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1.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 621-629, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030878

RESUMO

Disgust propensity (DP) has been conceptualized as a stable personality trait that confers risk for contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). However, the extent to which DP leads to the subsequent development of C-OCD is unclear. In fact, the presence of C-OCD might lead to an increase in DP rather than the inverse. The present study was aimed to test this hypothesis in a large clinical sample of OCD patients (≥ 21 years of age) with (C-OCD; n = 56) and without (NC-OCD; n = 103) contamination-related symptoms that completed measures of OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and DP. DP was assessed twice, in reference to the present situation (T1) and to when the participant was 18 years old (T0). The two groups did not significantly differ in DP at T0. However, C-OCD participants reported higher DP scores than NC-OCD at T1. Furthermore, the T1 vs T0 difference in DP was significant only in the C-OCD group. Subsequent analyses also showed that T1 DP levels, but not T0 levels, significantly predicted contamination-related symptoms. Despite study limitations, these findings question the role of DP as a risk factor for C-OCD.


Assuntos
Asco , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Pol ; 52(2): 323-343, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975370

RESUMO

The position of selective mutism disorder - SM - has been modified in the last edition of the classification of mental disorders DSM-5. It was removed from "Disorders of childhood and adolescence" and placed in "Anxiety disorders". This caused two important changes in the interpretation of the symptoms of selective mutism. It highlighted anxious etiology of the disorder and also open the possibility to diagnose selective mutism in adults as a special category of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to present three different cases concerning the diagnostic difficulties of selective mutism (the child, the teenager and the persons who became adult during our observation) regarding current views on SM. In this study we presented the current view on the etiology, course and available therapies for selective mutism. Owing to updating the clinical knowledge about SM and describing three cases, we highlighted the controversies around the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Selective mutism might be a preliminary diagnosis, often leading to the diagnosis of other disorders of diverse etiology and course. Among the psychiatric aspects of the disorder, the 'anxiety component' of SM is crucial. In individuals with selective mutism, developmental disorders, social cognition and neurocognition deficits or dysfunctions of auditory processing often coexist. The severity and the type of comorbidities may determine the future course of the illness and the final effects of the therapy.


Assuntos
Mutismo/classificação , Mutismo/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/classificação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutismo/complicações , Transtornos Fóbicos/classificação , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco
4.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 107(12): 623-628, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871581

RESUMO

CME: Fear of Flying and Flying Phobia Abstract. Fear of flying and flying phobia are very common in the general population and can lead to substantial distress. Symptoms and diagnosis of fear of flying and flying phobia will be described. Severe fear of flying can be diagnosed as specific phobia or alternatively as agoraphobia. Cognitive behavioral therapy with exposure in vivo has been shown to be the most effective treatment. The treatment with benzodiazepines is the main priority for the general practitioner and will be subsequently discussed. The treatment of flying phobia and agoraphobia will be described based on two examples.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea/psicologia , Aeronaves , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adulto , Agorafobia/diagnóstico , Agorafobia/epidemiologia , Agorafobia/psicologia , Agorafobia/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 65, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. METHODS: DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63.2% women, aged 19-29 years in wave 1). RESULTS: In wave 1, the 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder among people in the twenties was 19.8% (men) and 32.4% (women), anxiety disorders: 9.6% (men) and 26.7% (women), anxiety disorders excluding specific phobias: 2.5% (men) and 6.9% (women), major depressive disorder (MDD): 4.4% (men) and 7.2% (women), and alcohol use disorder (AUD): 8.7% (men) and 4.4% (women). The prevalence of any mental disorder decreased from the twenties to the thirties/forties. This was due to a decrease in AUD and specific phobias. Anxiety disorders in the twenties predicted anxiety disorders and MDD ten years later, even when controlling for the association between these disorders in the twenties. MDD in the twenties predicted MDD ten years later. At both ages, two-week and 12-month prevalence estimates differed markedly for MDD - indicating an episodic course. CONCLUSIONS: Common mental disorders are highly prevalent among young adults in the twenties, and somewhat less prevalent in the thirties/forties. Those who suffer from one mental disorder in the twenties are at considerably increased risk for suffering from a disorder ten years later as well. This may have significant implications for young people's ability to attain education, establish a family, and participate in occupational life.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Behav Addict ; 7(1): 100-108, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444607

