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4.
J Music Ther ; 57(1): 66-90, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815286

RESUMO

While there are numerous descriptions of the use of music and its therapeutic potential by music therapists working with nonverbal children on the autism spectrum, only limited literature focuses on exploring how music therapists use music and perceive its therapeutic potential when working with children on the spectrum who have verbal skills. This qualitative study aimed to explore music therapists' descriptions of the use of music and its therapeutic potential in their work with children on the autism spectrum who have verbal skills. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six qualified music therapists from Israel and then analyzed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three main themes were identified: (a) musical infrastructure, which describes how the music therapists facilitated musical experiences to support the children's ability to regulate their arousal, attention and emotions; (b) the meeting point between musical and verbal playfulness, which reflects the music therapists' beliefs about how musical experiences add vitality and support the development of both verbal and nonverbal imaginative play; and (c) musical responses, which describes the different ways music therapists use their voice and songs to interact musically with verbal children. The experiences described by the participants emphasize the importance of the therapist musically attuning to the child's emotional, physiological, creative, and playful qualities, even when the child has verbal skills. These musical interactions help to create a shared experience between the child and therapist that are perceived to help the child's different forms of regulation, continuity, and vitality within the play.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/reabilitação , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música , Atenção , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(2): 529-539, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745700

RESUMO

To investigate the early development of episodic memory and future thinking in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we selected 94 participants each from a group of ASD and typically developing (TD) preschoolers. They were required to remember newly-acquired knowledge sources and anticipate action timings necessary for future events. Five-year-old children with ASD remembered their knowledge sources similar to TD children; however, the 6-year-old children performed more poorly than their TD counterparts. ASD children failed to anticipate future action timings in comparison with TD children. Although source memory and future thinking were related in TD children, they were unrelated in children with ASD. The results suggest that episodic memory and foresight are deficient and unintegrated in ASD children during the preschool years.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 87-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538259

RESUMO

Although impairment in sensory integration is suggested in the autism spectrum (AS), empirical evidences remain equivocal. We assessed the integration of low-level visual and tactile information within and across modalities in AS and typically developing (TD) individuals. TD individuals demonstrated increased redundancy gain for cross-modal relative to double tactile or visual stimulation, while AS individuals showed similar redundancy gain between cross-modal and double tactile conditions. We further observed that violation of the race model inequality for cross-modal conditions was observed over a wider proportion of the reaction times distribution in TD than AS individuals. Importantly, the reduced cross-modal integration in AS individuals was not related to atypical attentional shift between modalities. We conclude that AS individuals displays selective decrease of cross-modal integration of low-level information.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Atenção , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546906

RESUMO

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a neurodevelopmental condition associated with verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and behavioural complications that is becoming increasingly common in many parts of the globe. Identifying individuals on the spectrum has remained a lengthy process for the past few decades due to the fact that some individuals diagnosed with ASD exhibit exceptional skills in areas such as mathematics, arts, and music among others. To improve the accuracy and reliability of autism diagnoses, many scholars have developed pre-diagnosis screening methods to help identify autistic behaviours at an early stage, speed up the clinical diagnosis referral process, and improve the understanding of ASD for the different stakeholders involved, such as parents, caregivers, teachers, and family members. However, the functionality and reliability of those screening tools vary according to different research studies and some have remained questionable. This study evaluates and critically analyses 37 different ASD screening tools in order to identify possible areas that need to be addressed through further development and innovation. More importantly, different criteria associated with existing screening tools, such as accessibility, the fulfilment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) specifications, comprehensibility among the target audience, performance (specifically sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy), web and mobile availability, and popularity have been investigated.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(310): 40-44, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543234

RESUMO

Pervasive refusal syndrome is a rare clinical disorder affecting children and teenagers. It is characterised by social withdrawal and opposition which significantly affects how patients function and their treatment. The twenty or so cases reported in literature help to specify the main diagnostic and therapeutic elements. Early recognition of pervasive refusal syndrome is essential in order to treat these young patients as effectively as possible.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos
11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 927-938, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451995

