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2.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(4): 422-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder in the context of dermatology and cosmetic and plastic surgery but is underdiagnosed and underreported in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and symptoms of anxiety/depression and determine their sociodemographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: A systematic random sampling design was made to recruit 114 patients with skin diseases. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered, and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 37.70±17.47 years, and 67/114 (58.8%) were females. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder was 41/114 (36.0%), and prevalence of anxiety/depression symptoms was 35/114 (30.7%). Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients with anxiety/depression symptoms was 15/41 (36.6%), and patients with facial disorders expressed the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms, in 15/35 (42.9%). Factors associated with significantly higher mean body dysmorphic disorder include age<50years (p=0.039), and anxiety/depression (p<0.001), education below high school was associated with higher mean anxiety/depression score (P= 0.031). In a binary logistic regression model, presence of anxiety/depression symptoms was predictive of body dysmorphic disorder (OR=10.0, CI: 4.1-28.2, p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: the study is uncontrolled, conducted in a single source of care, thus limiting generalization to nonrelated settings. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder is high among dermatology patients and most prevalent in facial disorders. Facial diseases are associated with the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms. This is a clarion call for dermatologists to routinely assess for body dysmorphic disorder and appropriately refer affected patients to mental health care.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Escala de Ansiedade Frente a Teste , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 447-451, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488770

RESUMO

Not only philosophers, but also artists and scientists have always struggled to find a universal definition of beauty. Not even Darwin could find an answer to the question: are there any parameters of beauty that we can apply to every species. Nobody can give a valid definition for the perception of beauty in others. Can a definition in subjective terms be achieved? If I say something is beautiful, it only means that it is beautiful for me, but it does not mean that is necessarily beautiful for everyone else. Beauty is a subjective experience, but it is not only a perceptive experience! According to the Treccani Dictionary of Italian Language, beauty can be defined as: something capable of pleasing the soul through the senses and become an object worthy of contemplation. Developmental biologists say that when people talk about how beautiful a person is, they tend to highlight those qualities that make them more or less attractive. These qualities can be, for example, if and how much I look like their father or mother. Does this mean there can be universal parameters of beauty for the human species? According to Professor Semir Zeki, there are universal parameters of beauty and the easiest way to define them is in a negative way. This means that whoever has his eyes in a different position, compared to where the eyes are placed in a nation or race, cannot be called beautiful. According to this, could there be a model of beauty in our society? Today's society gives a considerable importance to appearance, it is even thought that being "beautiful" can achieve happiness, love and success. Mass media show icons of perfection and ideals of beauty almost unattainable and makes us to believe that achieving them would make us feel fulfilled; therefore underestimating other values such as happiness, family, friendship and beauty. There is less and less space for self-acceptance and developing other qualities, whereas we invest more into treatments of various kinds to change our body, considering it as an object we can manipulate, or as a tool to achieve goals. Particularly young people, today, are conditioned by the myth of beauty and by the canons imposed by newspapers, TV and the media, which demands virtual beauty without originality. According to this canon, women must always be slim but firm and sinuous, with flowing bleached hair, perfect make-up, smooth skin, full lips and long nails. On the other hand, men are forced to resemble the football players: muscular, but not too much, without a belly and marked abdominals muscles, tall, well-shaved, fragrant, or even shaving their whole body. According to Charmet: "We live in a continuous casting, with boys feeling inadequate and ugly". Adolescence is then considered a period full enthusiasm but also of torment, such as long struggles in front of the mirror with the different ways of "decorating" a suddenly new body. This is a particularly fertile ground for the onset of pathologies such as depression, dysmorphophobias, eating disorders and other pathologies. They become 'mutants', because they change and adapt to the current fashion; nowadays these changes affect not only women, but also men. Pathologies are also in the rise among increasingly younger people, aged 10 to 20 years old. In addition, there are new pathologies, such as orthorexia (the obsession for healthy eating) or drunkorexia (a combination of fasting/binge eating with alcohol abuse). Often, these are associated with other psychiatric disorders or serious physical complications. However, only a small percentage of people suffering from these conditions ask for help.