RESUMO

Background and aims Research examining problematic mobile phone use has increased markedly over the past 5 years and has been related to "no mobile phone phobia" (so-called nomophobia). The 20-item Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) is the only instrument that assesses nomophobia with an underlying theoretical structure and robust psychometric testing. This study aimed to confirm the construct validity of the Persian NMP-Q using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Methods After ensuring the linguistic validity, Rasch models were used to examine the unidimensionality of each Persian NMP-Q factor among 3,216 Iranian adolescents and CFAs were used to confirm its four-factor structure. Differential item functioning (DIF) and multigroup CFA were used to examine whether males and females interpreted the NMP-Q similarly, including item content and NMP-Q structure. Results Each factor was unidimensional according to the Rach findings, and the four-factor structure was supported by CFA. Two items did not quite fit the Rasch models (Item 14: "I would be nervous because I could not know if someone had tried to get a hold of me;" Item 9: "If I could not check my smartphone for a while, I would feel a desire to check it"). No DIF items were found across gender and measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA across gender. Conclusions Due to the satisfactory psychometric properties, it is concluded that the Persian NMP-Q can be used to assess nomophobia among adolescents. Moreover, NMP-Q users may compare its scores between genders in the knowledge that there are no score differences contributed by different understandings of NMP-Q items.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 128, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess Rasch-based psychometric properties of the Trypophobia Questionnaire measuring proneness to trypophobia, which refers to disgust and unpleasantness induced by the observation of clusters of objects (e.g., lotus seed pods). RESULTS: Rasch analysis was performed on data from 582 healthy Japanese adults. The results suggested that Trypophobia Questionnaire has a unidimensional structure with ordered response categories and sufficient person and item reliabilities, and that it does not have differential item functioning across sexes and age groups, whereas the targeting of the scale leaves room for improvements. When items that did not fit the Rasch model were removed, the shortened version showed slightly improved psychometric properties. However, results were not conclusive in determining whether the full or shortened version is better for practical use. Further assessment and validation are needed.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 185: 166-171, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482090

RESUMO

Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled. Our results showed that children found threatening cues faster, irrespective of the evolutionary age of the cues. However, they detected non-threatening evolutionary targets faster than non-evolutionary ones. We suggest that the underlying mechanism may be different: general feature detection can account for finding evolutionary threatening cues quickly, while specific features detection is more appropriate for modern threatening stimuli.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Aranhas
9.
J Perinat Med ; 46(2): 151-154, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of and to determine the risk factors for developing a fear of childbirth (tokophobia). METHODS: We evaluated 191 pregnant women during Parenting and Childbirth Classes. Participants were approached when attending Parenting and Childbirth Classes between June 2014 and September 2014 and were asked to complete several questionnaires related to depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI X1 and X2), satisfaction with life (SWLS), delivery expectation/experience (W-DEQ), and specific fears. RESULTS: Most (90%) of the responders were nulliparous. As many as 75% of the participants reported low to moderate tokophobia, whereas 25% exhibited high or very high fear of childbirth. Pathological fear occurred in 1.6% of the participants. The most significant was the fear of having an episiotomy followed by fear of having no control on the situation and fear of pain. An association exists between a preferred elective cesarean birth and tokophobia. CONCLUSIONS: The results draw attention to the need for early detection and treatment of fear of childbirth. The data may help identifying women at risk that require prenatal psychological intervention.


