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1.
Neuropsychology ; 35(4): 399-410, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A deficit in interference control is commonly reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This has mainly been interpreted as a difficulty in inhibiting inappropriate responses. However, it could be due to at least two distinct and independent processes, which are often confounded: The activation or suppression of impulsive responses. The aim of the present study was to separate the contribution of these two processes. METHOD: We compared performance of 26 children with ADHD to that of 26 nonADHD children using a novel approach based on electromyographic activity (EMG) analysis. EMG allows two distinct indices to be computed: Incorrect activation rate, which is an index of the intensity of impulse capture and correction rate, which provides a direct measure of the ability to suppress automatic responses. RESULTS: Children with ADHD were slower, committed more errors, and had a larger interference effect than nonADHD children. Moreover, we observed a greater incorrect activation rate and a lower correction rate in the ADHD group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the difficulties in interference control found in children with ADHD are explained by both impaired inhibitory processes and a greater propensity to activate automatic responses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Eletromiografia , Inibição Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
3.
Rev. psicanal ; 28(1): 1-9, Abril 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253020

RESUMO

A utilização do conceito des-existir, usado por mim neste e em outros trabalhos, resulta de uma necessidade de nomear e delimitar situações em geral transitórias limitadas à esfera psíquica. Diferencia-se do conceito de matar, verbo ativo que implica na ação de um sujeito, seja em termos físicos ou metafóricos. Assim como diferencia-se também do conceito de morrer, ligado a algo mais definitivo em termos naturais ou figurados. Des-existir refere-se a uma situação momentânea, temporária e às vezes prolongada, em que o sujeito entra em processo de falência como sujeito psíquico por desinvestimento. Pode ser des-existido em diferentes graus de apagamento em um espectro que se estende entre a situação ativa de sujeito e a condição passiva de objeto da pulsão de morte (AU)


I employ the idea of de-existing, in this and other papers, as a result from an urge to name and delimit usually transient situations limited to the psychic sphere. It differs from the idea of killing, active verb that implies the action of a subject, in physical or metaphorical terms. As well as it also differs from the idea of dying, connected to something more definitive in natural or figurative terms. De-existing refers to a momentary, temporary situation, sometimes long-lasting, in which, due to disinvestment, the subject goes into a process of failure as psychic subject. It may be de-existed in different levels of effacement in a spectrum that extends between the active situation as subject and the passive condition of object of the death drive (AU)


El uso del concepto des-existir, que utilizo en este y otros trabajos, resulta de una necesidad de nombrar y delimitar en general situaciones transitorias limitadas a la esfera psíquica. Se diferencia del concepto de matar, verbo activo que implica la acción de un sujeto, ya sea en términos físicos o metafóricos. Además, también se diferencia del concepto de morir, ligado a algo más definitivo en términos naturales o figurativos. El des-existir se refiere a una situación momentánea, temporal y en ocasiones prolongada en la que el sujeto entra en proceso de desplome como sujeto psíquico debido a la desinversión. Puede ser des-existido en diferentes grados de desvanecimiento en un espectro que se extiende entre la situación activa del sujeto y la condición pasiva de objeto de la pulsión de muerte (AU)


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Instinto , Interpretação Psicanalítica
4.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 497-514, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728984

RESUMO

Attachment and alexithymia play a central role in the appearance and persistence of pathological gambling and related comorbid addictive behaviours among adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers in gambling severity, spending, video gaming, alcohol and drugs use, attachment, and alexithymia, as well as the interaction among these variables. The study sample included 560 participants non-problem gamblers (mean age = 15.49 years) and 54 problem gamblers (mean age = 16.43 years). Gambling disorder (SOGS-RA), drugs, alcohol, video games and spending (MULTICAGE CAD-4), attachment (IPPA), and alexithymia (TAS-20) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Problem gamblers scored significantly higher in all substance and non-substance addictive behaviours and alexithymia; as well as significantly lower scores in mother and father attachment scales. Moreover, gambling was negatively associated to father and mother attachment, and positively associated to alexithymia. Finally, alexithymia was found to mediate between parental attachment and gambling, spending, videogame, drug and alcohol abuse, especially in the case of mother attachment. This study demonstrated that adolescent and young adult problem gamblers show higher comorbid addictions than non-problem gamblers, in the same way as higher levels of alexithymia and poorer father attachment. Given that higher comorbidity in early ages is associated with worse prognosis and higher psychopathology in adult life, early detection and treatment purposes becomes essential.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
5.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 294-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326966