Assuntos
Beleza , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Body Image ; 30: 150-158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336262

RESUMO

Cognitive and behavioural models of body dysmorphic disorder posit that selective self-focused attention via mirror gazing plays a key role in the aetiology and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little empirical support for these theoretical claims. This study aimed to induce self-focused attention via mirror gazing to examine the proposed theoretical effects on body image, distress, body-focused shame, and self-esteem. Fifty-one non-clinical participants (78.43% female) were randomly allocated to one of the two conditions: low self-focused attention (i.e., looking into a mirror placed 100 cm/ 39 in away) vs. high self-focused attention (i.e., focusing on a disliked part in a mirror placed 10 cm/ 4 in away). Following 5 min of mirror gazing, the high self-focused attention condition experienced decreased satisfaction with appearance, perceived attractiveness, and self-esteem, and increased distress about appearance, distress about disliked parts, urges to change appearance, and body-focused shame. Approaching the mirror from a distance appeared to have no effect. Findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focused attention and mirror behaviours might contribute to the development of body dysmorphic disorder and maintain its psychological effects.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Behav Ther ; 50(4): 839-849, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208692

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common and distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. Individuals with BDD engage in time-consuming rituals to check, hide, or "fix" their appearance or alleviate distress. BDD is associated with substantial psychosocial impairment and high rates of depression, hospitalization, and suicidality. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for BDD, but not everyone benefits. We examined predictors of CBT-related improvement, an important topic that has received very limited investigation. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18-22 weeks. Results indicated that greater motivation/readiness to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire), greater treatment expectancy (Treatment Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire), and better baseline BDD-related insight (Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale) significantly predicted better CBT response at posttreatment. Baseline BDD symptom severity and depression did not predict outcome, suggesting that even patients with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms can benefit from CBT for BDD. Efforts should be aimed at enhancing readiness to change and confidence in the treatment at treatment onset as well as addressing the poor insight that often characterizes BDD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adulto , Comportamento Compulsivo , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 657-661, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207849

RESUMO

Body image disturbance ('dysmorphic concern') is a key diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa (AN). While dysmorphic concern has been described as a relapse predictor, relatively little is understood about the prevalence in AN, and the consequences upon wellbeing. The present study examined the rates of dysmorphic concern in a sample of treatment-seeking adults with AN (N = 39), and explored the associations with general mental health, disability and eating disorder symptoms. The majority of participants (61.5%) had clinically significant levels of dysmorphic concern. Furthermore, higher dysmorphic concern scores were associated with increased symptoms of anxiety, depression and eating disorder symptomatology. There was also a trend towards associations between dysmorphic concern and age of onset and stages of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance), although replication is required. These findings suggest that strategies which specifically address body image distortions should be a key feature of treatment for anorexia nervosa to support long-term recovery and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 44(2): 43-61, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184429

RESUMO

Tanto la adicción al ejercicio físico, entendida como una adicción comportamental, como la dismorfia muscular, especificador del trastorno dismórfico corporal, tienen en común varios aspectos, como es la práctica intensiva de ejercicio físico y alteraciones en la autoestima. Además, algunas adicciones comportamentales se relacionan con determinados esquemas cognitivos tempranos desadaptados. Ante la escasez de estudios que relacionen los esquemas tempranos desadaptados con la adicción al ejercicio o la dismorfia muscular, y teniendo en cuenta la autoestima, se plantea la pregunta de si existen diferencias entre estas variables en personas con adicción al ejercicio o dismorfia muscular. Para ello se ha utilizado un grupo de 465 participantes (23.7% hombres, 75.7% mujeres y 0.6% transgénero), todos ellos practicaban deporte o en el gimnasio o fuera de él. Se han utilizado los siguientes instrumentos de evaluación: Cuestionario de Esquemas Cognitivos -Forma Abreviada -SQ-SF (Young y Brown., 1994), Drive for Muscularity Scale - DMS (McCreary, Sasse, Saucier y Dorsch, 2004), Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (Rosenberg, 1965), Escala de Satisfacción Muscular - ESM (The Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale -MASS; Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer y Drab, 2002) e Inventario de Adicción al Ejercicio - EAI (Terry, Szabo y Griffiths, 2004). En cuanto a los resultados, parece que tanto la adicción al ejercicio físico como la dismorfia muscular se relacionan con determinados esquemas tempranos desadaptados. Por otro lado, la autoestima se relaciona tanto con la adicción al ejercicio físico como con dismorfia muscular de forma significa-tiva y negativa. Finalmente, los resultados muestran cómo a mayor dismorfia muscular también es mayor el riesgo de adicción al ejercicio físico, y a medida que mayor es el riesgo de adicción menor es la satisfacción muscular. Estos resultados se discuten y se presentan las limitaciones del estudio