Assuntos
Medo , Parto/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Cesárea/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Apuntes psicol ; 36(3): 145-154, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181185

RESUMO

Conducir un vehículo es una tarea compleja que reviste cierto riesgo; ha dejado de ser una actividad esporádica para convertirse en cotidiana, desencadenando en muchos conductores experiencias desfavorables. El objetivo del presente estudio fueinvestigar acerca del valor explicativo y predictivo de la sensibilidad a la ansiedad y sus factores, así como de otras dimensiones de la ansiedad, como son la ansiedad general y la ansiedad fóbica en el desarrollo del miedo a conducir y de la fobia derivada de dicho miedo: la amaxofobia. Para ello se realizó un estudio correlacional, mediante la aplicación online de diversos cuestionarios a una muestra compuesta por 300 conductores. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la sensibilidad a la ansiedad como los rasgos de ansiedad general y fóbica están implicados en el desarrollo de la amaxofobia, sin embargo, ninguno de ellos alcanza un valor determinante por separado, obteniendo valores moderados, tanto explicativos como predictivos


Driving a vehicle is a complex task that carries a certain risk; it has ceased to be a sporadic activity to become daily, causing unfavorable experiences in many drivers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the explanatory and predictive value of sensitivity to anxiety and its factors, as well as other dimensions of anxiety, such as general anxiety and phobic anxiety in the development of fear of driving and the phobia derived from such fear: Amaxophobia. For this, a correlational study was carried out by means of the online application of several questionnaires to a sample composed of 300 drivers. The results showed that both anxiety sensitivity and general and phobic anxiety traits are involved in the development of amaxophobia, however, none of them reach a determinant value separately, obtaining moderate values both explanatory and predictive


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Repressão-Sensibilização , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Epidemiologia Descritiva
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265082

RESUMO

AIM: To study the psychopathology of anxiety-phobic disorders and motives of hospitalization of patients in a psychiatric hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two patients were examined, 72 patients of the main group were admitted to general psychiatric departments, 60 patients of the control group in the sanatorium psychiatric departments. Clinical-psychopathological, follow-up, psychometric and statistical methods were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients with hospital anxiety-phobic disorders had agoraphobia with panic disorder, social phobias, hypochondriacal phobias, specific phobias and multiple phobias. The main reasons for hospitalization were: the intensity of anxiety-phobic disorders, contrast content of phobias, multiplicity of anxiety-phobic disorders, ambulance calls, personality accentuations and rental aims.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Agorafobia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico , Personalidade , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 29(4): 446-452, nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167750

RESUMO

Background: Over the past 20 years, studies have revealed that the communication of a pre-symptomatic test (PST) result for late-onset diseases, such as Huntington’s disease (HD), doesn’t cause psychological disturbance. This cross-sectional study investigated the middle- (4 years) to long-term (7 and 10 years) psychological impact of PST for 3 autosomal dominant late-onset diseases: HD, Machado-Joseph disease (DMJ) and familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Method: The study included 203 subjects: 170 (84%) agreed to make the PST for FAP, 29 (14%) for HD and 4 (2%) for MJD. They were mostly women (58%) and married (67%). It was considered the cutoffs points: 4 years (middle-term) and 7 and 10 years (long-term) indicating the time after receiving the TPS results. Results: women and widows (oldest) presented the highest mean values for almost all BSI dimensions and the highest values correspond to the obsessive-compulsive dimension. MJD participants presented the highest mean values. No differences were found concerning the PST test results while participants are still asymptomatic. Psychopathology was only present in symptomatic carriers. Conclusions: The onset of the disease seems to assume the trigger for psychological disturbance, regardless the time that has elapsed since the PST result communication or the individual carrier/non-carrier condition (AU)


Antecedentes: el presente estudio transversal investigó el impacto psicopatológico a medio (4 años) y a largo plazo (7 y 10 años) de la prueba pre-sintomática (PPS) para tres enfermedades autosómicas dominantes de aparición tardía: enfermedad de Huntington EH, la enfermedad de Machado-Joseph (EMJ) y la polineuropatía amiloide familiar (PAF). Método: participaron 203 sujetos: 170 (84 %) realizaron el PPS para PAF, 29 (14 %) para EH y 4 (2 %) para EMJ. La muestra, en su mayoría, estuvo compuesta por mujeres (58 %) y por personas casadas (67 %). Fueron considerados como puntos de corte los 4, 7 y 10 años después de haber recibido el resultado de la PPS. Resultados: las mujeres y los viudos presentan las medias más altas. Los participantes con EMJ presentaron las medias más elevadas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en lo concerniente a los resultados de PPS. La perturbación psicológica fue escasamente observada en los sujetos portadores que ya evidenciaban síntomas. Conclusiones: la aparición de los primeros síntomas parece constituir el detonante para la existencia de perturbaciones psicológicas, independientemente del intervalo de tiempo sucedido desde la comunicación de los resultados de la PPS o de la condición genética (portador/no portador) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Machado-Joseph/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Estudos Transversais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos de Início Tardio/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Marcadores Genéticos
13.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0181066, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767657