RESUMO

Self-selection into prospective cohort studies and loss to follow-up can cause biased exposure-outcome association estimates. Previous investigations illustrated that such biases can be small in large prospective cohort studies. The structural approach to selection bias shows that general statements about bias are not possible for studies that investigate multiple exposures and outcomes, and that inverse probability of participation weighting (IPPW) but not adjustment for participation predictors generally reduces bias from self-selection and loss to follow-up. We propose to substantiate assumptions in structural models of selection bias through calculation of genetic correlations coefficients between participation predictors, outcome, and exposure, and to estimate a lower bound for bias due to self-selection and loss to follow-up by comparing effect estimates from IPP weighted and unweighted analyses. This study used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Using the example of risk factors for ADHD, we find that genetic correlations between participation predictors, exposures, and outcome suggest the presence of bias. The comparison of exposure-outcome associations from regressions with and without IPPW revealed meaningful deviations. Assessment of selection bias for entire multi-exposure multi-outcome cohort studies is not possible. Instead, it has to be assessed and controlled on a case-by-case basis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Viés de Seleção , Viés , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(2): 151-160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264638

RESUMO

Applied Computer technologies can address the needs of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data on the efficacy of assistive technology in ASD is limited, and its effectiveness in supporting and facilitating skill acquisition in this specific population must be still demonstrated. 63 Italian ASD subjects underwent learning activities administered by cardboards or a touch screen support. The support preference was evaluated in a choice trial, and quantitative analysis was performed on items regarding communication and challenging behaviours. Touch devices are attractive especially for males without intellectual disability and a lower communication and cooperation behaviours with the use of touch screen compared with paper support was shown depending on activities. Overall, our data do not confirm the hypothesis that touch screen presentation improves activity completion and behavioural performance for each individual with ASD. Data discourage an indiscriminate use of these devices and suggest analysing with more attention the core ingredients that should shape digital devices when used for people on ASD.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Terminais de Computador , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 142, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Missing diagnostic information often results poor accuracy of the clinical diagnostic decision process. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) is a short standardized diagnostic interview and covers a rather broad range of diagnoses applicable to children and adolescents. MINI-KID disorder classifications have shown test-retest reliability and validity comparable to other standardized diagnostic interviews and is claimed to be a useful tool for diagnostic screening in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric care. The concordance between the Swedish language version of the MINI-KID Interview and LEAD (Longitudinal, Expert, All Data) research diagnoses was studied in secondary child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient care. METHODS: MINI-KID interviews were performed for 101 patients, boys n = 50, girls n = 51, aged 4 to 18 years. The duration of the interview was on average 46 min, the child/adolescent participating together with the parent(s) in most cases. The seven most prevalent diagnoses were included in the analyses. RESULTS: The average overall percent agreement (OPA) between MINI-KID and LEAD was 79.5%, the average percent positive agreement (PPA) 35.4 and the average percent negative agreement (NPA) 92.7. OPA was highest for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (0.89), Tic disorders (0.88) and Pervasive developmental disorders (0.81). There were similar results in diagnostic agreement comparing the two versions: the standard MINI-KID and MINI-KID for parents. The specific screening questions in MINI-KID resulted in additional preliminary diagnoses compared with the regular initial clinical assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there was an acceptable agreement between MINI-KID disorder classifications and research diagnoses according to LEAD. The standardized interview MINI-KID could be considered as a tool with the possibility to give valuable information in the diagnostic process in child and adolescent care which is similar to the setting in the present study.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/normas , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina/normas , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(4): 655-668, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019990

RESUMO

Objective: FOXG1 syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with heterozygous FOXG1 variants or chromosomal microaberrations in 14q12. The study aimed at assessing the scope of structural cerebral anomalies revealed by neuroimaging to delineate the genotype and neuroimaging phenotype associations. Methods: We compiled 34 patients with a heterozygous (likely) pathogenic FOXG1 variant. Qualitative assessment of cerebral anomalies was performed by standardized re-analysis of all 34 MRI data sets. Statistical analysis of genetic, clinical and neuroimaging data were performed. We quantified clinical and neuroimaging phenotypes using severity scores. Telencephalic phenotypes of adult Foxg1+/- mice were examined using immunohistological stainings followed by quantitative evaluation of structural anomalies. Results: Characteristic neuroimaging features included corpus callosum anomalies (82%), thickening of the fornix (74%), simplified gyral pattern (56%), enlargement of inner CSF spaces (44%), hypoplasia of basal ganglia (38%), and hypoplasia of frontal lobes (29%). We observed a marked, filiform thinning of the rostrum as recurrent highly typical pattern of corpus callosum anomaly in combination with distinct thickening of the fornix as a characteristic feature. Thickening of the fornices was not reported previously in FOXG1 syndrome. Simplified gyral pattern occurred significantly more frequently in patients with early truncating variants. Higher clinical severity scores were significantly associated with higher neuroimaging severity scores. Modeling of Foxg1 heterozygosity in mouse brain recapitulated the associated abnormal cerebral morphology phenotypes, including the striking enlargement of the fornix. Interpretation: Combination of specific corpus callosum anomalies with simplified gyral pattern and hyperplasia of the fornices is highly characteristic for FOXG1 syndrome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Animais , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microcefalia/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rett/genética
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013727