Both the addiction to physical exercise, understood as a behavioral addiction, and muscular dysmorphia, which specifies the dysmorphic bodily disorder, have several aspects in common, such as the intensive practice of physical exercise and alterations in self-esteem. They also seem to involve certain behaviors that are related to early cognitive maladaptive patterns. Given the paucity of studies that relate early maladaptive patterns with addiction to muscle exercise and muscle dysmorphia, and taking into account self-esteem, the question arises of whether there are differences between these variables in people with exercise addiction or muscle distortion. For this purpose, a group of 465 participants (23.7% men, 75.7% women and 0.6% transgender) were used, all of them practicing sports in or outside the gymnasium. The following evaluation instruments were used: Cognitive Scheme Questionnaire-Short Form -SQ-SF (Young and Brown, 1994), Drive for Muscularity Scale - DMS (McCreary, Sasse, Saucier y Dorsch, 2004), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), Muscle Satisfaction Scale - ESM (Muscular Appearance Satisfaction Scale - MASA, Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer and Drab, 2002) and Inventory of Exercise Addiction - EAI (Terry, Szabo and Griffiths, 2004). Regarding the results, it seems that both addiction to physical exercise and muscle breakdown are related to early maladaptive patterns. On the other hand, self-esteem is related to both the addiction to physical exercise and to muscular distension in a significant and negative way. It finally seems that the greater the muscle breakdown, the greater the risk of addiction to physical exercise, and the greater the risk of addiction, the less muscle satisfaction. These results are discussed and the limitations of the study are presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cognição , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Autoimagem , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais
8.
Eat Disord ; 27(2): 137-151, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084430

RESUMO

The nature and presentation of eating pathology in ethnically diverse men are not well defined. This study examined associations among ethnicity, body image, and eating pathology in nonclinical college men (N = 343). Analysis of variance analyses indicated that markers of eating, weight, and shape concerns differed by ethnicity: Asian and Hispanic/Latino men reported more pathological levels than European and African American men. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that ethnicity moderated the relationship between drive for muscularity and body checking, which was strongest for Asian men. Results increase awareness of how ethnicity interacts with body image and eating pathology, which underscores the need for individualized, culturally sensitive treatment for ethnically diverse men.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 244-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074670

RESUMO

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is preoccupation with perceived body defects leading to distress and impairment in social functioning. Most of adolescent BDD literature has been done on patients within the outpatient setting with prior versions of DSM with dearth of information about BDD and comorbid psychiatric conditions among adolescents within the inpatient setting. Aims: This pilot study evaluated the prevalence rate, clinical characteristics in adolescent BDD compared to non-BDD adolescents in a psychiatric in patient setting in addition to their comorbid issues like anxiety, OCD, ADHD and substance abuse. Methods: Forty-five consecutively admitted adolescent patients participated with 17 meeting the DSM 5 criteria for BDD while 28 did not. Patients were asked four questions designed around the DSM-5 criteria for BDD after which they were asked to complete questionnaires like BDDQ child and adolescent version, BDDM, Multiaxial Anxiety Scale for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, Y-BOCS and Vanderbilt ADHD rating scales. Results: Seventeen participants had BDD. Mean age of BDD patients was 13.1 while non-BDD was 12.4. Male patients with BDD were seven (41%) while female BDD patients were 10 (58.8%). Anxiety, depression, OCD and substance use disorders were common comorbid diagnoses. Majority of patients in the BDD group classified their BDD as a severe problem with more BDD, patient's considering suicide because of their BDD. Discussion: BDD is present in adolescents admitted in inpatient psychiatric hospital with more female patients endorsing BDD versus their male counterparts. Patients with BDD are more likely to endorse more comorbid psychiatric issues such as anxiety, OCD, ADHD and substance abuse.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Criança , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Body Image ; 30: 44-55, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128427

