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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(10. Vyp. 2): 39-45, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205929

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment or delirium occurs in about 40% of elderly patients after surgery. The increasing number of elderly people has led to a significant increase in the number of cases of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This is one of the most important medical and social problems, the analysis of which is especially difficult, since it requires the coordination of a large number of specialties: anesthesiology, surgery, neurology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, as well as fundamental neurosciences. Thus, a systematic multidisciplinary approach that takes into account all possible factors affecting the condition of patients should be considered. The article is devoted to the main aspects of the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of POCD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Delírio , Idoso , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório
2.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(10): 1211-1219, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064380

RESUMO

There is controversy about whether hypothermia during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is effective in reducing postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hypothermia on POCD and to undertake a meta-regression to determine whether moderator variables mediate the relationship between hypothermia and POCD. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed database, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library database (up to June 2017), and systematically reviewed a list of retrieved articles. Our final review includes only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared administration of hypothermia (34°C). Statistical analysis of the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to report the overall effect. Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (MH RR) and corresponding 95% CI was used to report the overall effect and meta-regression analysis. Eight RCTs were included in this study, with a total of 1,474 patients. The POCD occurred in 36.06% of all cases. A wide range of hypothermia (28-34°C) did not reduce the occurrence of POCD (RR = 0.983 (95% CI = 0.881-1.143); Z = -0.304; P = 0.761; I2 = 38%). Shorter CPB time reduced the occurrence of POCD (MH log risk ratio = -0.011 (95% CI = -0.021--0.0008); Z = -2.123; P = 0.033). Postoperative cognitive deficit is a common event among CABG patients. Contrary to deep hypothermia, mild hypothermia was significantly effective in reducing the risk of POCD. The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia on POCD may be attenuated by prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição , Hipotermia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Humanos
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(10): 633-638, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Israel, critically ill patients are ventilated and managed in intensive care units or general wards. OBJECTIVES: To compare the mortality rates and long-term cognitive and functional outcomes of ventilated patients who underwent tracheostomy insertion in the Medical ICU (MICU) versus those cared for in the in-patient wards. METHODS: The study comprised 170 patients who underwent percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) over an 18-month period in the MICU (n=102) and in in-patient wards (internal medicine and neurology) (n=68). Telephone interviews were conducted with living patients and/or their relatives at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: Ward patients were 10 years older than ICU patients undergoing PDT (P = 0.003). The length of stay (LOS) in the wards was longer than in the ICU (P < 0.001), whereas the total LOS in the hospital was similar (P = 0.43). ICU mortality was lower than in the wards (P = 0.001) but hospital mortality was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.17). At 6 months follow-up more ICU patients were fully conscious, weaned from ventilation, and decannulated. More patients in the ICU group were at home and were independent or had mildly impaired activities of daily living. More patients in the ward group were residing in long-term care facilities with functional limitations. CONCLUSIONS: MICU patients who undergo tracheostomy may have a good long-term functional and cognitive outcome. More studies are needed to further assess long-term outcomes in these patients.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Quartos de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Causas de Morte , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105119, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While both motor and cognitive impairment are common after stroke, the focus of (early) treatment has always been on motor deficit. AIMS: The objective of the current study was to explore the link between motor and cognitive performance in stroke patients and to examine whether motor performance is associated with cognitive functioning at three months post stroke. METHODS: In both stroke patients (n = 142) and controls (n = 135), with the groups matched on age, gender and premorbid IQ, motor functioning was evaluated using both objective (Purdue Pegboard Test) and subjective measures (specific items from the Frenchay Activities Index and Barthel Index). Cognition, specifically information processing speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility, was assessed using objective tasks. The data were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and logistic regression. RESULTS: Significant correlations between motor and cognitive functioning were found in stroke patients. The objective motor task was stronger than subjective measures in statistically explaining and predicting cognitive deficit, irrespective of stroke severity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that motor impairment at three months post-stroke should serve as a 'red flag' for professionals: cognitive impairment is likely and should also be evaluated.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição , Atividade Motora , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 69-74, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the advisability of using cytoflavin to correct postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing video laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VLCE) under conditions of inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of two representative groups of patients (n=60) who underwent video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy under the conditions of inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane were analyzed. At the stages of the perioperative period, in order to monitor the state of higher mental functions, neuropsychological testing was performed: anxiety and depression scales (HADS), the Montreal scale of cognitive dysfunction (MoCA), and frontal dysfunction batteries (FAB). Patients of the first group (n=19) were not corrected for POKD. For the correction of cognitive impairment, patients of the second group (n=41) were treated with Cytoflavin according to the 20 ml regimen per 250 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution intravenously once before the operation, then within 4 days of the postoperative period. RESULTS: Neuropsychological testing in group I patients revealed the development of moderate POCD. The inclusion of Cytoflavin in the treatment regimen in the II group of patients contributed to an improvement in the state of HMF, accompanied by a decrease in the level of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of Cytoflavin in treatment regimens helps prevent the development of POKD and is accompanied by an improvement in the state of higher mental functions, which is manifested by a decrease in the level of anxiety and depression, favorably affecting the emotional background of patients.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/administração & dosagem , Inosina Difosfato/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Succinatos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Inalação/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida
6.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(3): 125-132, jul.-sept. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193521

