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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448010

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypogonadism refers to a syndrome that results from failure of gonads to function properly. The main concern is considerable rise in morbidity, as shown by increased cardiovascular risk, infertility, osteoporosis and above all, the psychological impact on the life of the patients with hypogonadism. Judicious steroid replacement and culturally-sensitive psychological support before and during steroid therapy remains the key tool in the management of this condition. The present study aimed at filling the knowledge gap on hypogonadism in Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a period of 12 months, in 3 reference hospitals of Cameroon. We included males and females diagnosed with hypogonadism, aged 16 to 50 years and 16 to 45 years respectively. After a complete clinical examination, patients were invited to fill the modified middlesex hospital questionnaire for psychoneurotic evaluation. Results: We recruited 59 patients with a sex ratio of 1:1. The mean age of the females and males were 27.7 ± 9.1years and 30.8 ± 11.7 years respectively. Normosmic Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (NIHH) was the most common presentation. Compulsive obsessive traits, phobic anxiety and hysterical trait, were most pronounced in these patients. Testosterone titers significantly correlated positively with testicular size and negatively with body mass index (BMI). A significant positive correlation was found between the testicular volumes measured with ultrasound (US) and with the orchidometer. Conclusion: Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is the most common presentation of hypogonadism in the study population. There is a significant psychosocial impact requiring further investigation and attention.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hipogonadismo/psicologia , Histeria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fearful and anxious behaviour is especially common in children, when they come across new situations and experiences. The difference between normal worry and an anxiety disorder is in the severity and in the interference with everyday life and normal developmental steps. Many longitudinal studies in children suggest that anxiety disorders are relatively stable over time and predict anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescence and adulthood. For this reason, the early diagnostic and treatment are needed. Researchers supposed that anxiety is a result of repeated stress. Additionally, some genetic, neurobiological, developmental factors are also involved in the aetiology. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: The aim of this article is to summarize and to present our own results obtained with the assessment and treatment of different forms of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents such as: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Dental anxiety, General Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Anxious-phobic syndrome. Some results are published separately in different journals. a) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 10 young children aged 9 ± 2, 05 y. is evaluated and discussed concerning the attachment quality. b) The group with OCD comprises 20 patients, mean age 14,5 ± 2,2 years, evaluated with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Child behaviour Checklist (CBCL), K-SADS (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School age children), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), SCWT (Stroop Colour Word task), WCST (Wisconsin Card Scoring test). c) Dental stress is evaluated in a group of 50 patients; mean age for girls 11,4 ± 2,4 years; for boys 10,7 ± 2,6 years, evaluated with (General Anxiety Scale (GASC), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). d) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles obtained for General Anxiety Disorder in 20 young females and 15 males aged 25,7± 5,35 years, and a group with Panic attack syndrome N=15 aged 19,3±4,9 years are presented and discussed by comparison of the results for healthy people. e) Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was applied for assessment and treatment in 15 anxious-phobic patients, mean age 12, 5±2,25 years and results are compared with other groups of mental disorder. RESULTS: Children with PTSD showed a high level of anxiety and stress, somatization and behavioural problems (aggression, impulsivity, non-obedience and nightmares), complemented by hypersensitive and depressed mothers and misattachment in the early period of infancy. Consequently, the explanation of the early predisposition to PTSD was related to be the non-developed Right Orbital Cortex. The later resulted from insecure attachment confirmed in all examined children. The obtained neuropsychological profile of children with OCD confirmed a clear presence of obsessions and compulsions, average intellectual capacities, but the absence of depressive symptoms. Executive functions were investigated through Event Related Potentials on Go/NoGo tasks. Results showed that no significant clinical manifestations of cognitive dysfunction among children with OCD in the early stage of the disorder are present, but it could be expected to be appearing in the later stage of the disorder if it is no treated. In a study of 50 children randomly selected, two psychometric instruments were applied for measuring general anxiety and personal characteristics. It was confirmed that there was presence of significant anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among children undergoing dental intervention. The difference in anxiety scores between girls and boys was also confirmed (girls having higher scores for anxiety). Results obtained with EPQ showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extraversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (L scale). L scales are lower by increasing of age, but P scores rise with age, which can be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. The obtained profiles