RESUMO

Perfectionism is an important transdiagnostic risk factor for several psychopathologies. As such, treatments targeting perfectionism have gained increased attention over recent years. While perfectionism is postulated to be an important underlying mechanism for dysmorphic concern, no research has explored the benefits of targeting perfectionism to reduce dysmorphic concern. The current study evaluated the use of Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism (ICBT-P) with 31 participants (28 women) with high levels of dysmorphic concern to examine the impact on perfectionism, dysmorphic concern, body image disturbance, negative affect, and selective attention towards appearance-based stimuli. Using a case series design, observations were collected at baseline, at the end of a 4-week pre-treatment phase, after the 8-week ICBT-P, and 1-month post-treatment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant improvement from baseline to end-of-treatment and follow-up on most of the variables, with a large effect size decrease in dysmorphic concern, and decreased selective attention to BDD-body, BDD-positive, and BDD-negative words. The results of this study support the use of ICBT-P as an efficacious treatment worthy of further examination in populations who experience high levels of dysmorphic concern.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/terapia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Perfeccionismo , Consulta Remota , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 186-197, mayo 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183279

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite of being scarce, evidence is growing on the existence of a group of overweight and obese individuals who do not consider their weight a risk factor for disease and who associate their weight and body with health, vigor, beauty and well-being. Consequently, they manifest a desire to maintain or even increase their weight. We propose an attempt of nomenclature, Oberexia, for this new social reality, and we describe its main characteristics and present empirical observational findings supporting the existence of this condition. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of Oberexia in a national sample of Spanish 16 to 60-years-old adults. Methodology: Perceptions of body weight/size/shape and composition, and body satisfaction were assessed in overweight and obese adults through silhouettes, questions and discrepancies. Results: One in ten of the participants self-perceived their body as normal in weight or size. A total of 6.5% wanted to have overweight or obese bodies. A case-to-case analysis revealed that 4.2% of the participants wanted to maintain their appearance, and 1.8% wanted a body with greater weight. All these findings are related to fat mass instead of muscle mass. Conclusions: Our results support the existence of a subgroup of overweight and obese individuals who differ from the traditional subgroup of individuals with excess weight who are dissatisfied with their body. We encourage to explore the outcomes on health and the possible clinical implications of this condition


Introducción: Aunque escasa, existe evidencia creciente sobre la existencia de un grupo de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad que no consideran su exceso de peso un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad y asocian su peso y su cuerpo con salud, vigor, belleza y bienestar. Como consecuencia, manifiestan el deseo mantener o incluso incrementar su peso. Realizamos una propuesta de nomenclatura para esta realidad social, Oberexia, describimos sus principales características y presentamos resultados empíricos observacionales que apoyan la existencia de esta condición. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue explorar la prevalencia y características de la Oberexia en una muestra nacional de adultos españoles de 16 a 60 años. Metodología: Las percepciones de peso/tamaño/forma y composición corporal de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad y su satisfacción corporal fueron evaluadas utilizando siluetas, preguntas y discrepancias. Resultados: Uno de cada diez participantes percibió su cuerpo como normal en términos de peso y tamaño. Un 6.5% de los participantes con exceso de peso quería tener cuerpos con sobrepeso u obesidad. Un análisis caso-a-caso reveló que el 4.2% de los participantes deseaba mantener su apariencia, y el 1.8% deseaba aumentar de peso. Un 3% de los participantes podrían ser casos de Oberexia. Estos hallazgos se refieren a masa grasa y no a masa muscular. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados apoyan la existencia de un subgrupo de personas con exceso de peso que difieren del tradicional subgrupo de individuos obesos que se encuentran insatisfechos con su cuerpo. Es momento de explorar las consecuencias para la salud de la Oberexia y las posibles implicaciones clínicas de esta condición