RESUMO

La hipertensión arterial es considerada el principal factor de riesgo vascular modificable que causa daño en forma silente en los vasos del cerebro. Esta injuria vascular cerebral podría ser el núcleo común que justifique los síntomas cognitivos (deterioro cognitivo, demencia y enfermedad de Alzheimer) y conductuales (depresión de inicio tardío) del daño de órgano blanco mediado por la hipertensión arterial. El conocimiento incompleto sobre los complejos vínculos fisiopatológicos que relacionan la hipertensión arterial con los cambios cognitivo-conductuales soslaya la participación del cerebro como órgano blanco subestimando el riesgo cardio y cerebrovascular. La convergencia de deterioro cognitivo, depresión e hipertensión arterial en adultos mayores, advierte sobre la necesidad de una evaluación integral que permita planificar el tratamiento, mejorar pronóstico y contribuir a la disminución del riesgo de demencia y su incidencia


Arterial hypertension is considered the main modifiable vascular risk factor that causes silent damage to brain vessels. This vascular brain injury could be the common nucleus that justifies the cognitive (cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer's disease) and behavioural symptoms (late-life depression) of target organ damage mediated-hypertension. Incomplete knowledge about the complex pathophysiology that links hypertension with cognitive-behavioural changes is overlooking brain involvement and underestimating cardio and cerebrovascular risk. The confluence of cognitive impairment, depression and arterial hypertension in elderly adults, warns of the need for a comprehensive evaluation to plan treatment, improve prognosis and contribute to reducing the risk of dementia and its incidence


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Início Tardio/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200245, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970457

