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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(5): 351-356, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074778

RESUMO

Objective: To clarify the effect of cognitive impairment on social function and quality of life of chronic schizophrenia, and provide clinical cognitive strategies for improving the social function and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Atotal of 158 patients with chronic schizophrenia were selected from May 2017 to October 2017 in the Psychiatry Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University received psychological assessments, such as, MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery(MCCB), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS), the Personal and Social Performance scale(PSP), and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale(SQLS). We further explored the effects of neurocognitive and social cognitive functions on their individual and social performance and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Results: (1) The scores of SQLS in the group with impaired social cognitive function were higher than those with good social function(101±46 vs 76±40, P=0.002). (2) The digital sequence and continuous performance test of the socially functional group were higher than the defect group. (3) There was a significant correlation between the years of education(R(2)=0.334, F=25.542), continuous performance (R(2)=0.316, F=35.647), BPRS (R(2)=0.280, F=60.386) and social function (P<0.001). (4) BPRS (R(2)=0.486, F=228.28), and emotional management (MSCEIT) (R(2)=0.510, F=124.789), education (R(2)=0.531, F=90.161), age (R(2)=0.539, F=69.644) significantly affected the SQLS score of patients with schizophrenia(P<0.001). Conclusion: The social function and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia are significantly correlated with their years of education and disease severity. Continuous performance in neurocognition significantly affects the social function of patients with schizophrenia, and emotional management in social cognition significantly affects their quality of life. Socially functional schizophrenia patients have higher digital sequences (working memory) and continuous performance (attention/alertness) scores.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações
2.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(1-2): 43-49, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057203

RESUMO

Background and purpose: With improving treatment options, more attention is being paid to the neurocognitive symptoms related to hepatitis C infection (HCI). While HCI-related neurocognitive impairments are frequently subclinical, they can influence patients' quality of life and fitness to work. Objective - The aim of this study was to assess HCI patients' neurocognitive functions and explore the correlations between disease variables and neurocognitive symptoms. Methods: The study was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. All patients with HCI were included in the study who were registered at the Hepatology Outpatient Clinic of Szent István and Szent László Hospitals, met inclusion criteria and volunteered to participate. Patients' sociodemographic data and medical history were recorded in a questionnaire designed for the study. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to detect depressive symptoms. Six computerized tests were used to evaluate patients' neuropsychological functions. Results: Sixty patients participated in the study. In comparison with general population standards, patients demonstrated poorer performance in several neurocognitive tests. Neuropsychological performance was correlated with age, sex, length of time since HCI diagnosis, Fibroscan score and the number of previous antiviral treatments. Conclusion: The study's main finding is that compared to general population standards, patients with hepatitis C virus-related disease exhibit impaired neuropsychological functioning in visuomotor and visuospatial functions, working memory, executive functions, and reaction time. Executive functions and reaction time were the most sensitive indicators for the length and severity of the disease. Deterioration in these functions has a major negative effect on work performance particularly in certain occupations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Depressão , Hepatite C , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
3.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(1): 33-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986550

RESUMO

The present review focuses on cognitive and participation impairments after aneurysmal subarachnoidal hemorrhage (aSAH). Such impairments may be present even in cases without evidence of damage in the neuropsychologically expected brain area. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be responsible for this finding. Most frequently, cognitive impairment can be found in the verbal memory domain, visuospatial skills and memory domain, attention and working memory domain, executive functions (planning, central control, problem solving, attention, decision making), psychomotor speed and language domain. The presence of cognitive deficits is a major risk factor not to return to work again. Together with cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms like anxiety, depression and fatigue may be observed. Psychiatric disturbances result in impairments of social and vocational participation and - consecutively - worsening of quality of life.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/psicologia
4.
Nervenarzt ; 91(1): 2-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559478

RESUMO

Cognitive disorders in schizophrenia are highly correlated with the psychosocial level (e.g. relationships, quality of life and work). It has been shown that healthy relatives and people at ultrahigh risk also display cognitive dysfunctions albeit to a lesser degree. The cognitive impairment increases simultaneously with an acute phase and then reverts back to baseline levels. At the psychopathological level, negative symptoms and the disorganization syndrome show the strongest associations with cognitive deficits, whereby the extent of manifestation of deficits increases with increasing symptomatology. Cognitive remediation can improve the cognitive performance through training with small to moderate effects. With respect to drug therapy there is currently no drug with a positive effect on cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
5.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 44: 125-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049838