Apesar de escassas, crescem as evidências sobre a existência de um grupo de essoas com sobrepeso e obesidade que não consideram o excesso de peso um fator de risco para a doença e associam seu peso e corpo com saúde, vigor, beleza e bem-estar. Consequentemente, eles manifestam o desejo de manter ou mesmo aumentar seu peso. Fizemos uma proposta de nomenclatura para essa realidade social, Oberexia, descrevemos suas principais características e apresentamos resultados empíricos observacionais que sustentam a existência dessa condição. O bjetivo deste estudo foi explorar a prevalência e as características de Oberexia em uma amostra nacional de adultos espanhóis de 16 a 60 anos. As percepções de peso/tamanho/forma e composição corporal de pessoas com sobrepeso e obesidade e sua satisfação corporal foram avaliadas por meio de silhuetas, perguntas e discrepâncias. Um em cada dez participantes percebeu seu corpo como normal em termos de peso ou tamanho. Um 6.5% dos participantes com excesso de peso desejava ter corpos com sobrepeso ou obesidade. Uma análise caso-a-caso revelou que 4.2% dos participantes queriam manter a aparência e 1.8% desejavam ganhar peso. Un 3% dos participantes poderia ser casos de Oberexia. Todos esses achados referem -se à massa gorda e não à massa muscular. Nossos resultados confirmam a existência de um subgrupo de indivíduos com sobrepeso e obesidade que diferem do subgrupo tradicional de indivíduos com excesso de peso insatisfeitos com seu corpo. É momento de explorar as consequências para a saúde de a Oberexia e as possíveis implicações clínicas dessa condição


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/psicologia
12.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(7): 846-854, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although cigarette smoking has been linked to weight-related concerns and unhealthy weight control practices, little is known about weight dissatisfaction and eating among adolescents who use smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. The use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) has increased dramatically over recent years, surpassing cigarette smoking among young people in several countries. This study investigated differences in unhealthy eating behaviors and weight dissatisfaction in male and female adolescents who never, occasionally, or regularly use snus. METHOD: Adolescents aged 16-19 years enrolled in high school (11th, 12th, and 13th grades) completed a cross-sectional, online survey of adolescent health and well-being. Meal skipping and snus use frequency were assessed in the total sample (N = 23,622), and items assessing weight dissatisfaction (n = 4,195) and eating-related pathology (n = 3,563) were administered to subsamples. Analyses were adjusted for cigarette smoking, parental education, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Adolescents who used snus, especially on a daily basis, reported less regular breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption. Females who used snus on an occasional basis reported significantly more disturbed eating pathology. Snus use was associated with weight dissatisfaction in males and females, manifesting differentially according to gender and snus use frequency. DISCUSSION: Unhealthy eating behaviors and weight dissatisfaction were significantly elevated among snus users aged 16-19 years. An increased awareness that occasional snus use may signal disturbed eating pathology among adolescent females is important for detection and prevention efforts. Parents, schools, and health professionals should be vigilant for possible snus use among weight-dissatisfied adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a society that perpetuates the strive for a perfect appearance, a fit body has become synonymous with success, but simultaneously hard to achieve. This represents a fertile ground for the development of Exercise Addiction (EA) alongside other disorders, such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). This study aims to explore the diffusion of EA in fitness settings in the United Kingdom, Italy, Netherlands, Hungary and the previously unexplored association with appearance anxiety, BDD, self-esteem and the use of fitness supplements. METHODS: A large cross-sectional sample (N = 1711) was surveyed in fitness settings using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI) and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale (RSE) in addition to questions surrounding the use of fitness supplements. RESULTS: Compulsive exercise, appearance anxiety and low self-esteem were present in this sample according to the psychometric measures used (EAI, AAI, RSE). 11.7% scored over the cut off for EA, with alarming peaks in the Netherlands (20.9%) and the United Kingdom (16.1%). 38.5% were found at risk of BDD, mainly female (47.2%). 39.8% used fitness enhancing supplements without medical consultation (95.5%). This cohort of supplement users scored higher in both EAI and AAI. The logistic regression model revealed a strong association between the consumption of sport products and the level of EA across the sample with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.03. Other co-variable factors among female were appearance anxiety (AAI; OR 1.59) and to a lesser extent self-esteem (RSE) (OR 1.08). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a high risk of EA, appearance anxiety and BDD amongst a cohort of gym users internationally. The previously-unexplored association between these disorders and the unsupervised use of a variety of fitness products, including illicit drugs, highlights the need for informed and integrated responses targeting such vulnerable individuals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Enferm. glob ; 18(54): 124-133, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183479

