. Investigation of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is increasingly rising for the last years. Social cognition is a special type of cognitive process, which provides people interaction in the society and their impairment also can be observed in Parkinson's disease. Social cognitive functions include many aspects: the theory of the mind, morality, personality changes and behavioral disorders. Each of these aspects is based on different neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuroanatomical substrates. This article is an effort to get closer to understanding of the changes, which occur in the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações
10.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 54(11-12): 652-667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805585

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (pNCD) are relevant to long term treatment outcome after elective surgery. The detection of pNCD is challenging and based on extended neuropsychological testing that often is not feasible due to economy driven time constraints during preoperative risk assessment. Only recently new recommendations for the nomenclature of cognitive change associated with anaesthesia and surgery facilitated the transition of the former research diagnosis postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) as a clinical diagnosis based on DSM-5 criteria. In our article we provide an overview of the new recommended diagnostic criteria for pNCD based on the publication by the Nomenclature Consensus Working Group in November 2018. We discuss ideas for the implementation of clinical routine pNCD screening in patients aged 70 years or older with elective surgery and possible options for further support of patients screened positively and their families and care givers.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Delírio , Idoso , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
11.
Soins Gerontol ; 24(140): 25-27, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806174

RESUMO

When cognitive disorders in the elderly are significant, for caregivers there remains the possibility of empathy, relational calm, time needed to help them access their memory, and escape the terrible sensation of not knowing. Entering a closed space dedicated to these seniors means creating contact with people who are lost in the twists and turns of a story they no longer recognise as their own. Feedback from an art-therapy workshop with cognitively fragile seniors, cut off from all references.


Assuntos
Terapia pela Arte , Transtornos Cognitivos , Idoso , Cuidadores , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Empatia , Humanos
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(11-12): 367-379, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834680

RESUMO

Trace elements are found in the living organism in small (trace) amounts and are mainly essential for living functions. Essential trace elements are in humans the chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), iodine (I), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and questionably the boron (B) and vanadium (V). According to the biopsychosocial concept, mental functions have biological underpinnings, therefore the impairment of certain neurochemical processes due to shortage of trace elements may have mental consequences. Scientific investigations indicate the putative role of trace element deficiency in psychiatric disorders such in depression (Zn, Cr, Se, Fe, Co, I), premenstrual dysphoria (Cr), schizophrenia (Zn, Se), cognitive deterioration/de-mentia (B, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, V), mental retardation (I, Mo, Cu), binge-eating (Cr), autism (Zn, Mn, Cu, Co) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Fe). At the same time, the excess quantity (chronic exposure, genetic error) of certain trace elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Fe, V) can also lead to mental disturbances (depression, anxiety, psychosis, cognitive dysfunction, insomnia). Lithium (Li), being efficacious in the treatment of bipolar mood disorder, is not declared officially as a trace element. Due to nutrition (drinking water, food) the serum Li level is about a thousand times less than that used in therapy. However, Li level in the red cells is lower as the membrane sodium-Li countertransport results in a Li efflux. Nevertheless, the possibility that Li is a trace element has emerged as studies indicate its potential efficacy in such a low concentration, since certain geographic regions show an inverse correlation between the Li level of drinking water and the suicide rate in that area.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ferro
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 58, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762923

RESUMO

Introduction: Five-word test (5WT) is a memory test to assess the verbal episodic memory. It measures the memory of subjects with memory impairment, in particular within the framework of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, where it is sensitive and specific. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different sociodemographic parameters on subject's performance, to set standards relevant to Tunisian population and to compare our results to previous studies. Methods: We report 5WT calibration in 315 normal subjects aged 40 to 90 years (169 men, 146 women), divided into four age groups (40-49,50-59,60-69 and 70 years) having three levels of education (I: primary, II:secondary and III:higher). We calculated the mean score (standard deviation) for the different scores: Total Score (TS), Total Weighted Score (TWS), Delayed Free Recall (DFR), Total Delayed Recall (TDR) and Total Free Recall (TFR). Results: The average age of subjects was 57.29 years (11.02). Performances appeared to be better in youngest and better educated subjects, without any significant difference between the two sexes. Standards were calculated on the basis of age and levels of education. Conclusion: Five-word test allows rapid screening of patients in whom complementary neuropsychological assessment is essential for the diagnosis of cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tunísia
14.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1637-1644, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676860

RESUMO

Volumetric variations of the human brain are heritable and are associated with many brain-related complex traits. Here we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 101 brain volumetric phenotypes using the UK Biobank sample including 19,629 participants. GWAS identified 365 independent genetic variants exceeding a significance threshold of 4.9 × 10-10, adjusted for testing multiple phenotypes. A gene-based association study found 157 associated genes (124 new), and functional gene mapping analysis linked 146 additional genes. Many of the discovered genetic variants and genes have previously been implicated in cognitive and mental health traits. Through genome-wide polygenic-risk-score prediction, more than 6% of the phenotypic variance (P = 3.13 × 10-24) in four other independent studies could be explained by the UK Biobank GWAS results. In conclusion, our study identifies many new genetic associations at the variant, locus and gene levels and advances our understanding of the pleiotropy and genetic co-architecture between brain volumes and other traits.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 27(Special Issue): 699-703, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747164