for MMPI-201 in a group of patients with general anxiety are presented as a figure. Females showed only Hy peak, but in the normal range. However, statistics confirmed significant difference between scores in anxiety group and control (t= 2, 25164; p= 0, 038749). Males showed Hs-Hy-Pt peaks with higher (pathological) scores, related to hypersensitivity of the autonomic nervous system, as well as with manifested anxiety. Calculation confirmed significant difference between control and anxiety in men (t= 15.13, p=0.000). Additionally, MMPI profiles for patients with attack panic syndrome are also presented as a figure. Control scales for females showed typical V form (scales 1 and 3) related to conversing tendencies. In addition, females showed peaks on Pt-Sc scales, but in normal ranges. Pathological profile is obtained in males, with Hy-Sc peaks; this profile corresponds to persons with regressive characteristics, emotionally instable and with accentuated social withdraw. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the beat to beat variability in heart rate, related to the work of autonomic nervous system. It may serve as a psychophysiological indicator for arousal, emotional state and stress level. We used HRV in both, the assessment and biofeedback training, in a group of anxious-phobic and obsessive-compulsive school children. Results obtained with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire showed significantly higher psychopathological traits, higher neuroticism and lower lie scores. After 15 session HRV training very satisfying results for diminishing stress and anxiety were obtained.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/epidemiologia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/psicologia , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(6): 823-827, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships of pain beliefs with clinical/functional status and kinesiophobia in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Acibadem Hospitals Group, Istanbul, Turkey, between May 2015 and April 2016, and comprised chronic patients who were either overweight or obese. Patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index, Lequesne Index (LI), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia and the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 15. . RESULTS: Of the 78 patients, there were 10(13%) males, 68(87%) females with an overall mean age of 56.09}11.79 years and mean body mass index of 29.3}4.91. There were moderate positive correlations among kinesiophobia, pain and functional scores, while organic pain beliefs had a moderate positive correlation with body mass index scores and positive weak correlations with clinical/functional status scores and kinesiophobia (p<0.05 each). There were no associations between the organic subscale and psychological subscale of the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (p>0.05).. CONCLUSIONS: Possible fear of movement and pain belief should be taken into consideration in the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Artralgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Transtornos Fóbicos , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/complicações , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Artralgia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/complicações , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 101, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific phobia (SP) is a relatively common disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Because of its early onset, SP may be a useful early marker of internalizing psychopathology, especially if generalized to multiple situations. This study aimed to evaluate the association of childhood generalized SP with comorbid internalizing disorders. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analyses of the cross-sectional population-based World Mental Health Surveys using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Outcomes were lifetime prevalence, age of onset, and persistence of internalizing disorders; past-month disability; lifetime suicidality; and 12-month serious mental illness. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess the association of these outcomes with the number of subtypes of childhood-onset (< 13 years) SP. RESULTS: Among 123,628 respondents from 25 countries, retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood SP was 5.9%, 56% of whom reported one, 25% two, 10% three, and 8% four or more subtypes. Lifetime prevalence of internalizing disorders increased from 18.2% among those without childhood SP to 46.3% among those with one and 75.6% those with 4+ subtypes (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 2.3-2.5, p < 0.001). Twelve-month persistence of lifetime internalizing comorbidity at interview increased from 47.9% among those without childhood SP to 59.0% and 79.1% among those with 1 and 4+ subtypes (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.4-1.5, p < 0.001). Respondents with 4+ subtypes also reported significantly more disability (3.5 days out of role in the past month) than those without childhood SP (1.1 days) or with only 1 subtype (1.8 days) (B = 0.56, SE 0.06, p < 0.001) and a much higher rate of lifetime suicide attempts (16.8%) than those without childhood SP (2.0%) or with only 1 subtype (6.5%) (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.7-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This large international study shows that childhood-onset generalized SP is related to adverse outcomes in the internalizing domain throughout the life course. Comorbidity, persistence, and severity of internalizing disorders all increased with the number of childhood SP subtypes. Although our study cannot establish whether SP is causally associated with these poor outcomes or whether other factors, such as a shared underlying vulnerability, explain the association, our findings clearly show that childhood generalized SP identifies an important target group for early intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 21(4): 27, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868272