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The influence of marketing on addictive behaviours has been studied among tobacco and alcohol users. Although the fashion industry is highly influenced by marketing, research has poorly studied vulnerability to fashion marketing as a factor related to buying-shopping disorder (BSD) while considering psychological characteristics (buying motives, impulsivity, and self-esteem). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work is to investigate the relationship between vulnerability to marketing and BSD. METHODS: Women (n = 242) were exclusively recruited through social networking. They completed an online survey exploring the severity of BSD using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the psychological factors associated with BSD (impulsivity, self-esteem, and buying motives) and an experimental task designed to investigate the intention to purchase in several situations, where marketing modalities such as price, brand, and packaging fluctuate. RESULTS: Among the 242 participants in the study, 34 were identified as compulsive buyers (14%). Income level was considered, and compulsive buyers displayed a higher level of vulnerability to marketing, except for the packaging modality. High levels of positive urgency, lack of premeditation, and coping motivation were found to be significant predictors of the CBS score, but vulnerability to marketing was not. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Compulsive buyers seem to be more sensitive to marketing strategies, although vulnerability to marketing was not identified as a predictor of the severity of BSD. Given the enormous literature on the role of marketing in other addictive behaviours, further studies are needed to better understand the role of marketing in BSD to develop appropriate public health policies.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Marketing , Motivação , Autoimagem
6.
Brain ; 143(12): 3734-3747, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320929

RESUMO

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease have been associated with dysfunctions in the control of value- or reward-based responding (choice impulsivity) and abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic circuits. The hypothesis that dysfunctions in the control of response inhibition (action impulsivity) also play a role in Parkinson's disease ICDs has recently been raised, but the underlying neural mechanisms have not been probed directly. We used high-resolution EEG recordings from 41 patients with Parkinson's disease with and without ICDs to track the spectral and dynamical signatures of different mechanisms involved in inhibitory control in a simple visuomotor task involving no selection between competing responses and no reward to avoid potential confounds with reward-based decision. Behaviourally, patients with Parkinson's disease with ICDs proved to be more impulsive than those without ICDs. This was associated with decreased beta activity in the precuneus and in a region of the medial frontal cortex centred on the supplementary motor area. The underlying dynamical patterns pinpointed dysfunction of proactive inhibitory control, an executive mechanism intended to gate motor responses in anticipation of stimulation in uncertain contexts. The alteration of the cortical drive of proactive response inhibition in Parkinson's disease ICDs pinpoints the neglected role the precuneus might play in higher order executive functions in coordination with the supplementary motor area, specifically for switching between executive settings. Clinical perspectives are discussed in the light of the non-dopaminergic basis of this function.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/psicologia , Idoso , Ritmo beta , Mapeamento Encefálico , Comportamento de Escolha , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/complicações , Desempenho Psicomotor
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 579606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193096