RESUMO

The article introduces a complex program of neurocognitive rehabilitation into the system of dementia prevention in patients with mild cognitive impairment syndrome. It took about a year to prepare and form a complex program of neurocognitive rehabilitation (the Program). The researchers have also developed clear algorithms of the specialized medical rehabilitation unit Memory Clinic. The conducted study has proved the effectiveness of cognitive functions improvement in patients with mild cognitive impairment after participation in the Program in Memory Clinic. The authors, Professor Kostyuk, and Research Institute for Healthcare Organization and Medical Management have prepared Medical Rehabilitation Guidelines for Elderly Patients with Early Signs of Cognitive Deficits (Structural and Functional Model). The guidelines serve as a tool for practice distribution and transforming them into a project Memory Clinic.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Demência/reabilitação , Humanos , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(9): 579-587, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184381

RESUMO

El síndrome de Prader-Willi es un trastorno genético causado por alteraciones cromosómicas en el segmento 15q11-q13 que incluye sintomatología cognitiva, mental y conductual, así como un fenotipo somático específico. Tanto las alteraciones psicopatológicas más comunes (discapacidad intelectual, obsesiones, impulsividad, comportamientos de tipo autista, autolesiones) como las comorbilidades principales (cuadros afectivos, psicosis, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo, trastorno del espectro autista) se caracterizan por una gran heterogeneidad, lo que justifica la necesidad de una mayor caracterización de su frecuencia y modo de presentación. Además de sus efectos sobre la composición corporal y la hipotonía, la hormona del crecimiento ha demostrado utilidad en el control conductual, así como algunos psicofármacos. También se han descrito alternativas a nivel experimental que están mostrando resultados alentadores. Un adecuado conocimiento de la psicopatología asociada a este síndrome permitiría mejorar el abordaje clínico, la identificación de los síntomas, la detección de comorbilidades y la instauración de un tratamiento más efectivo


Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by chromosomal changes in segment 15q11-q13 including cognitive, mental, and behavioral symptoms, as well as a specific physical phenotype. Both the most common psychopathological changes (intellectual disability, obsessions, impulsivity, autism spectrum disorders, self-injuries) and the main psychiatric comorbidities (affective disorders, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder) are characterized by a great heterogeneity, which warrants the need for better identification of their frequency and clinical signs. In addition to its effects on body compositionand hypotony, growth hormone has been shown to be useful for regulating patient behavior, and psychoactive drugs are also an option. Other alternatives have shown promising results in experimental trials. Adequate understanding of the psychopathology associated to Prader-Willi syndrome would allow for improving clinical approach, symptom identification, detection of comorbidities, and administration of more effective treatments, leading to better clinical outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento do Adolescente , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
17.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1030-1042, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sluggish cognitive tempo refers to a constellation of symptoms that include slowed behavior/thinking, reduced alertness, and getting lost in one's thoughts. Despite the moniker "sluggish cognitive tempo," the evidence is mixed regarding the extent to which it is associated globally with slowed (sluggish) mental (cognitive) information processing speed (tempo). METHOD: A well-characterized clinical sample of 132 children ages 8-13 years (M = 10.34, SD = 1.51; 47 girls; 67% White/non-Hispanic) were administered multiple, counterbalanced neurocognitive tests and assessed for sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms via multiple-informant reports. RESULTS: Bayesian linear regressions revealed significant evidence against associations between sluggish cognitive tempo and computationally modeled processing speed (BF01 > 3.70), and significant evidence for associations with slower working memory manipulation speed. These findings were consistent across parent and teacher models, with and without control for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms and IQ. There was also significant evidence linking faster inhibition speed with higher parent-reported sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence against characterizing children with sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms as possessing a globally sluggish cognitive tempo. Instead, these symptoms appear to be related, to a significant extent, to executive dysfunction characterized by working memory systems that are too slow and inhibition systems that are too fast. Behaviorally, these findings suggest that requiring extra time to rearrange the active contents of working memory delays responding, whereas an overactive inhibition system likely terminates thoughts too quickly and therefore prevents intended behaviors from starting or completing, thereby giving the appearance that children are absent-minded or failing to act when expected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Psychopathology ; 52(4): 265-270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is known to be closely related to depression, which is accompanied by cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether memory performance and cortical networking differ between high suicide risk and control groups depending on task difficulty. METHODS: The participants were 28 high school students consisting of 14 suicide risk and 14 control subjects. Real-time electroencephalography signals were collected during a working memory task. Inter- and intrahemispheric coherences were analyzed. RESULTS: Higher cortical networking during memory encoding was found in suicide risk adolescents compared to the control group. An increase in task difficulty heightened interhemispheric coherence. CONCLUSIONS: Higher cortical networking in suicide risk adolescents seems to reflect activation of compensatory mechanisms in an attempt to minimize behavioral decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Kardiologiia ; 59(10): 66-77, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615389

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and cognitive dysfunction - common states with similar risk factors. Recently significant scientific epidemiological data has been received in favor of independence of effect of AF on possibility of development of cognitive dysfunction. In this review we present problems of prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnostics of various variants of cognitive disorders at the background of AF, as well as methods of their prevention and tactics of anticoagulant therapy in the presence of cognitive disturbances.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Anticoagulantes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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