RESUMO

Most persons experience cognitive decline as they grow older. The term "cognitive aging," coined to describe milder varieties of cognitive decline, is likely to be due to multiple causes. Persistent or repeated infections of the central nervous system (whether subclinical or diagnosable) can cause damage to neurons directly or indirectly through inflammation resulting in incremental neuronal damage, thus eroding cognitive reserve. This possibility has not been considered widely. We evaluated the data linking persistent infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and cognitive aging by applying the Bradford Hill criteria. Despite inherent problems in establishing causal relations for chronic disorders, our analyses suggest plausible links. These studies are pertinent for patients with schizophrenia, who are particularly vulnerable due to disorder-related cognitive impairment. Further investigations are warranted to test a causal hypothesis, particularly prospective studies and intervention studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/imunologia , Herpes Simples/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/imunologia
6.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(9): 579-587, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184381

RESUMO

El síndrome de Prader-Willi es un trastorno genético causado por alteraciones cromosómicas en el segmento 15q11-q13 que incluye sintomatología cognitiva, mental y conductual, así como un fenotipo somático específico. Tanto las alteraciones psicopatológicas más comunes (discapacidad intelectual, obsesiones, impulsividad, comportamientos de tipo autista, autolesiones) como las comorbilidades principales (cuadros afectivos, psicosis, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo, trastorno del espectro autista) se caracterizan por una gran heterogeneidad, lo que justifica la necesidad de una mayor caracterización de su frecuencia y modo de presentación. Además de sus efectos sobre la composición corporal y la hipotonía, la hormona del crecimiento ha demostrado utilidad en el control conductual, así como algunos psicofármacos. También se han descrito alternativas a nivel experimental que están mostrando resultados alentadores. Un adecuado conocimiento de la psicopatología asociada a este síndrome permitiría mejorar el abordaje clínico, la identificación de los síntomas, la detección de comorbilidades y la instauración de un tratamiento más efectivo


Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by chromosomal changes in segment 15q11-q13 including cognitive, mental, and behavioral symptoms, as well as a specific physical phenotype. Both the most common psychopathological changes (intellectual disability, obsessions, impulsivity, autism spectrum disorders, self-injuries) and the main psychiatric comorbidities (affective disorders, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder) are characterized by a great heterogeneity, which warrants the need for better identification of their frequency and clinical signs. In addition to its effects on body compositionand hypotony, growth hormone has been shown to be useful for regulating patient behavior, and psychoactive drugs are also an option. Other alternatives have shown promising results in experimental trials. Adequate understanding of the psychopathology associated to Prader-Willi syndrome would allow for improving clinical approach, symptom identification, detection of comorbidities, and administration of more effective treatments, leading to better clinical outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento do Adolescente , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626167

RESUMO

AIM: To clarify the severity of cognitive disturbances in children with chronic tics and to evaluate the efficacy of cortexin as part of complex therapy in the treatment of this pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main study group included 50 children, aged 6-8 years, with chronic motor tics. Twenty patients of these group received phenibut and 30 patients received cortexin in addition to phenibut. The comparison group consisted of 30 children with transient tics, aged 6-8 years, the control group consisted of 40 children of the same age without tics and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical assessment of tick manifestations and their frequency was performed using the Tourette Syndrome Global Scale (TSGS), neurological examination, electroencephalography. Severity of asthenic and cognitive disorders was evaluated using the Subjective Asthenia Scale (MFI-20), the memorization technique by A.R. Luria and the TOVA test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Children with chronic tics show signs of asthenia, they are characterized by a higher level of inattention and significantly lower levels of long-term memory compared to children from the comparison group and the control group. The level of impulsivity in children with chronic tics is significantly higher than in the control group but significantly lower than in children in the comparison group. A comparative analysis of EEG data in children with chronic tics reveals the following significant differences from the control and comparison groups: a higher amplitude and higher values of the peak frequency of the alpha-rhythm in the posterior regions of both hemispheres, a significant increase in the alpha-range of the frontal temporal leads of both hemispheres. Complex therapy with the addition of cortexin significantly improves treatment efficacy: improvement is noted in 60,0% of patients in monotherapy and in 83.3% of patients in complex therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Tiques , Síndrome de Tourette , Criança , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Humanos , Tiques/complicações , Síndrome de Tourette/complicações
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626226

RESUMO

The article provides a review of the characteristics of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) and methods for its assessment in children. The features of the most frequently used neuropsychological batteries, with consideration of specifics of cognitive impairment in MS, and data on assessment of a state of cognitive functions obtained using neuropsychological tests are presented. The authors also discuss the issue of a long-term impact of the disease on a state of cognitive functions. Clinical factors, which can lead to cognitive impairment (type of multiple sclerosis, age at manifestation, number of relapses), are described.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Criança , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626228