RESUMO

Background: Dopamine agonists (DA) are the first line therapy for prolactinoma and symptomatic hyperprolactinemia; use as an adjuvant treatment for acromegaly and Cushing's disease is rare. Some patients develop de novo psychiatric symptoms or have exacerbation of pre-existing conditions during DA therapy. A practical, clinically sensitive depression and impulse control disorders (ICD; particularly hypersexuality and gambling disorders) detection tool is important for identifying at risk patients. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) are sensitive in identifying impulsivity and depression. Objective: Detail use of the BIS-11 and PHQ-9 as screening tools for depression and ICD in patients with pituitary disease at a high-volume academic pituitary center. Methods: DA-treated and naïve patients with pituitary disease were included. Patients with a known history of depression or psychiatric disorder were excluded. PHQ-9 standardized interpretation criteria were utilized to classify depression severity. For BIS-11, threshold was established based on previous studies. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 25. Results: Seventy-six DA-treated and 27 naïve patients were included. Moderate and moderately severe depression were more prevalent in DA-treated patients; severe depression only found in DA-treated patients. A normal BIS-11 score was noted in 76.69%; higher scores (not significant) were noted in DA-treated patients. There was a positive correlation between higher BIS-11 and PHQ-9 scores; higher in DA-treated patients (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) than DA-naïve patients. Patients with BIS-11 scores ≥60 were younger and received lower cumulative DA doses compared to patients with BIS scores <60. There was no association between male sex and BIS-11 ≥60 and male sex did not increase the odds of increased scores (OR = 0.66, CI95% 0.25-1.76, p = 0.41). No significant difference was found for macroadenoma, prolactin levels, testosterone levels, hypogonadism, testosterone replacement in men, and increased impulsivity or depression scores. Conclusion: Use of PHQ-9 and BIS-11 is practical for routine screening of depression and ICD during outpatient pituitary clinic visits for patients with pituitary disease both naïve to treatment and during DA therapy. We recommend close follow-up after initiation of DA therapy for younger patients, regardless of dose.


Assuntos
Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/patologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Brain ; 143(8): 2502-2518, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761061

RESUMO

Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are common neuropsychiatric complications associated with dopamine replacement therapy. Some patients treated with dopamine agonists develop pathological behaviours, such as gambling, compulsive eating, shopping, or disinhibited sexual behaviours, which can have a severe impact on their lives and that of their families. In this study we investigated whether hypersensitivity to reward might contribute to these pathological behaviours and how this is influenced by dopaminergic medication. We asked participants to shift their gaze to a visual target as quickly as possible, in order to obtain reward. Critically, the reward incentive on offer varied over trials. Motivational effects were indexed by pupillometry and saccadic velocity, and patients were tested ON and OFF dopaminergic medication, allowing us to measure the effect of dopaminergic medication changes on reward sensitivity. Twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients with a history of impulse control disorders were compared to 26 patients without such behaviours, and 31 elderly healthy controls. Intriguingly, behavioural apathy was reported alongside impulsivity in the majority of patients with impulse control disorders. Individuals with impulse control disorders also exhibited heightened sensitivity to exogenous monetary rewards cues both ON and OFF (overnight withdrawal) dopamine medication, as indexed by pupillary dilation in anticipation of reward. Being OFF dopaminergic medication overnight did not modulate pupillary reward sensitivity in impulse control disorder patients, whereas in control patients reward sensitivity was significantly reduced when OFF dopamine. These effects were independent of cognitive impairment or total levodopa equivalent dose. Although dopamine agonist dose did modulate pupillary responses to reward, the pattern of results was replicated even when patients with impulse control disorders on dopamine agonists were excluded from the analysis. The findings suggest that hypersensitivity to rewards might be a contributing factor to the development of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease. However, there was no difference in reward sensitivity between patient groups when ON dopamine medication, suggesting that impulse control disorders may not emerge simply because of a direct effect of dopaminergic drug level on reward sensitivity. The pupillary reward sensitivity measure described here provides a means to differentiate, using a physiological measure, Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorder from those who do not experience such symptoms. Moreover, follow-up of control patients indicated that increased pupillary modulation by reward can be predictive of the risk of future emergence of impulse control disorders and may thereby provide the potential for early identification of patients who are more likely to develop these symptoms.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/induzido quimicamente , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Recompensa , Idoso , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia
9.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 32(3): 176-181, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Firearm ownership is extremely common in parts of the United States. Yet little research has examined whether it is associated with impulsive symptoms and traits. METHODS: Adults age 18 to 29 who gamble at least occasionally were recruited in 2 cities in the United States using media advertisements for an exploratory study examining general mental health, impulse control disorders, impulsive personality, and aspects of cognition (decision-making, response inhibition, and flexible responding). The participants were grouped as firearm owners and non-firearm owners; these 2 groups were compared on the above measures. RESULTS: For this study, 149 young adults took part, of whom 33 (22.1%) endorsed owning ≥1 firearm. Firearm ownership was significantly associated with male gender and elevated risk of gambling disorder, but not with other measures of impulsivity. CONCLUSIONS: The link between firearm ownership and disordered gambling merits further research and may have policy implications, such as in terms of screening for guns in gambling arenas, including casinos. Further research is needed to explore potential associations between gun ownership and impulsivity in cohorts with other demographic characteristics, including longitudinally.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Propriedade , Adulto , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(4): 213-221, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724233