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper seeks to identify the risk factors of fear of childbirth (FOC) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to birth and reviews the efficacy of their respective screening tools and therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Biofeedback, hypnosis, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy, and antenatal education are promising treatments for FOC. Training midwives to address traumatic birth experiences could help in preventing PTSD. A shorter more pragmatic screening tool for FOC than the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (WDEQ) is needed. Women with PTSD attributed a mismatch between the expected mode of delivery (MOD) and the actual MOD as the cause of their trauma. A history of mental health disorders, lack of social support, previous negative birth experiences, and MOD are correlated to FOC and postpartum PTSD. Psycho-education and CBT-based treatments have been found to reduce levels of FOC and PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Medo/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Gravidez , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(4): 384-388, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fear of flying is one of the most common phobias. It hinders people in performing their work and hampers family relations. Even though flight traffic has increased, there are new fears. Valid studies are needed to answer whether there have been changes in the prevalence of flight anxiety, are there sex differences in relation to fear of flying, use of alcohol, and tranquilizers, which situations cause the most flight anxiety, and whether the above factors have changed compared to a similar study from 1986.METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to a representative random sample of the Norwegian population (N = 5500), where 36% answered. To assess flight anxiety across the time period, we used similar instruments to those we used in 1986.RESULTS: The prevalence of an assumed flight phobia decreased from 8% in 1986 to 3% in 2015. The percentage of those reported to never fly had decreased from 5% in 1986 to 0.5% in 2015. There were 11.0% who always used alcohol in 1986 and 7.5% in 2015 and 3% and 2%, respectively, always used tranquillizers. More women reported being afraid of both flying and other situations compared to men. Turbulence, unknown sounds, and fear of terror attacks caused the most anxiety.DISCUSSION: Flight anxiety still affects a considerable proportion of the Norwegian population and more women than men report that they are afraid of flying. However, in spite of methodology, people are significantly less afraid of flying than in 1986.Grimholt TK, Bonsaksen T, Schou-Bredal I, Heir T, Lerdal A, Skogstad L, Ekeberg Ø. Flight anxiety reported from 1986 to 2015. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(4):384-388.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Aviação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(3): 311-316, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The TOPICOP scale is an easy-to-use scale for assessing topical corticosteroid (TCS) phobia in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and their caretakers. TCS phobia is a common problem among AD patients and their caretakers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TCS phobia in caretakers of children with AD and the characteristics of patients using the TOPICOP scale. METHODS: Caretakers of AD patients who visited the allergy clinic at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo between February 2014 and May 2014 were recruited. Caretakers of patients in follow-up had already attended an education session on treatment at the institution. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on the characteristics of the respondents and patients using the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) and the Japanese version of TOPICOP. RESULTS: In total, 243 participants (88.9% female) completed the survey. The average TOPICOP score was 40.3 and the median POEM score was 4. The TOPICOP score was significantly higher for patients younger than 12 months old with moderate to very severe AD (POEM ≥ 8) whose caretaker had not attended an educational session (P < 0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference in the family history of AD, age, or gender of the respondents. In multivariable analysis, preattendance at an education session was the only significant factor accounting for a higher TOPICOP score (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of their background, caretakers of AD patients can be affected from TCS phobia. Attending an educational session might ease their anxiety.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 17-20, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448866