RESUMO

Not surprisingly, our knowledge of the impact of radiation on the brain has evolved considerably. Decades of work have struggled with identifying the critical cellular targets in the brain, the latency of functional change and understanding how irradiation alters the balance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Radiation-induced cell kill following clinical fractionation paradigms pointed to both stromal and parenchymal targets but also defined an exquisite sensitivity of neurogenic populations of newly born cells in the brain. It became more and more apparent too, that acute (days) events transpiring after exposure were poorly prognostic of the late (months-years) waves of radiation injury believed to underlie neurocognitive deficits. Much of these gaps in knowledge persisted as NASA became interested in how exposure to much different radiation types, doses and dose rates that characterize the space radiation environment might impair central nervous system functionality, with possibly negative implications for deep space travel. Now emerging evidence from researchers engaged in clinical, translational and environmental radiation sciences have begun to fill these gaps and have uncovered some surprising similarities in the response of the brain to seemingly disparate exposure scenarios. This article highlights many of the commonalities between the vastly different irradiation paradigms that distinguish clinical treatments from occupational exposures in deep space.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Voo Espacial , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Íons , Transferência Linear de Energia , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle
8.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 356, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the discovery of eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in the central and peripheral nervous systems and visceral organs. In this paper, we report a case of an adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease presenting with mental abnormality in China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman presented with mental abnormality and forgetfulness for 3 months before she was admitted to our hospital. There were prodromal symptoms of fever before she had the mental disorder. Encephalitis was first suspected, and the patient underwent lumbar puncture and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated normal pressure, a normal white blood cell count, and slightly elevated protein and glucose levels. Coxsackie B virus, enterovirus, and cytomegalovirus tests showed normal results. Bacterial culture and Cryptococcus neoformans test results were negative. The contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain was normal. The brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed a symmetrically distributed strip-shaped hyperintensity signal of the corticomedullary junction in the bilateral frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. We considered the diagnosis of the NIID, and therefore, skin biopsy was performed. The electron microscopy revealed that intranuclear inclusions in the nucleus of fibrocytes existed and were composed of filaments. CONCLUSIONS: NIID is a rare neurodegenerative disease with diverse clinical manifestations. In clinical work, when a patient presents with abnormal mental behavior and exhibits hyperintensity signals on DWI images of the corticomedullary junction, it is crucial to consider the diagnosis of NIID.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , China , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105063, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: After cerebral hemorrhage, cognitive functions and activities of daily living (ADL) are affected by various factors, including hematoma volume and patient age. In the present study, we investigated the effect of age and hematoma volume on cognitive functions and on ADL. METHODS: The sample comprised 274 patients (183 men and 91 women; mean age 58.2 ± 12.5 years) with putaminal hemorrhage who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation ward. Hematoma volume was estimated from computed tomography imaging at stroke onset. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices test (RCPM) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at hospital admission, while ADL score was assessed at discharge using the Functional Independence Measure motor subscale (FIM-M). In the present study, we classified the patients into six groups according to whether they were non-elderly or elderly (cutoff age, 60 years) and whether their hematoma was small, medium, or large (cutoff volumes, 20 and 40 mL, respectively). Subsequently, the scores on the RCPM, MMSE, and FIM-M were compared among the groups. RESULTS: In both age groups, patients with a larger hematoma volume had lower RCPM and MMSE scores. Patients <60 years old exhibited different trends in their RCPM and MMSE scores, such that the RCPM score showed a step-wise decrease according to hematoma volume, while a difference in the MMSE score was only observed at the 20 mL boundary. Most of the younger patients (<60 years of age) attained high FIM-M scores at discharge, as long as their hematoma volume was either medium or small (<40 mL). This age group had higher RCPM scores on admission, which may have contributed to their higher FIM-M scores on discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrated that advancing age increases the effect of hematoma volume on RCPM and MMSE scores and identified differences in the effects observed on these two scores. Thus, it may be important to use the RCPM alongside the MMSE for patient assessment.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Putaminal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Hemorragia Putaminal/complicações , Hemorragia Putaminal/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Putaminal/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
JAMA ; 324(6): 560-570, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780138

