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1.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 96-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729019

RESUMO

Anaesthetists are thought to be at increased risk of suicide amongst the medical profession. The aims of the following guidelines are: increase awareness of suicide and associated vulnerabilities, risk factors and precipitants; to emphasise safe ways to respond to individuals in distress, both for them and for colleagues working alongside them; and to support individuals, departments and organisations in coping with a suicide.


Assuntos
Anestesistas/psicologia , Anestesistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
2.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 82-85, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887844

RESUMO

A 43-year-old male presented with elevated serum creatinine for 4 years and developed abdominal pain for 3 days. He started peritoneal dialysis 2 months ago. Dialysis-related peritonitis was ruled out and acute gastroenteritis was diagnosed. The patient was administrated with ertapenem 500 mg/d. An acute mental abnormality developed 3 days later. After excluded organic encephalopathy, ertapenem was discontinued for the suspicion of antibiotic-related encephalopathy. The frequency of peritoneal dialysis was increased to accelerate the clearance of antibiotics. However, the metal abnormality became even more severe. Then a diagnosis of Wernick-Korsakoff syndrome was considered. After the administration of high dose vitamin B(1), the mental disorder dramatically relieved. Vitamin B(1) 30 mg/d is maintained during peritoneal dialysis and the mental disorder does not relapse.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome de Korsakoff/tratamento farmacológico , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ertapenem/uso terapêutico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Síndrome de Korsakoff/diagnóstico , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Peritonite , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/diagnóstico
3.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 52-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860490

RESUMO

This article summarizes a pilot simulation using standardized patients that was designed to develop skills necessary to care for the critically ill mental health patient nearing the end of life. Although the simulation was found to be a valuable teaching strategy, additional research, with a rigorous design, is recommended to further develop this teaching method. The authors suggest adopting a theoretical framework for debriefing that would elicit emotions, address the emotional needs of students, and assist them to develop coping strategies and skills necessary to care for patients at the end of life.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Transtornos Mentais , Assistência Terminal , Competência Clínica , Emoções , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Simulação de Paciente , Assistência Terminal/normas
4.
Br Dent J ; 227(12): 1010, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873232
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18399, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876712

RESUMO

Integration of psychiatric care at the Primary Health Care (PHC) could be an important strategy towards addressing the shortages of in-patient mental health care services in South Africa. This study describes the profiles of admitted psychiatric patients at the East London Mental Health Unit (ELMHU) of the Eastern Cape from January 2016 to December 2016.In this retrospective cross-sectional study, an audit of medical records of all psychiatric in-patients managed at the ELMHU during the study period was undertaken. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the profiles and examine the associations with the common psychiatric conditions.Of the participants with complete data (n = 186), the majority were males (n = 108); single (72.6%) and had secondary education (45.7%). The majority of in-patients were psychotic (38%), violent (31%), manic (16%) or suicidal (9.2%) at the time of admission. Patients who were 35 years and above, resided in urban areas, and presented with suicidal and depressive symptoms were more likely to be admitted voluntarily. Schizophrenia (31.6%), cannabis-related psychiatric disorders (31.6%), bipolar Type-1 disorder (21.9%) and alcohol related disorders (15.5%) were the main reasons for admission. There was a significant association between demographic characteristics and the common psychiatric disorders of the patients.Schizophrenia, bipolar 1 disorder, cannabis-related disorders and alcohol-related disorders are the predominant disorders leading to in- patient mental health care services being utilized in the study setting. Findings might inform training of health care workers at the PHCs with a view to integrating mental health care services in the Eastern Cape.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 28(2): 27-39, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867704

RESUMO

Cannabis plant has the scientific name called Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis plant has many species, but there are three main species including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Over 70 compounds isolated from cannabis species are called cannabinoids (CBN). Cannabinoids produce over 100 naturally occurring chemicals. The most abundant chemicals are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is psychotropic chemical that makes people feel "high" while CBD is nonpsychotropic chemical. However, cannabinoid chemicals are not found only in the cannabis plant, they are also produced by the mammalian body, called endocannabinoids and in the laboratory, called synthesized cannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system including brain and peripheral nervous system. There are at least two types of endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) which are G-protein coupled receptors. CB1 receptors are particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebellum, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. They are present in inhibitory GABA-ergic neurons and excitatory glutamatergic neurons. CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system, hematopoietic cells and glia cells. CB2 is mainly expressed in the periphery under normal healthy condition, but in conditions of disease or injury, this upregulation occurs within the brain, and CB2 is therefore expressed in the brain in unhealthy states. Cannabis and cannabinoid are studied in different medical conditions. The therapeutic potentials of both cannabis and cannabinoid are related to the effects of THC, CBD and other cannabinoid compounds. However, the "high" effect of THC in cannabis and cannabinoid may limit the clinical use, particularly, the study on the therapeutic potential of THC alone is more limited. This review emphasizes the therapeutic potential of CBD and CBD with THC. CBD has shown to have benefit in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, psychosis, neuropathic pain, cancer pain, HIV, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, hypoxic-ischemic injury and epilepsy. CBD is generally well tolerated. Most common adverse events are diarrhea and somnolence. CBD also shows significantly low abuse potential.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Canabinoides , Humanos
7.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(10): 1179-1183, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883253