RESUMO

AIM: Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been considered for a long time as a neurodegenerative disorder affecting mainly motor functions, because of the involvement of basal ganglia. Recent research has shown that these brain structures have a crucial role even in higher level cognitive and social functions, as executive ones, impulse control and decision-making. METHOD: A research of the peer-reviewed scientific literature was conducted in order to identify articles on the dysfunctions in individual and social decision-making in PD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This work provides the reader with a literature review on individual and social decision-making processes in PD, highlighting how the existence of impulse control disorders and the associated reward-seeking behaviors might elucidate the social symptoms of PD, both in terms of abnormal risk proneness and/or reward salience.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Social
11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e138, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638683

RESUMO

AIMS: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined whether behavioural subtypes of IED are associated with differing patterns of comorbidity, suicidality and functional impairment. METHODS: IED was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in the World Mental Health surveys (n = 45 266). Five behavioural subtypes were created based on type of anger attack. Logistic regression assessed association of these subtypes with lifetime comorbidity, lifetime suicidality and 12-month functional impairment. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of IED in all countries was 0.8% (s.e.: 0.0). The two subtypes involving anger attacks that harmed people ('hurt people only' and 'destroy property and hurt people'), collectively comprising 73% of those with IED, were characterised by high rates of externalising comorbid disorders. The remaining three subtypes involving anger attacks that destroyed property only, destroyed property and threatened people, and threatened people only, were characterised by higher rates of internalising than externalising comorbid disorders. Suicidal behaviour did not vary across the five behavioural subtypes but was higher among those with (v. those without) comorbid disorders, and among those who perpetrated more violent assaults. CONCLUSIONS: The most common IED behavioural subtypes in these general population samples are associated with high rates of externalising disorders. This contrasts with the findings from clinical studies of IED, which observe a preponderance of internalising disorder comorbidity. This disparity in findings across population and clinical studies, together with the marked heterogeneity that characterises the diagnostic entity of IED, suggests that it is a disorder that requires much greater research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ira , Comorbidade , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suicídio/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 2): S181-S185, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358209

RESUMO

Problematic Internet use (PIU) by adolescents is of growing concern among both parents and pediatricians. Early controversies may have contributed to challenges in defining and measuring PIU. A variety of screening tools have evolved, aligned with different constructs of PIU, although a validated screening tool does exist. Current data and American Academy of Pediatrics policy reflect evidence-driven screening for PIU for all youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Internet , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pediatria , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2419-2431, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440779