RESUMO

Los Trastornos de la Alimentación (TA), la Anorexia Nerviosa (AN), Bulimia nerviosa (BN) y trastorno por atracón son trastornos de gran preocupación en el mundo occidental. Sus tendencias crecientes han llevado a los investigadores a tratar de explicar los factores implicados, sus causas y sus efectos, como una forma de contribuir a los esfuerzos para detener las tendencias de crecimiento.Nuestro proyecto de investigación se centra en el estudio del riesgo de padecer TA entre una muestra de 600 estudiantes de la Universidad de Extremadura (España). Dichos estudiantes están matriculados en doce de los grados ofertados por dicha Universidad.Los instrumentos de evaluación utilizados para los fines de esta investigación están el inventario-3 trastorno del RF (RF de EDI-3) y el cuestionario en español, IMAGEN (evaluación de la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal).Los resultados más significativos demuestran la existencia de un alto porcentaje de estudiantes en riesgo de sufrir TA. En las jóvenes alumnas se evidencia mayores tasas de insatisfacción corporal y de delgadez que sus compañeros masculinos que, por el contrario, demuestran más características de bulimia. Además quienes estudian grados de educación presentan tasas más altas de los factores de riesgo para sufrir tales como TC, la unidad de la delgadez y la insatisfacción de su propio cuerpo, en la situación opuesta se encuentran los grados de ciencias de la salud en particular los estudiantes de enfermería, probablemente como consecuencia de un mayor conocimiento biosanitario


Eating disorders (ED), anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder are disorders of great concern in western world countries. Their rising tendencies have led researchers to try to explain the factors involved, their causes, and their effects, as a way of contributing to the efforts to stop the growing trends. Our research project focuses on the study of the risk of suffering ED amongst a sample of 600 students from the University of Extremadura (Spain). Said students are enrolled in twelve of the degrees offered by the University. The assessment tools used for the purposes of this research are the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 RF (EDI-3 RF) and the Spanish questionnaire, IMAGEN (Evaluation of Dissatisfaction with Body Image). The most significant results show the existence of a high percentage of students at risk of suffering ED. Young female students evidence higher rates of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness than their male classmates who, conversely, demonstrate more characteristics of bulimia. Those studying education present higher rates of risk factors for suffering ED, such as the drive for thinness and their own body dissatisfaction, in the opposite situation are the health degrees in particular the nursing students, as a result of a greater bio health knowledge caused


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Autoimagem , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Somatotipos/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais
15.
Laeknabladid ; 105(3): 125-131, 2019 03.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806630

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder characterized by a preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defects in appearance. BDD usually begins during childhood or adolescence. The preoccupation with the perceived appearance defect typically occurs for many hours a day and is often followed by repetitive behaviours (for example mirror checking and skin picking). The weighted prevalence of BDD in a community sample is around 2%, but it is higher in clinical settings and in cosmetic and dermatological settings. BDD leads to significant distress and/or impairment at work or school and is highly comorbid with major depressive disorder, alcohol or substance use disorder, social anxi-ety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder and often leads to suicidal ideation. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and SSRI medication are most effective for BDD. However, cosmetic and dermatological treatments rarely improve BDD, and are often harmful. This review contains information on how to screen and diagnose BDD. Further research on BDD and effective treatment for this often imparing disorder is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Técnicas Cosméticas , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
16.
Nursing ; 49(3): 28-33, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720669

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an obsessive-compulsive and related disorder that pushes people toward perfection, affecting 5 to 7.5 million people in the US. Individuals with BDD spend a great deal of time focusing on perceived flaws and ways in which to hide these flaws. The time spent on these negative thoughts can interfere with quality of life and the ability to carry out daily tasks. This article discusses BDD, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and the nurse's role.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/enfermagem , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Perfeccionismo
17.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(2): 140-150, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714795