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD), associated neural activity in response to mother-child relational stimuli, and child psychopathology indicators at child ages 12-42 months and one year later. The study tested the hypothesis that decreased maternal neural activity in regions that subserve emotion regulation would be associated with child symptoms associated with emotional dysregulation at both time points. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of 42 mothers with or without violence-exposure and associated IPV-PTSD were assessed. Their child's life-events and symptoms/behaviors indicative of high-risk subsequent PTSD diagnosis on a maternal-report questionnaire were measured one year later. Maternal IPV-PTSD severity was significantly associated with decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation in response to mother-child relational stimuli. Maternal IPV-PTSD severity and decreased vmPFC activation were then significantly associated with a child attachment disturbance at 12-42 months and symptoms/behaviors one year later, that were correlated with emotional dysregulation and risk for child PTSD. Maternal IPV-PTSD and child exposure to IPV were both predictive of child PTSD symptoms with maternal IPV-PTSD likely mediating the effects of child IPV exposure on child PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that maternal IPV-PTSD severity and associated decreased vmPFC activity in response to mother-child relational stimuli are predictors of child psychopathology by age 12-42 months and one-year later. Significant findings in this paper may well be useful in understanding how maternal top-down cortico-limbic dysregulation promotes intergenerational transmission of IPV and related psychopathology and, thus should be targeted in treatment.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 257: 61-66, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734237

RESUMO

Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period. Supportive evidence for the validity of the SPQ and SNAQ scores was found using questions assessing fainting and avoidance history, regarding snakes and spiders, based on DSM-V criteria. Both questionnaires could discriminate between participants who reported such an event and those who did not. Further analyses also revealed a sex difference, with women scoring higher than men on both scales. Moreover, 9.5% and 4.24% of the respondents reached the cut-off point, set by previous studies, for spider and snake phobias, respectively. These findings suggest that the SPQ and SNAQ have excellent psychometric properties, making them suitable for use in further cross-cultural research and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Serpentes , Aranhas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Tradução , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Rep ; 120(2): 206-218, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558623

RESUMO

In the past 10 years, thousands of people have claimed to be affected by trypophobia, which is the fear of objects with small holes. Recent research suggests that people do not fear the holes; rather, images of clustered holes, which share basic visual characteristics with venomous organisms, lead to nonconscious fear. In the present study, both self-reported measures and the Preschool Single Category Implicit Association Test were adapted for use with preschoolers to investigate whether discomfort related to trypophobic stimuli was grounded in their visual features or based on a nonconsciously associated fear of venomous animals. The results indicated that trypophobic stimuli were associated with discomfort in children. This discomfort seemed to be related to the typical visual characteristics and pattern properties of trypophobic stimuli rather than to nonconscious associations with venomous animals. The association between trypophobic stimuli and venomous animals vanished when the typical visual characteristics of trypophobic features were removed from colored photos of venomous animals. Thus, the discomfort felt toward trypophobic images might be an instinctive response to their visual characteristics rather than the result of a learned but nonconscious association with venomous animals. Therefore, it is questionable whether it is justified to legitimize trypophobia.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa
16.
Orv Hetil ; 158(22): 843-850, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. AIM: To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. METHOD: Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. RESULTS: All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Controle Interno-Externo , Linguagem , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desejabilidade Social
17.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 33(6): 448-453, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481125