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between dental caries and teeth loss in relation to gender, age, treatments with different therapies, time period being hospitalized, sugar consumption, smoking, and oral hygiene in mental disordered patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating therapeutic treatments in patients with mental illnesses, focusing on the effects on oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a longitudinal cohort study conducted on patients who have been hospitalized from 5 years to 30 years. Patients were observed for 7 months (January 2019-July 2019) in the psychiatric hospital "Ali Mihali", in Vlora, Albania. In our study, 200 patients participated, of which 103 were females (51.5%) and 97 were males (48.5%). RESULTS: In the present study, we analyzed the oral health of patients within the age class of 30-70 years. We divided them into four age groups: 30-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 years. According to the ANOVA test, a strongest influence on caries manifestation and missing teeth was noticed during the time the patient was being hospitalized, with p values = 0.000 in both cases. The treatments done with different therapies also had a strong influence on the teeth loss with a p value = 0.001, while in carious teeth the p value was 0.004. This study showed that there is a strong statistically significant correlation between sugar consumption and smoking, in relation to caries manifestation and teeth loss, with p values = 0.000, respectively. CONCLUSION: These patients are a vulnerable group, if we consider their oral health. The present study proved that the most important reasons for their poor dental health are: bad oral hygiene, smoking, sugar consumption, adverse effects of medications, and the time period that these patients have been hospitalized. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: By knowing the factors that have worsened the oral health of mental disordered patients, we can try to raise the awareness about caries reduction and to avoid teeth loss. How to cite this article: Canga M, Malagnino I, Malagnino G, et al. Evaluating Therapy Treatments in Patients with Mental Disorders in Relation to Oral Health. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20(10):1179-1183.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705488

RESUMO

Because of the poor link between psychiatric diagnosis and neurobiological findings, it is difficult to classify mental disorders. The changes made to psychiatric diagnostic systems over the years can be understood in terms of "practical conservatism." The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I and DSM-II were theoretically supported by the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approach. Subsequently, psychiatric diagnoses of this kind were opposed by the anti-psychiatry movement, as well as by the findings of the Rosenhan experiment. Thus, the DSM-III revolution contained more empiricism, aligning psychiatry with biomedicine. Psychiatric diagnoses are classified and defined in terms of Kraepelinian dualism, using a categorical approach. The empirical trend was continued in the DSM-IV. To overcome the limitations of current psychiatric diagnostic systems and integrate fundamental genetic, neurobiological, behavioral, environmental, and experimental components into psychiatry, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) were established. To overcome the limitations of the categorical approach, psychiatrists have considered adopting a dimensional approach. However, their efforts were frustrated in the DSM-5 revision process. Thus, the DSM-5 is characterized by the rearrangement of psychiatric diagnoses, the partial adoption of a dimensional approach, the introduction of new diagnoses, and harmonization with the International Classification of Diseases.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neurobiologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 119-125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705492

RESUMO

Scientific findings over the past few decades have shaped our understanding of the underlying neurobiology associated with psychiatric illnesses. However, despite significant advances in research, there is widespread disappointment with the overall pace of progress in detecting and treating psychiatric disorders. Current approaches for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders largely rely on physician-patient questionnaires that are most of the time inaccurate and ineffective in providing a reliable assessment of symptoms. These limitations can, however, be overcome by applying artificial intelligence (AI) to electronic medical database and health records. AI in psychiatry is a general term that implies the use of computerized techniques and algorithms for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental illnesses. Although the past few years have witnessed an increase in the use of AI in the medical practice, its role in psychiatry remains a complex and unanswered question. This chapter provides the current state of knowledge of AI's use in the diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of psychiatric disorders, and examines the challenges and limitations of this approach in the medical practise.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Algoritmos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 127-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705493

RESUMO

Evidence now suggests that precision psychiatry is becoming a cornerstone of medical practices by providing the patient of psychiatric disorders with the right medication at the right dose at the right time. In light of recent advances in neuroimaging and multi-omics, more and more biomarkers associated with psychiatric diseases and treatment responses are being discovered in precision psychiatry applications by leveraging machine learning and neural network approaches. In this article, we focus on the most recent developments for research in precision psychiatry using machine learning, deep learning, and neural network algorithms, together with neuroimaging and multi-omics data. First, we describe different machine learning approaches that are employed to assess prediction for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in various precision psychiatry studies. We also survey probable biomarkers that have been identified to be involved in psychiatric diseases and treatment responses. Furthermore, we summarize the limitations with respect to the mentioned precision psychiatry studies. Finally, we address a discussion of future directions and challenges.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Neuroimagem
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 199-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705496