RESUMO

In clinical practice, the burden of repeated injections in children with rheumatic disease receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs is significant. To investigate the nature and extent of impact on the quality of life after repeated injections, we conducted a literature review. Two relevant papers were identified, both about children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) being administered methotrexate. The results suggest that the combination of needle fear, impact of methotrexate treatment, and procedural consequences, e.g., blood sampling, all contribute to the distress and the loss of quality of life of children with JIA. Remarkably, no studies examining fear of injections or injection pain in children with rheumatic diseases receiving biologicals were identified.Conclusion: Strategies to optimize administration of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs should be systematically investigated. What is Known: • Repeated parenteral administration of drugs is burdensome for children with rheumatic diseases. What is New: • Needle fear should be investigated systematically to optimize administration of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Juvenil/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/psicologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(3): 397-407, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide an estimate of 12-month and lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in older adults based on published studies on this topic and to identify the impact of gender and age. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Six databases were searched, and manual searches through reference lists of selected articles and reviews were performed. When the information was available, summary effects were calculated for the prevalence of each anxiety disorder and for every age and gender subgroups. Summary odd ratios (OR) were calculated to compare the prevalence of an anxiety disorder according to age and gender. RESULTS: A total of 6464 studies were identified, and 16 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Prevalence was significantly higher in women than men for generalized anxiety disorder (12 month OR = 6.10, P = 0.001; lifetime OR = 1.96, P = 0.001), 12-month social anxiety disorder (OR = 2.07, P = 0.01), and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.93, P = 0.002). The prevalence of specific phobia was significantly lower in both the 75 to 84 and 85 years and above age groups when compared with the 65 to 74 years age group (OR = 0.70, P = 0.004 and OR = 0.63, P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the tendency for women to experience a greater prevalence of anxiety disorders remains present in older adults. Specific phobia was the only disorder to be less frequent with advancing age. This is likely to change with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria because this new DSM version now indicates that fear of falling is a possible type of specific phobia and fear of falling is generally more frequent in the oldest age groups.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
11.
Vox Sang ; 114(1): 38-46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate the fear of blood, injections and fainting as barriers to blood donation in a sample of primary healthcare users in a Brazilian municipality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients in 12 randomly selected healthcare facilities in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in 2015-2016. Key variables were lifetime blood donation history, intentions to donate blood among non-donors and current donation practice. To assess fear of blood in general (FBG), fear of injections in general (FIG) and fear of fainting due to fear of injection (FFI), we used the Blood Injection/Fear Scale (BIFS). We tested associations between variables using regression models and conditional inference trees (CIT). RESULTS: A total of 1055 primary healthcare users participated (79·7% female, mean age 40·6 years [SD = 15·2]), 63·4% never donated blood, 13·3% reported they are unable to donate, 6·1% donated only once, 17·2% donated multiple times. Women had higher scores for FIG and FBG. FFI was associated with middle socioeconomic status. Those who never intended to donate exhibited the highest scores in the three dimension of fear. By CIT analysis, being female and high scores for FBG are associated with decreased blood donation. Among males, blood donation frequency is low among those aged 33 years and under. CONCLUSION: Fear of blood, injections and fainting are barriers to blood donation in Brazil. Efforts to recruit and retain blood donors should convey information on blood donation processes and address misconceptions that may increase fear.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Síncope/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(1): 30-42, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109720

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of needle fear and summarize the characteristics of individuals who exhibit this fear. BACKGROUND: Injections are among the most common medical procedures, yet fear of needles can result in avoidance of preventive measures and treatment. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-2017), Embase (1947-2017), PsycINFO (1967-2017), and CINAHL (1961-2017) were searched, with no restrictions by age, gender, race, language, or country. REVIEW METHODS: The prevalence of needle fear was calculated and restricted maximum likelihood random effects models were used for meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: The search yielded 119 original research articles which are included in this review, of which 35 contained sufficient information for meta-analysis. The majority of children exhibited needle fear, while prevalence estimates for needle fear ranged from 20-50% in adolescents and 20-30% in young adults. In general, needle fear decreased with increasing age. Both needle fear and needle phobia were more prevalent in females than males. Avoidance of influenza vaccination because of needle fear occurred in 16% of adult patients, 27% of hospital employees, 18% of workers at long-term care facilities, and 8% of healthcare workers at hospitals. Needle fear was common when undergoing venipuncture, blood donation, and in those with chronic conditions requiring injection. CONCLUSIONS: Fear of needles is common in patients requiring preventive care and in those undergoing treatment. Greater attention should be directed to interventions which alleviate fear in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Injeções/psicologia , Agulhas , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 26(1): 47-54, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203885