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia on early functional outcomes in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and how kinesiophobia is related to functional outcomes and pain. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), 2-minute walk test (2-MWT), and the timed up and go test (TUG) were used to assess 46 TKA patients on discharge day. The pain levels and active knee flexion range of motion (ROM) were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups as high kinesiophobia (Group I, n = 22) and low kinesiophobia (Group II, n = 24) based on the TSK levels. The TUG results were similar between groups (p = 0.826). 2-MWT results (p < 0.001), pain levels (p = 0.003), and knee flexion ROM (p = 0.025) scores were better in Group II when compared to Group I. The TSK scores were significantly correlated with 2-MWT results (r = -0.40; p = 0.003), pain levels (r = 0.80; p < 0.001), and knee flexion ROM (r = -0.47; p = 0.001). The regression analysis revealed that 41% of 2-MWT score, 47% of knee flexion ROM, and 60% of pain level changes could be explained by kinesiophobia level. The results suggest that early outcomes following TKA were affected by the pain-related fear of movement. The clinicians need to consider the interrelationships between fear of movement and functional outcomes when designing, implementing, and monitoring daily therapeutic exercise programs.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Medo , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/psicologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada
18.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 19(7): 42, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540594

RESUMO

This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes. We conclude that VR is a useful tool to improve exposure therapy and it can be a good option to analyze the processes and mechanisms involved in exposure therapy and the ways this strategy can be enhanced. In the coming years, there will be a significant expansion of VR in routine practice in clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Realidade Virtual
19.
J Psychosom Res ; 98: 122-129, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Paruresis refers to the inability to initiate or sustain urination where individuals are present due to the fear of perceived scrutiny from others. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate four key questions: (1) What is the prevalence of paruresis and its associated demographic features; (2) What is the prevalence of psychopathology in paruresis cohorts, how does it compare to other chronic-health conditions, and what percentage of paruresis patients also have social anxiety disorder? (3) How does quality of life, and levels of anxiety and depression compare between those with and without paruresis; and (4) do psychological interventions for paruresis patients reduce paruresis symptoms, or, anxiety, or depression, or improve quality of life? METHOD: A review was conducted using PRISMA protocol for search strategy, selection criteria, and data extraction. Searched databases included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Over the 1418 studies screened, ten were found relating to at least one review question. RESULTS: The prevalence of paruresis ranged between 2.8 and 16.4%, and around 5.1-22.2% of individuals with paruresis also had Social Anxiety Disorder. Paruresis symptoms were shown to reduce in one intervention study. Paruresis was also associated with poorer quality of life. A key limitation of the research to date has been the notable methodological problems and lack of standardisation relating to the measurement of paruresis. CONCLUSION: Little is known about the prevalence of paruresis and more rigorous studies of paruresis are required. Recommendations in terms of clinical implications, diagnostic criteria and future research relating to paruresis are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Micção , Depressão/complicações , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/complicações , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 78(3): 340-346, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population, begins at a younger age, and has high comorbidity. However, it receives less treatment than other disorders, perhaps because it is circumscribed to a specific object or situation that can be avoided or is difficult to differentiate from developmentally adaptive fear. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify its clinical significance, risk factors, and course. This study was designed to determine the persistence of specific phobia in participants during an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood and its predictors in a Mexican cohort. METHODS: 1,071 respondents from a representative 2-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. DSM-IV disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: Of adolescents with specific phobia at baseline, 17.46% persisted into adulthood. Persistence of specific phobia was predicted by an age of onset of disorder in adolescence (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95% CI, 1.30-6.13), parental neglect (RR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.35-5.65), a first-degree relative with specific phobia (RR = 2.69, 95% CI, 1.34-5.39) and economic adversities (RR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.21-3.53). Noncomorbid specific phobia in adolescence predicted incidence of other anxiety and substance use disorders in early adulthood (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.11-3.54 and RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.69, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: While many adolescents with specific phobia remit in adulthood, there are early adult consequences of adolescent phobia and identifiable risk factors for persistence that suggest a group of adolescents that might benefit from early intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Transtornos Fóbicos/genética , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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