RESUMO

The article presents a literature review on the problem of cognitive deficit in patients with affective disorders. Cognitive deficit in patients with bipolar affective disorder and recurrent depression affects cognitive and executive functions, information processing, and has certain specific features. Specifics of cognitive deficit in patients with affective disorders hampers the use of rehabilitation programs. Consequently, the topic evokes increased interest of specialists and the need for further research.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Cognitivos , Remediação Cognitiva , Transtornos do Humor , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/terapia
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 355-357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596829

RESUMO

We aimed to compare processing speed (PS) and its subcomponents in schizophrenia (SC) and schizoaffective disorder (SA). Thirty-five patients were divided into two groups (SC=18; SA=17). PS tasks from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Central/South America version were used. Additional PS subcomponents were analyzed (i.e., behavioral execution, response processing, and accuracy). SA obtained significant higher scores than SC in response processing, verbal fluency and the PS general domain. Our results indicate that PS is a potential cognitive marker to differentiate between SC and SA. Further research with larger samples must be conducted.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações
11.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1030-1042, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sluggish cognitive tempo refers to a constellation of symptoms that include slowed behavior/thinking, reduced alertness, and getting lost in one's thoughts. Despite the moniker "sluggish cognitive tempo," the evidence is mixed regarding the extent to which it is associated globally with slowed (sluggish) mental (cognitive) information processing speed (tempo). METHOD: A well-characterized clinical sample of 132 children ages 8-13 years (M = 10.34, SD = 1.51; 47 girls; 67% White/non-Hispanic) were administered multiple, counterbalanced neurocognitive tests and assessed for sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms via multiple-informant reports. RESULTS: Bayesian linear regressions revealed significant evidence against associations between sluggish cognitive tempo and computationally modeled processing speed (BF01 > 3.70), and significant evidence for associations with slower working memory manipulation speed. These findings were consistent across parent and teacher models, with and without control for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms and IQ. There was also significant evidence linking faster inhibition speed with higher parent-reported sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence against characterizing children with sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms as possessing a globally sluggish cognitive tempo. Instead, these symptoms appear to be related, to a significant extent, to executive dysfunction characterized by working memory systems that are too slow and inhibition systems that are too fast. Behaviorally, these findings suggest that requiring extra time to rearrange the active contents of working memory delays responding, whereas an overactive inhibition system likely terminates thoughts too quickly and therefore prevents intended behaviors from starting or completing, thereby giving the appearance that children are absent-minded or failing to act when expected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(8): 806-812, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657595

RESUMO

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) often present inflexible behaviors and rigid thinking styles, which may contribute to disorder maintenance. Studies of set shifting have documented impairments in AN, but results have varied across samples. Moreover, the hypothesis that deficient set shifting may constitute an endophenotype rests largely on observations made with neuropsychological tests with limited ability to isolate component cognitive control processes. The current behavioral study used a task switching paradigm with a demonstrated ability to fractionate the hierarchical organization underlying task- and response-set shifting in 22 weight-recovered women with a history of AN (recAN) relative to 22 age-matched healthy controls. Whereas recAN performed generally more accurately than healthy controls, they also responded more slowly. Despite slower performance, however, recAN error rates did not exhibit the characteristic improvement in task switching on trials with a concurrent response switch-an interaction thought to index efficient action sequencing and the hierarchical control of behavior. These results were not mediated by comorbid symptoms, but no relationships with clinical measures were detected. Inefficient set shifting in AN may be related to a general tendency to sustain a high level of cognitive control (as evident here in a robust speed-accuracy trade-off), which interferes with context-sensitive regulation of processing priorities (as evident here in an atypical interaction between task and response switching). Although scarring effects cannot be excluded and the generalizability of our findings needs to be tested, the current observations in recAN provide novel evidence that altered set shifting may be a trait marker of the disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(7): 395-401, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185866