RESUMO

This study evaluated the relationships between driving cognitions (i.e., panic-related cognitions, accident-related cognitions, and social-related cognitions), rumination, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of road traffic accidents (RTAs) survivors. We also investigated the indirect effect of driving cognitions on PTSD symptoms through rumination. The sample included 633 drivers (62% were men; Mage = 36.09; standard deviation [SD] = 11.42 years). The participants completed scales measuring driving cognitions, rumination, and PTSD symptoms, as well as providing their demographic information. The results showed that all three types of driving cognitions assessed in the present study and rumination were significantly positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, rumination mediated the relation between social-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms. The implications for PTSD treatment and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição , Ruminação Cognitiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Romênia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(1): 100-104, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to topical corticosteroids is low among atopic dermatitis patients and their parents. This can lead to treatment failure and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the worries and beliefs concerning topical corticosteroids among parents of children with atopic dermatitis, involved health care professionals, and between different professionals. Also, we identify factors associated with corticosteroid phobia (corticophobia) in professionals. METHODS: Parents and health care professionals were invited to complete a questionnaire about corticophobia (Topicop). Higher questionnaire scores, expressed as a percentage, indicate more severe corticophobia. Professionals were asked to answer the questions as though they were using topical corticosteroids on their own child. RESULTS: The scores for 29 parents and 31 public health care nurses were equal: 44%. The score for 51 general practitioners was 39%. The score for 33 public health care physicians and of 47 pediatricians was 31%. The differences between parents and these professionals were statistically significantly different (P = 0.001). Type of profession and having a child with atopic dermatitis were significantly associated factors for the score. CONCLUSION: Corticophobia is present among parents of children with atopic dermatitis and among health care professionals involved in caring for children with atopic dermatitis. Health care nurses express the same level of corticophobia as parents. The presence of corticophobia among health care professionals may affect parental perspectives and topical corticosteroids adherence negatively.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(9): 1358-1362, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese person among university students to determine their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviour. METHODS: The knowledge, attitude and practice study was conducted at Sakarya University, Turkey, between May and December 2015, and comprised students of either gender. Data was collected by using the socio-demographic form, fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 2100 students, 1056(50.3%) were male and 2067(98.4%) were in the 17-26 years age group. The mean fat phobia scale score was 3.72±0.63and mean attitudes toward obese persons scale score was 59.95±0.63. Relationship between fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale scores was significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Fatphobia moderately existed among the students.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos , Estudantes , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Universidades
16.
Turk J Pediatr ; 60(2): 142-146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325119

RESUMO

Özçeker D, Uçkun U, Islamova D, Tamay Z, Güler N. Corticosteroid phobia among parents of asthmatic children. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 142-146. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children. Its prevalence and morbidity have been rising in recent decades. Pediatric asthma causes a significant burden on families; allergen-avoidance measures, uncontrolled disease, and disease severity which are the major cost predictors of childhood asthma in Turkey. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are considered as cornerstone medications in asthma management which reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to address corticosteroid phobia in caregivers of asthmatic children and its impact on asthma management. Five hundred caregivers of asthmatic children were interviewed using structured questionnaire in this study. Over fifty percent of the caregivers (56.8%), most of whom (82.6%) are already aware of using corticosteroids in their anti-asthma drug regimen, mentioned that they are afraid of using them. Almost one fourth of caregivers (24.8%) made either some changes in their treatment regimen or stopped using the drugs due to corticophobia. Of the caregivers 55.2% had no idea about the side effects of corticosteroids and only 12.6% of them mentioned that they were informed by their physicians about the effects of corticosteroids. Any change in asthma treatment regimen due to corticophobia was found to be related with poor asthma control level (p: 0.004). The impact of parental information about the effects and importance of steroids given by the physicians on better asthma control was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). That`s why physicians and health care providers should spend enough time explaining the importance of adherence to treatment in asthma management, which may help in overcoming the fear of using ICS.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
17.
Ir Med J ; 111(3): 710, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376228