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Impulse control disorders (ICD) and other impulsive-compulsive behaviours are frequently found in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with dopaminergic agonists. To date, there are no available animal models to investigate their pathophysiology and determine whether they can be elicited by varying doses of dopaminergic drugs. In addition, there is some controversy regarding the predispositional pattern of striatal dopaminergic depletion. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of two doses of pramipexole (PPX) on motor impulsivity, delay intolerance and compulsive-like behaviour. METHODS: Male rats with mild dopaminergic denervation in the dorsolateral striatum (bilateral injections of 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA)) treated with two doses of PPX (0.25 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) and tested in the variable delay-to-signal paradigm. RESULTS: Partial (50%) dopaminergic depletion did not induce significant changes in motor impulsivity or delay intolerance. However, 0.25 mg/kg of PPX increased motor impulsivity, while 3 mg/kg of PPX increased both motor impulsivity and delay intolerance. These effects were independent of the drug's antiparkinsonian effects. Importantly, impulsivity scores before and after dopaminergic lesion were positively associated with the impulsivity observed after administering 3 mg/kg of PPX. No compulsive-like behaviour was induced by PPX administration. CONCLUSIONS: We described a rat model, with a moderate dorsolateral dopaminergic lesion resembling that suffered by patients with early PD, that develops different types of impulsivity in a dose-dependent manner dissociated from motor benefits when treated with PPX. This model recapitulates key features of abnormal impulsivity in PD and may be useful for deepening our understanding of the pathophysiology of ICD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/induzido quimicamente , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Pramipexol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Mov Disord ; 35(2): 316-325, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders related to alterations in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine network occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our objective was to investigate the functional neural substrates of reward processing and inhibitory control in these patients. METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with impulse control disorders, 17 without this complication, and 18 healthy controls performed a version of the Iowa Gambling Task during functional magnetic resonance scanning under 3 conditions: positive, negative, and mixed feedback. Whole-brain contrasts, regions of interest, time courses, functional connectivity analyses, and brain-behavior associations were examined. RESULTS: PD patients with impulse control disorders exhibited hyperactivation in subcortical and cortical regions typically associated with reward processing and inhibitory control compared with their PD and healthy control counterparts. Time-course analyses revealed that only PD patients with impulse control disorders exhibited stronger signal intensity during the initial versus final periods of the negative-feedback condition in bilateral insula, and right ventral striatum. Interestingly, hyperactivation of all the examined right-lateralized frontostriatal areas during negative feedback was positively associated with impulse control disorder severity. Importantly, positive associations between impulse control disorder severity and regional activations in the right insula and right inferior frontal gyrus, but not the right subthalamic nucleus, were mediated by functional connectivity with the right ventral striatum. CONCLUSIONS: During a reward-based task, PD patients with impulse control disorders showed hyperactivation in a right-lateralized network of regions including the subthalamic nucleus that was strongly associated with impulse control disorder severity. In these patients, the right ventral striatum in particular played a critical role in modulating the functional dynamics of right-lateralized inhibitory-control frontal regions when facing penalties. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Recompensa
15.
J Neuropsychol ; 14(2): 318-332, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423741

RESUMO

Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behaviour and eating, are not only a severe disorder that can affect the general, non-clinical population, but also a serious, increasingly recognized psychiatric complication in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research detected some risk factors for their occurrence in PD patients and in the general population, including impulsivity. However, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that comprises several aspects, including reflection impulsivity and delay discounting. The present work assessed different facets of impulsivity in both PD patients and in the healthy controls (HCs) to examine whether they scored differently, and if the occurrence of ICDs in PD patients and in the HCs was predicted by different aspects of impulsivity. The results showed that ICDs in PD patients were predicted by a strong preference for immediate rewards, whereas ICDs in the HCs were predicted by a deficient reflective ability. The present findings may help clinicians in the early identification of PD patients who could develop ICDs by simply assessing their impulsivity in terms of delay discounting. Furthermore, this work contributed to identify another risk factor for ICDs in the non-clinical population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Compr Psychiatry ; 96: 152133, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Japan, the rate of recidivism among thieves is high, some of which may be caused by kleptomania. The purpose of this study was to translate the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (K-SAS) into Japanese and validate its psychometric properties in a Japanese sample. A second purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of K-SAS to discriminate between individuals with kleptomania and shoplifters not affected by the disorder. METHODS: The original K-SAS was translated by researchers. The back-translation of the scale into English was conducted by a professional translator who was fluent in both languages. The items on the Japanese version of K-SAS were deemed appropriate for the Japanese context after being reviewed by a forensic psychiatry specialist. The sample included 22 kleptomania patients, 26 shoplifters, and 47 healthy adults. We tested the scale properties and validity to discriminate between the three groups. RESULTS: The Japanese version of the K-SAS showed adequate reliability and validity. Individuals affected by kleptomania had significantly higher scores than shoplifters and healthy adults. Furthermore, the K-SAS score of kleptomania was not correlated with typical antisocial tendencies. Moreover, the K-SAS score for kleptomania was not correlated with psychometric scales related to obsessive-compulsive disorder and borderline personality disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese version of the K-SAS is a useful assessment tool for distinguishing between individuals with kleptomania and shoplifters not affected by the disorder in Japan.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Avaliação de Sintomas , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Res Adolesc ; 30 Suppl 2: 562-579, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983069