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to endocrine disruptors is on the rise, with new compounds regularly incriminated. In animals and humans, this exposure during critical developmental windows has been associated with various developmental abnormalities, including the emergence of psychiatric disorders. We aimed to review the association between perinatal endocrine disruptor exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, focusing on cognitive and psychiatric disorders. Methods: We performed a systematic review with key words referring to the fields of neurodevelopment and endocrine disruptors. We reviewed 896 titles, choosing studies on the basis of titles and abstracts. We searched through the methodology sections to find perinatal exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders, following the categories indicated in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition). References in some studies brought us to a total of 47 studies included here. Results: Convergent studies report an association between exposure to endocrine disruptors and autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, communication disorders and unspecified neurodevelopmental disorders. Conclusion: Sufficient data exist to report that exposure to some endocrine disruptors is a risk factor for the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Studying endocrine disruptor exposure in humans is still associated with some limits that are difficult to overcome.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/induzido quimicamente , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874532

RESUMO

In this review, the authors analyze the causes of the high prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades. It is shown that the expansion of the boundaries of the 'autistic spectrum' concept led to a significant spread of data on its prevalence, depending on the time, diagnostic criteria, country and region. Stability of the diagnosis of ASD is not high and depends on the age of the child. Diagnostic practice in comorbid psychiatric disorders unfairly shifted toward ASD. At the same time, the hypothesis on the uniqueness of autistic manifestations in infancy is not convincingly confirmed. The practical aspect of the problem of the epidemiology of autism does not exclude, but on the contrary, presupposes early detection of nonspecific mental disorders followed by medical-psychological-pedagogical correction.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Prevalência
18.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 33(1): 1-13, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601062

RESUMO

Youth perinatally HIV infected (PHIV) or HIV exposed, but uninfected (PHEU), are aging into adolescence and adulthood with multiple complex risk factors for mental health (MH) problems and poor MH treatment utilization. Our aims were to estimate prevalence of MH diagnoses, clinically significant symptoms, and MH treatment utilization among youth with PHIV and among PHEU youth, 10-22 years old. We also aimed to identify correlates of diagnoses and treatment utilization. Analyses of data from standardized interviews, behavioral assessments, and chart review of 551 youth revealed that 36% had a previous or current MH diagnosis, with no significant HIV status group differences. Prevalence of clinically significant symptoms was 15% for both groups, of whom a third had no diagnosis, and half were not receiving treatment. Among youth with a current MH diagnosis, those with PHIV had greater utilization of services than PHEU youth (67% vs. 51%; p = 0.04). Factors associated with MH diagnoses and/or treatment utilization included caregiver characteristics, age and sex of child, HIV status, and stressful life events. Prevalence of MH diagnoses was higher than in the general population, but lower than in similar perinatally HIV-exposed cohorts, with some unmet service needs, particularly in PHEU youth. Family characteristics warrant careful consideration in early diagnosis and treatment of MH problems among youth affected by HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/complicações , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/complicações , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(2): 692-703, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218233

RESUMO

Adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms and in the general population self-focused attention has been associated with depression. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between aspects of self-focused attention and symptoms of depression in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. 113 adults with a diagnosis of ASD completed self-report questionnaires. Results found that higher levels of brooding, and to a lesser degree, reflection predicted increased depressive symptoms. However, higher levels of private self-consciousness actually predicted decreased depressive symptoms. Differential relationships were observed for males and females. The current study highlights the importance of using a multidimensional approach to examining self-focused attention in ASD, and its important relationship with depression.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Alimentação na Infância/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos de Alimentação na Infância/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Alimentação na Infância/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(7): 2721-2732, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738852

RESUMO

Assessment of individuals on the autism spectrum often includes a measure of nonverbal IQ. One such measure is the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). For large research studies with participants distributed nationally it is desirable for assessments to be available online. Because time is a premium, it is ideal that the measure produces accurate scores quickly. The Hansen Research Services Matrix Adaptive Test (HRS-MAT) addresses these needs and with similar psychometric properties of the RSPM. Scores based on the HRS-MAT correlated at r = .81 with those of the RSPM. In adult-child pairs, HRS-MAT scores correlated at approximately r = .50. Details from respondents in a national sample and psychometric properties including reliability and validity are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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