RESUMO

AIM: "Neurophobia" is the fear of neurology experienced by medical students. The aim of this study was to investigate if neurology now has a stigma attached to it causing a preconceived negative perception of neurology by students. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to medical students via social media and email. Questions focused on students' perceptions of neurology before and after exposure to the subject. RESULTS: There were one hundred and thirty-seven responses. Twenty percent of preclinical students, twenty-six percent of early clinical students and fifty-six percent of clinical students said that they would not consider neurology as a speciality in the future. Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy were considered to be the most difficult aspects of neurology. Integration of preclinical academic training with clinical training was highlighted as a point of difficulty for students. DISCUSSION: Contrary to our initial hypothesis, "neurophobia" does not appear to be innate in medical students but is acquired during the course of their medical training.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Neurologia/educação , Transtornos Fóbicos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eat Behav ; 31: 28-34, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086453

RESUMO

Previous studies have investigated associations between individual foods or food group intake, and breastfeeding duration, age of solid introduction and food neophobia. This study aimed to investigate associations between whole dietary patterns in young children, and breastfeeding duration, age of solid introduction and food neophobia. Parents of children (N = 234) aged 1-5 years completed an online questionnaire. Dietary risk scores were calculated using the Toddler (1-3 years) or Preschool (>3-<5 years) Dietary Questionnaires which evaluates the previous week's food-group intake (scored 0-100; higher score = higher risk of poor dietary quality). Neophobia was measured using the Child Food Neophobia scale (1.0-4.0; higher score = more neophobic). Associations were investigated using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for covariates. Children (54% female, 3.0 ±â€¯1.4 years) were from advantaged families and were breastfed until 11.8 (5.0-16.0) months, started solids at 5.6 ±â€¯1.4 months of age, moderately neophobic (2.1 ±â€¯0.7) and at moderate dietary risk (29.2 ±â€¯9.2). Shorter breastfeeding duration (ß = -0.21; p = 0.001) and poorer child food neophobia scores (ß = 0.36; p < 0.001) were associated with higher dietary risk scores. Age of introduction to solids showed no association with dietary risk (p = 0.744). These findings suggest that in addition to breastfeeding promotion, supporting parents to manage neophobic behaviour may be important in promoting healthy eating patterns in early childhood.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 261, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been shown in the past two decades that anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in general population across the world. This study sought to assess the prevalence of major anxiety disorders, their sociodemographic correlates and mental health service utilization as part of the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS). METHODS: A national household face-to-face survey was carried out on a representative sample of Iranian adults from January to June 2011 using Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). A total of 7886 subjects between 15 and 64 years who can understand Persian language were included. The 12-month prevalence of anxiety disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), their socio-demographic correlates, health service use and days out of role were measured in this study. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of anxiety disorders (not including specific phobias) was 15.6%. The prevalence was 12.0% in males and 19.4% in females. The three most prevalent anxiety disorders were generalized anxiety disorder (5.2%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (5.1%) and social phobia (3.2%), respectively. Factors found to be significantly associated with anxiety disorders were: female gender (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09-1.23), middle (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.01-1.50) or low (OR = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.31-2.10) socioeconomic status, unemployment (OR = 1.98, 95%CI: 1.49-2.62), and urban residence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.10-1.57). Comorbidity with non-anxiety disorders significantly increased service utilization. In all subgroups, service utilization was higher among females while the number of days out of role was higher among males. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety disorders are common conditions with a higher prevalence among the female gender, unemployed individuals, and people with low socioeconomic conditions living in urban areas. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders with other psychological disorders aggravates the disability and significantly increases the number of days out of role.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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