RESUMO

Importance: Red blood cell transfusions are commonly administered to infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. Evidence-based transfusion thresholds have not been established. Previous studies have suggested higher rates of cognitive impairment with restrictive transfusion thresholds. Objective: To compare the effect of liberal vs restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies on death or disability. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted in 36 level III/IV neonatal intensive care units in Europe among 1013 infants with birth weights of 400 g to 999 g at less than 72 hours after birth; enrollment took place between July 14, 2011, and November 14, 2014, and follow-up was completed by January 15, 2018. Interventions: Infants were randomly assigned to liberal (n = 492) or restrictive (n = 521) red blood cell transfusion thresholds based on infants' postnatal age and current health state. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome, measured at 24 months of corrected age, was death or disability, defined as any of cognitive deficit, cerebral palsy, or severe visual or hearing impairment. Secondary outcome measures included individual components of the primary outcome, complications of prematurity, and growth. Results: Among 1013 patients randomized (median gestational age at birth, 26.3 [interquartile range {IQR}, 24.9-27.6] weeks; 509 [50.2%] females), 928 (91.6%) completed the trial. Among infants in the liberal vs restrictive transfusion thresholds groups, respectively, incidence of any transfusion was 400/492 (81.3%) vs 315/521 (60.5%); median volume transfused was 40 mL (IQR, 16-73 mL) vs 19 mL (IQR, 0-46 mL); and weekly mean hematocrit was 3 percentage points higher with liberal thresholds. Among infants in the liberal vs restrictive thresholds groups, the primary outcome occurred in 200/450 (44.4%) vs 205/478 (42.9%), respectively, for a difference of 1.6% (95% CI, -4.8% to 7.9%; P = .72). Death by 24 months occurred in 38/460 (8.3%) vs 44/491 (9.0%), for a difference of -0.7% (95% CI, -4.3% to 2.9%; P = .70), cognitive deficit was observed in 154/410 (37.6%) vs 148/430 (34.4%), for a difference of 3.2% (95% CI, -3.3% to 9.6%; P = .47), and cerebral palsy occurred in 18/419 (4.3%) vs 25/443 (5.6%), for a difference of -1.3% (95% CI, -4.2% to 1.5%; P = .37), in the liberal vs the restrictive thresholds groups, respectively. In the liberal vs restrictive thresholds groups, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgical intervention occurred in 20/492 (4.1%) vs 28/518 (5.4%); bronchopulmonary dysplasia occurred in 130/458 (28.4%) vs 126/485 (26.0%); and treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was required in 41/472 (8.7%) vs 38/492 (7.7%). Growth at follow-up was also not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among infants with birth weights of less than 1000 g, a strategy of liberal blood transfusions compared with restrictive transfusions did not reduce the likelihood of death or disability at 24 months of corrected age. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01393496.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/cirurgia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Transtornos da Audição/etiologia , Hematócrito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 529-538, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature addresses the possible long-term cognitive effects of anaesthetics, but no study has delineated the normal trajectory of neural recovery attributable to anaesthesia alone in adults. We obtained resting-state functional MRI scans on 72 healthy human volunteers between ages 40 and 80 (median: 59) yr before, during, and after general anaesthesia with sevoflurane, in the absence of surgery, as part of a larger study on cognitive function postanaesthesia. METHODS: Region-of-interest analysis, independent component analysis, and seed-to-voxel analysis were used to characterise resting-state functional connectivity and to differentiate between correlated and anticorrelated connectivity before, during, and after general anaesthesia. RESULTS: Whilst positively correlated functional connectivity remained essentially unchanged across these perianaesthetic states, anticorrelated functional connectivity decreased globally by 35% 1 h after emergence from general anaesthesia compared with baseline, as seen by the region-of-interest analysis. This decrease corresponded to a consistent reduction in expression of canonical resting-state networks, as seen by independent component analysis. All measures returned to baseline 1 day later. CONCLUSIONS: The normal perianaesthesia trajectory of resting-state connectivity in healthy adults is characterised by a transient global reduction in anticorrelated activity shortly after emergence from anaesthesia that returns to baseline by the following day. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02275026.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Sevoflurano/farmacologia
12.
Lancet HIV ; 7(7): e504-e513, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621876