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de fragilidad en pacientes ingresados en cuidados intensivos (UCI) y su impacto sobre la mortalidad intra UCI, al mes y a los 6 meses. Diseño: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva. Ámbito: UCI polivalentes españolas. Intervención: Ninguna. Pacientes y métodos: Pacientes≥65 años ingresados en UCI>24horas. Se recogieron las variables al ingreso y la situación basal por teléfono al mes y a los 6 meses del alta de UCI. Variables de interés principal: Edad, sexo, fragilidad (escala FRAIL), situación basal (Barthel, Lawton, Clinical Dementia Rating y Nutric Score), días de ventilación mecánica (VM), escalas de gravedad (APACHE II y SOFA), mortalidad UCI, al mes y a los 6 meses del alta. Resultados: Ciento treinta y dos pacientes, 46 frágiles (34,9%). Pacientes frágiles vs. no frágiles: 78,8±7,2 vs. 78,6±6,4 años (p=0,43), varones 43,8% vs. 56,3% (p=0,10), SOFA 4,7±2,9 vs. 4,6±2,9 (p=0,75), VM 33.3% vs. 66,7% (p=0,75), días de VM 5,6±15 vs. 4,3±8,1 (p=0,57), mortalidad UCI 13% versus 6% (p = 0,14), mortalidad al mes 24% versus 8% (p = 0,01), mortalidad 6 meses 32% versus 15% (p = 0,03). La fragilidad se asocia con la mortalidad al mes (OR = 3,5; p <0,05, IC del 95% (1,22-10,03) y a los 6 meses del alta de UCI (OR = 2,62; p <0,05, IC del 95% (1,04-6,56). Conclusiones: La fragilidad está presente en el 35% de los pacientes ingresados en UCI, asociándose a la mortalidad


Objective: To estimate the prevalence of frailty in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its impact upon ICU mortality at 1 and 6 months. Design: A prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Setting: Spanish ICU. Intervention: None. Patients and methods: Patients≥65 years of age admitted to the ICU for>24hours. Variables were registered upon admission, and functional status was assessed by telephone calls 1 and 6 months after discharge from the ICU. Main study variables: Age, gender, frailty (FRAIL scale), functional status (Barthel, Lawton, Clinical Dementia Rating and NUTRIC score), days of mechanical ventilation (MV), functional score (APACHE II and SOFA), ICU mortality, and mortality 1 and 6 months after ICU discharge. Results: A total of 132 patients were evaluated, of which 46 were frail (34.9%). Age of the frail versus non-frail patients: 78.8±7.2 and 78.6±6.4 years, respectively (P=.43); male gender: 43.8% versus 56.3% (P=.10); SOFA score: 4.7±2.9 versus 4.6±2.9 (P=.75); MV: 33.3% versus 66.7% (P=.75); days of MV: 5.6±15 versus 4.3±8.1 (P=.57); ICU mortality 13% versus 6% (P = .14), mortality at 1 month 24% versus 8% (P = .01), mortality 6 months 32% versus 15% (P = .03). Frailty is associated with mortality at one month (OR = 3.5, P <.05, 95% CI (1.22-10.03) and at 6 months after discharge from the ICU (OR = 2.62, P <.05, 95% CI (1.04-6.56). Conclusions: Frailty was present in 35% of the patients admitted to the ICU, and was associated with mortality


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Repertório de Barthel , Atividades Cotidianas , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 261-264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia can be interpreted as a pathology involving the neocortex whose cognitive dysfunctions represent a central and persistent characteristic of the disease, as well as one of the more important symptoms in relation to the impairment of psychosocial functioning and the resulting disabilities. Given the implication of cognitive functions in everyday life, they can better predict the degree of schizophrenia. The study proposes to use Machine Learning techniques to identify the specific cognitive deficits of schizophrenia that mostly characterize the disorder, as well as to develop a predictive system that can diagnose the presence of schizophrenia based on neurocognitive tests. BACKGROUND: The study employs a dataset of neurocognitive assessments carried out on 201 people (86 schizophrenic patients and 115 healthy patients) recruited by the Neuroscience Group of the University of Bari "A. Moro". A data analysis process has been carried out, with the aim of selecting the most relevant features as well as to prepare data for training a number of "off-the-shelf" machine learning methods (Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, k-Nearest Neighbor, Neural Network, Support Vector Machine), which have been evaluated in terms of classification accuracy according to stratified 20-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Among all variables, 14 were selected as the most influential for the classification problem. The variables with greater influence are related to working memory, executive functions, attention, verbal fluency, memory. The best algorithms turned out to be Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network, showing an accuracy of 87.8% and 84.8% on a test set. CONCLUSIONS: Machine Learning provides "cheap" and non-invasive methods that potentially enable early intervention with specific rehabilitation interventions. The results suggest the need to integrate a thorough neuropsychological evaluation into the more general diagnostic evaluation of patients with schizophrenia disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 517-519, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the literature we can find evidence that sex hormones are involved the alterations of cognition in schizophrenic patients. Another factor, which may have an impact on cognitive domains in this clinical group inflammatory processes. The objective of this review was to explore studies, in which the role of both immunological factors and sex hormones on cognitive functions in schizophrenia are analyzed. METHODS: The search of papers covering this topic in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed. RESULTS: Endocrine factors like: testosteron, estrogen, as well as immunomodulatory are observed to play a role in cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: More studies are necessary to confirm these possible co-relations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Inflamação , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia
16.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 9785319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534559