RESUMO

Although muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been added as a specifier for body dysmorphic disorder in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, experimental research on psychopathological mechanisms is lacking. Because models of eating disorders (EDs) suggest parallels between MD and ED, body-oriented attentional biases, which are prominent in ED models, have been identified as potentially important maintaining factors. Specifically, we predicted the existence of biases toward subjectively negative areas of one's own body and positive areas of a bodybuilder in MD. We tracked gaze behaviors of 24 men with MD diagnoses, 24 weight-training controls, and 24 non-weight-training controls during exposure to pictures of their own body, an average male body, a lean-muscular body, and a hypermuscular body. Moreover, state body image and affect were assessed at baseline and after each stimulus. Partially supporting our hypotheses, men with MD diagnoses and non-weight-training controls, but not weight-training controls, displayed significant biases toward subjectively negative areas of their own body. Only men with MD diagnoses displayed biases toward positive areas of the hypermuscular body and reacted with a large, significant deterioration in state body image and affect. Attentional biases possibly contribute to the negative effects of critical examinations of one's body and of upward comparisons. There seems to be a specific positive bias toward subjectively ideal hypermuscular bodies in MD in conjunction with a negative bias toward oneself. Insofar as this pattern might maintain the severe muscularity dissatisfaction, it should be explicitly targeted by cognitive-behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções/fisiologia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
18.
Body Image ; 28: 101-109, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639976

RESUMO

Although appearance comparisons, self-monitoring, and appearance-related comments have been linked to body dissatisfaction in prior studies, the combined and unique influences of these variables on state body dissatisfaction in daily life has yet to be explored. The present study addressed this gap, and also evaluated whether these state-based effects were stronger for individuals with trait-level body image disturbances (internalization and body dissatisfaction). Eighty-four women completed baseline measures of trait internalization and body dissatisfaction, and then reported momentary experiences of body dissatisfaction, appearance self-monitoring, appearance-related comments, and appearance-based comparisons at up to 10 random times daily for seven days. Multilevel analyses confirmed that both appearance comparisons and commentary (both negative and positive) were predictive of changes in state body dissatisfaction when modelled individually as well as in a combined (full) model. Appearance self-monitoring was not a significant predictor, either individually or in the full model. These within-person relationships were not moderated by individual differences in trait body dissatisfaction and internalization of appearance standards. Accordingly, experiences of body dissatisfaction in daily life may be a common reaction to negative appearance comments and unflattering comparisons, yet positive comments and/or efforts to avoid appearance-based comparisons may have a positive effect on one's body image.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Aparência Física , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Emoções , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Psicometria , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 260-265, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658211

RESUMO

This study sought to examine the prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a university sample and its associated physical and mental health correlates. A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via email to a randomly chosen subset of 10,000 university students, at a large public university. The survey queried current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, academic performance, sexual behaviors, and questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity and compulsivity. A total of 3,459 participants (59.1% female) completed the survey and were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of BDD was 1.7% (n = 59). Compared to students without BDD, those with BDD were significantly more likely to endorse symptoms of compulsive sexual behavior, depression, PTSD, and anxiety. Questionnaire-based measures revealed higher levels of both compulsivity and impulsivity associated with BDD. BDD appears to be common in young adults, and is associated with specific mental health comorbidities, as well as both impulsive and compulsive traits. Clinicians should be aware of the presentation of BDD and screen for it in primary care and mental health settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Body Image ; 28: 110-114, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654275

RESUMO

Body dissatisfaction is linked to poor physical health, even after actual markers of health have been controlled for. This link is likely due to body dissatisfaction influencing health behaviors-more specifically, cardiovascular exercise. Modifiable reasons for this link have yet to be determined. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate whether active avoidance of exercise may explain the association of body dissatisfaction with exercise, and, if so, whether perceived barriers to exercise account for the association of body dissatisfaction and exercise avoidance. Baseline measures were collected via survey; physical activity was measured over time, via self-report. As expected, avoidance mediated the prospective relationship between dissatisfaction and exercise. Additionally, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and avoidance was mediated by embarrassment and fatigue. Interventions that boost body satisfaction and/or address perceptions of fatigue and embarrassment may be needed for individuals with body dissatisfaction to be more likely to participate in exercise-related programs.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Constrangimento , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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