RESUMO

High rates of cognitive disorders in antiretroviral-treated people living with HIV have been described worldwide. The exact prevalence of such cognitive disorders is determined by the definitions used, and the presence of these cognitive disorders significantly impacts the overall wellbeing of people with HIV. With the cohort of people with HIV becoming increasingly older, and having high rates of comorbidities and concomitant medication use, rates of cognitive disorders are likely to increase. Conversely, interventions are being sought to reduce the size of the latent HIV reservoir. If successful, such interventions are likely to also reduce the HIV reservoir in the brain compartment, which could result in improvements in cognitive function and reduced rates of impairment.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Encéfalo/virologia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Latência Viral
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between poor oral health conditions and cognitive decline is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between oral health and cognition in humans and rats. METHODS: In humans: a cross-sectional study was conducted. Cognitive levels were evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); oral conditions were reflected by the number of missing index teeth, bleeding on probing, and probing pocket depth (PD). In rats: a ligature-induced (Lig) periodontitis model and Aß25-35-induced model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were established; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were detected. RESULTS: MMSE scores for the number of missing index teeth ≥ 7 group were significantly lower than those in the ≤ 6 group. A negative relationship (correlation coefficient ρ = -0.310, P = 0.002) was observed between MMSE scores and number of missing index teeth. More missing index teeth and lower education levels were independent risk factors for cognitive decline. A negative relationship (correlation coefficient ρ = -0.214, P = 0.031) was observed between MMSE scores and average PD. TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the hippocampus of the Lig+AD group were significantly higher than those of the AD group. IL-1 and IL-6 levels in the cerebral cortex of the Lig+AD group were significantly higher than those of the AD group. CONCLUSION: Poor oral health conditions including more missing index teeth and higher average PD may be risk factors for cognitive decline. Periodontitis may increase inflammatory cytokines in rat models of AD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Causalidade , Córtex Cerebral/química , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/química , Humanos , Interleucina-1/análise , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
14.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(9): 929-938, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666209

RESUMO

Approximately 40% of patients with heart failure show cognitive deficits, such as concentration difficulties, attention deficits, and memory impairment. Affected patients have a higher rate of rehospitalization and an increased mortality. This could be due to low adherence mediated by a lack of disease-specific knowledge and strategies to deal with symptom exacerbation. The pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in heart failure is multifactorial. In this respect the heart failure itself as well as cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities play a role. Orientating neuropsychological screening tests can show a first indication of the presence of cognitive impairment. When identified, the causes can be specifically treated and care can be optimized through certain measures, such as the involvement of caregivers and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Testes Neuropsicológicos
15.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 691-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546987

RESUMO

Chemobrain is one of the problems that may arise during or after treatment and there is currently no specific treatment for this condition. Our case was a 76-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with complaints of forgetfulness that did not affect daily living activities for the last year. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 2013 and she has been receiving anastrozole treatment for 6 years after local mass excision surgery and radiotherapy. After a comprehensive geriatric evaluation, cognitive impairment due to systemic cancer therapy was detected and treatment was started with Theracurmin 90 mg twice a day therapy. After 3-months of Theracurmin therapy, she had no cognitive improvement during the follow-up. This case report demonstrated that Theracurmin treatment may be a new option for chemobrain.