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of hierarchical cognitive training using the categorization program (CP), designed initially for adults with cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-eight participants were included: a group of fifteen young adults with TBI (ages 18-48), another group of fifteen noninjured young adults (ages 18-50), and two groups of adults over 60 randomly assigned into the experimental group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 14). Following neuropsychological testing, the two young adult groups and the experimental older adult group received the CP training for 10-12 weeks. The CP training consisted of 8 levels targeting concept formation, object categorization, and decision-making abilities. Two CP tests (administered before and after the training) and three probe tasks (administered at specified intervals during the training) assessed skills relating to categorization. All treated groups showed significant improvement in their categorization performance, although younger participants (with or without TBI) demonstrated greater gains. Gains on the categorization measures were maintained by a subgroup of older adults up to four months posttraining. Implications of these findings in terms of adult cognitive learning and directions for future research on adult cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive stimulation programs are discussed.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(4): 503-507, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411174

RESUMO

Background & objectives: There is a paucity of literature on the cognitive profiles of vascular dementia (VaD) in India. The current study was undertaken to investigate the pattern of cognitive deficits in patients with VaD. Methods: Fifty patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria of dementia and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for VaD were assessed using Mini Mental State Examination, Kolkata Cognitive Screening Battery and other relevant tests including magnetic resonance imaging of brain. Results: Twenty patients had small vessel dementia, whereas the least common was haemorrhagic dementia in four patients. In patients with small vessel dementia, apart from memory, all patients had problem in attention and executive function, whereas 12 patients had visuoconstructional deficit and eight patients had language problem. In a total of 12 patients with large vessel dementia, apart from memory, executive dysfunction and visuoconstructional deficit were noted in 10 patients, whereas attention deficit was noted in eight patients. Attention was found to be more involved in small-vessel dementia than large-vessel dementia though all had memory impairment (P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Small vessel dementia was the commonest subtype of VaD in our study. Memory, attention and executive functions were predominantly affected in patients with VaD. Attention was significantly more involved in small vessel dementia than large vessel dementia. Further studies with large sample size need to be done in different regions of the country.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência Vascular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Vascular/complicações , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464284

RESUMO

AIM: To establish an effect of alcohol dependence on the cognitive functions of patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Half of them had a co-occurring diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome. Memory, attention, thinking were studied. Comparisons were made between groups, depending on the presence of the addictive disorder. RESULTS: Attention and short-term memory are at the low border of normal values in both groups. No significant between-group differences were found. In Benton test, errors characteristic of schizophrenia were more frequent in the main group. 'Organic' errors were prevalent in the control group. Mild thinking disorders of organic type were significantly more frequent in the main group. CONCLUSION: Co-occurring alcohol dependence does not significantly influence intelligence but significant organic stigmas contribute to the structure of the cognitive profile of patients. The prevalence of organic disturbances in the structure of thinking in patients with co-occurring alcohol abuse was revealed. The best indicators of attention were demonstrated by patients with attack-like schizophrenia without substance abuse. This suggests that the influence of the alcohol factor differs in continuous and attack-like progressive schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Comorbidade , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
20.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7): 1113-1120, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) frequently represents the prodromal stage of alpha-synucleinopathies, and similar to these pathologies, iRBD patients show neuropsychological deficits, particularly in the domain of visuospatial abilities and executive functions. We hypothesized that the qualitative scoring of the Mini-Mental State Examination pentagon test (QSPT) may detect subtle visuospatial deficits in these subjects, and we evaluated its relationship with indexes of sleep quality, as measured by polysomnography. METHODS: A total of 80 polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs) were retrospectively recruited. Global and specific qualitative performances were evaluated according to QSPT procedure. Comparisons between iRBD and HC regarding all QSPT parameters, neuropsychological tests, and polysomnographic recordings were performed. RESULTS: Patients displayed significantly lower scores in both "closing-in" and total score parameters in comparison to HC. The QSPT total score exhibited significant positive correlations with verbal comprehension, fluency, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions. Notably, iRBD patients with impaired performance at QSPT showed decreased neuropsychological performances and higher percentages of slow wave sleep (SWS). In addition, SWS percentages negatively correlated with verbal comprehension, fluency, visuospatial abilities, executive functions, and QSPT total score. CONCLUSION: QSPT may represent a brief and easy to administer tool for the detection of subtle visuospatial changes in iRBD patients. Furthermore, polysomnographic findings suggest a possible slowdown of electroencephalographic pattern during non-REM sleep in iRBD patients in line with the presence of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
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