RESUMO

The current study evaluates two predictors of adolescent sexual risk-taking, specifically whether impulse control or future expectations predict condom use and casual sex. We examine whether risky sex occurs among youth who tend to act without thinking about the future, or instead, youth who report low future expectations. We consider these relations longitudinally among a sample of sexually active justice-involved adolescent males (N = 752, M age = 15.58) a group at heightened risk for sexual risk-taking. We found that optimistic expectations for the future predict a higher likelihood of engaging in consistent condom use, whereas high impulse control is related to a lower likelihood of casual sex. Implications for intervention and research on positive sexual health are discussed.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
18.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 30(2): 130-136, 2019.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire. METHOD: The Experimental Sample of this study included 1161 students aged between 10 and 18 from four different schools. Language equivalence study of the questionnaire was conducted by two experts one of whose native language was English and fluent in Turkish, and the other, vice versa. Reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by Test-retest method and Cronbach's alpha internal consistency analysis. Construct validity of the questionnaire was examined by confirmatory factor analysis. SPSS and -MPLUS 6.1- softwares were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.86. Total score correlations varied between 0.23 and 0.70 (p<0.01). Test-retest score averages did not differ for both the total and subgroup scores. Test-retest correlation was calculated as 0.865 (p<0.01). Confirmatory factor analyses for construct validity showed that factor loadings of items varied between 0.165 and 0.785. Cut-off score of the questionnaire was determined as 69 after Cluster analyses and ROC analyses. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire developed by Pontes et al. were satisfactory.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Psicometria , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Idioma , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Turquia
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 303-309, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011510

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical differences between intermittent explosive disorder (IED) (disorder of aggression primarily directed towards others) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) (disorder of aggression predominantly directed towards the self) in order to better understand the different clinical subtypes of aggression. Methods: We used treatment-seeking samples to compare demographic and clinical correlates between 82 participants with IED and 55 participants with NSSI. Results: The IED group was older, more likely to be male, in a relationship, and employed than the NSSI group. With respect to clinical variables, the NSSI group had more severe depressive symptoms and more social adjustment difficulties. Regarding psychiatric co-morbidities, the IED group had higher rates of generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the NSSI group had higher rates of major depressive disorder, agoraphobia, substance use disorder, and bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: Individuals with NSSI may benefit from better management of psychiatric comorbidities, specifically depressive symptoms and social adjustment difficulties. Conversely, the treatment of individuals with IED may be improved by targeting comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Our results provide important insight for the development of tailored interventions for specific subtypes of aggression.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comorbidade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/terapia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Ira
20.
Behav Res Ther ; 120: 103433, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299460

RESUMO

An increasing body of evidence has linked pathological body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) to excessive sensory sensitivity and difficulty modulating sensory inputs. Likewise, neurobiological evidence points to deficits in feed-forward inhibition and sensory habituation in conditions with similar symptomatology. There is currently little evidence regarding potential physiological sensory abnormalities in BFRBs. The current study compared 46 adults with pathological hair pulling and/or skin picking to 46 age-matched healthy control participants on a series of self-report measures and objective psychophysical tests of neurophysiological sensory functions. Persons in the BFRB group reported increased scores on the Sensory Gating Inventory (U = 320.50, p < .001) and all of its subscales (all p-values < .001), reflecting abnormal sensory experiences. The BFRB group also showed decreased tactile thresholds (increased sensitivity) (F[1, 76] = 10.65, p = .002, ηp2 = .12) and deficient feed-forward inhibition (F[1, 76] = 5.18, p = .026, ηp2 = .064), but no abnormalities in quickly-adapting sensory habituation were detected on an amplitude discrimination task. Performance on objective psychophysical tests was not associated with self-reported sensory gating symptoms or symptom severity. Implications of these results for the pathophysiology of BFRBs and related disorders are discussed.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Hiperestesia/fisiopatologia , Inibição Psicológica , Tricotilomania/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Filtro Sensorial , Limiar Sensorial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tricotilomania/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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