Assuntos
Anastrozol , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Radioterapia , Idoso , Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102025, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) reduces brain metastasis incidence in lung cancer, however with risk of neurocognitive decline. Nevertheless, risk factors for neurocognitive decline after PCI remain unclear. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the PubMed database according to the PRISMA guideline. Inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational/single arm trials evaluating PCI, including ≥20 patients, reporting neurocognitive test results for lung cancer. Primary aim: evaluate risk factors associated with neurocognitive decline after PCI. RESULTS: Twenty records were eligible (8 different RCTs, 8 observational studies), including 3553 patients in total (858 NSCLC, 2695 SCLC) of which 73.6% received PCI. Incidence of mild/moderate cognitive decline after PCI varied from 8 to 89% (grading not always provided); for those without PCI, this was 3.4-42%. Interestingly, 23-95% had baseline cognitive impairment. Risk factors were often not reported. In one trial, both age (>60 years) and higher PCI dose (36 Gy) including twice-daily PCI were associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline. In one trial, white matter abnormalities were more frequent in the concurrent or sandwiched PCI arm, but without significant neuropsychological differences. One trial identified hippocampal sparing PCI to limit the neurocognitive toxicities of PCI and another reported an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline. As neurocognition was a secondary endpoint in most RCTs, and was assessed by various instruments with often poor/moderate compliance, high-quality data is lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Age, PCI dose, regimen and timing might be associated with cognitive impairment after PCI in lung cancer patients, but high-quality data is lacking. Future PCI trials should collect and evaluate possible risk factors systematically.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Irradiação Craniana/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 78, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paper-and-pencil tasks are still widely used for cognitive rehabilitation despite the proliferation of new computer-based methods, like VR-based simulations of ADL's. Studies have established construct validity of VR assessment tools with their paper-and-pencil version by demonstrating significant associations with their traditional construct-driven measures. However, VR rehabilitation intervention tools are mostly developed to include mechanisms such as personalization and adaptation, elements that are disregarded in their paper-and-pencil counterparts, which is a strong limitation of comparison studies. Here we compare the clinical impact of a personalized and adapted paper-and-pencil training and a content equivalent and more ecologically valid VR-based ADL's simulation. METHODS: We have performed a trial with 36 stroke patients comparing Reh@City v2.0 (adaptive cognitive training through everyday tasks VR simulations) with Task Generator (TG: content equivalent and adaptive paper-and-pencil training). The intervention comprised 12 sessions, with a neuropsychological assessment pre, post-intervention and follow-up, having as primary outcomes: general cognitive functioning (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment - MoCA), attention, memory, executive functions and language specific domains. RESULTS: A within-group analysis revealed that the Reh@City v2.0 improved general cognitive functioning, attention, visuospatial ability and executive functions. These improvements generalized to verbal memory, processing speed and self-perceived cognitive deficits specific assessments. TG only improved in orientation domain on the MoCA, and specific processing speed and verbal memory outcomes. However, at follow-up, processing speed and verbal memory improvements were maintained, and a new one was revealed in language. A between-groups analysis revealed Reh@City v2.0 superiority in general cognitive functioning, visuospatial ability, and executive functions on the MoCA. CONCLUSIONS: The Reh@City v2.0 intervention with higher ecological validity revealed higher effectiveness with improvements in different cognitive domains and self-perceived cognitive deficits in everyday life, and the TG intervention retained fewer cognitive gains for longer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02857803. Registered 5 August 2016, .


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
20.
Neurology ; 95(6): e718-e732, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the extent of CNS involvement in children with Pompe disease using brain MRI and developmental assessments. METHODS: The study included 14 children (ages 6-18 years) with infantile Pompe disease (IPD) (n = 12) or late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) (n = 2) receiving enzyme replacement therapy. White matter (WM) hyperintense foci seen in the brain MRIs were systematically quantified using the Fazekas scale (FS) grading system with a novel approach: the individual FS scores from 10 anatomical areas were summed to yield a total FS score (range absent [0] to severe [30]) for each child. The FS scores were compared to developmental assessments of cognition and language obtained during the same time period. RESULTS: Mild to severe WM hyperintense foci were seen in 10/12 children with IPD (median age 10.6 years) with total FS scores ranging from 2 to 23. Periventricular, subcortical, and deep WM were involved. WM hyperintense foci were seen throughout the path of the corticospinal tracts in the brain in children with IPD. Two children with IPD had no WM hyperintense foci. Children with IPD had relative weaknesses in processing speed, fluid reasoning, visual perception, and receptive vocabulary. The 2 children with LOPD had no WM hyperintense foci, and high scores on most developmental assessments. CONCLUSION: This study systematically characterized WM hyperintense foci in children with IPD, which could serve as a benchmark for longitudinal follow-up of WM abnormalities in patients with Pompe disease and other known neurodegenerative disorders or leukodystrophies in children.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/etiologia , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/uso terapêutico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/complicações , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
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