RESUMO

Personalized medicine aims to integrate a number of characteristics such as genetic and epigenetic variations, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms, and environmental factors in order to predict susceptibility to disease, aid in diagnosis, and identify efficacious treatments with maximum likelihood of favorable response and minimal chance of adverse effects. The use of personalized medicine approaches in psychiatry is underdeveloped, but has a profound potential for improving prevention and treatment. There are a number of studies that have found promising associations between a variety of biomarkers and clinical response to psychopharmacological treatment in various psychiatric disorders. These biomarkers include neuroimaging, electrophysiology, peripheral serum, and plasma biomarkers, and variations in genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Ultimately, the best model for precision medicine in complex, multifactorial diseases such as psychiatric illnesses will likely involve integrated methodology that combines information from multiple sources including biologic, clinical, and environmental data. While much progress has been made in the development of valid biomarkers in psychiatric disorders, there is much work to be done in determining their clinical utility.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Transtornos Mentais , Farmacogenética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Proteômica
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 225-249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705497

RESUMO

Brain disorders and mental diseases, in particular, are common and considered as a top global health challenge for the twenty-first century. Interestingly, women suffer more frequently from mental disorders than men. Moreover, women may respond to psychotropic drugs differently than men, and, through their lifespan, they endure sex-orientated social stressors. In this chapter, we present how women may differ in the development and manifestation of mental health issues and how they differ from men in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We discuss issues in clinical trials regarding women participation, issues in the use of psychotropic medications in pregnancy, and challenges that psychiatry faces as a result of the wider use of contraceptives, of childbearing at older age, and of menopause. Such issues, among others, demand further women-oriented psychiatric research that can improve the care for women during the course of their lives. Indeed, despite all these known sex differences, psychiatry for both men and women patients uses the same approach. Thereby, a modified paradigm for women's psychiatry, which takes into account all these differences, emerges as a necessity, and psychiatric research should take more vigorously into account sex differences.


Assuntos
Menopausa/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 263-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705499

RESUMO

This article gives an overview of the concept and brain mechanisms of Internet game and smartphone addiction and the applicability of precision medicine and smart healthcare system. Internet game and smartphone addiction are categorized as behavioral addictions, which share similar phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings with substance addictions. Neuroimaging studies revealed the alteration in the functional activity and structure of individuals with Internet game and smartphone addiction, which also can be potent biomarkers. Precision medicine is defined as treatments targeted to the individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics. Recent advances in high-throughput technology and bioinformatics have enabled us to integrate these big data with behavioral data collected from smartphones or other wearable devices. Data collected via smart devices can be transferred to medical institute and integrated in order to diagnose current status precisely and to provide optimal intervention. The feedbacks of intervention are sent back to the medical provider via self-reports or objective measures to evaluate the appropriateness of the intervention. In conclusion, Internet game and smartphone addiction can be diagnosed precisely using high-throughput technology and optimally managed via smart healthcare system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 297-312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705501

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are challenging to model and treat, due to their underlying complex genetic architecture and clinical variability. Presently, increasingly more studies are making use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, reprogrammed from patient somatic cells, to model neuropsychiatric disorders. iPSC-derived neurons offer the possibility to recapitulate relevant disease biology in the context of the individual patient genetic background. In addition to disease modeling, iPSC-derived neurons offer unprecedented opportunities in drug screening. In this chapter, the current status of iPSC disease modeling for neuropsychiatric disorders is presented. Both 2D and 3D disease modeling approaches are discussed as well as the generation of different neuronal cell types that are relevant for studying neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, the advantages and limitations are highlighted in addition to the future perspectives of using iPSC-derived neurons in the uncovering of robust cellular phenotypes that consecutively have the potential to lead to clinical developments.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Transtornos Mentais , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Neurônios
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 331-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705503

RESUMO

The biopsychosocial approach is a model of eclecticism, which consists of multidisciplinary academic fields, reacting against the "neuroscientification" of psychiatry. The biopsychosocial approach was proposed by George Engel following Adolf Meyer's psychobiological and Roy R. Ginker's eclectic approach to psychiatry. Although the use of the biopsychosocial approach is increasing, it has several limitations: First, specific practices cannot be guided by the biopsychosocial approach because it is considered to be "boundless psychiatry." Second, unlike an initial intention, the symptomatic use of psychotropic medications may be justified by the biopsychosocial approach. Third, the economic forces to enhance biological psychiatry cannot be hindered by the biopsychosocial approach. Hence, to overcome the limitations of the current biopsychosocial approach, potential new paradigms including evolutionary psychiatry, pragmatism, integrationism, and pluralism have been proposed. Above all, Eric Kandel presented the link between neuroscience and psychiatry from the perspective of integrationism. In accordance with integrationism and/or pluralism, based on the paradigm shift of the theoretical construct from chemical imbalance to dysfunctional circuit, next-generation treatments for mental disorders have been proposed by Thomas Insel. Thus, a more integrated biopsychosocial approach to managing psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and panic disorder may be proposed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neurociências , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Fenômenos Físicos , Esquizofrenia
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 341-352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705504

RESUMO

Early detection and early intervention approach targets people at-risk stages who are very close to conversion to illness, or patients who have just transited the illness stage and have not, yet, become chronic. Rigorous efforts have been put in for early detection and early intervention in psychiatry. A high-risk population is identified by clinical manifestations that, as per their severity and suffering, do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders. There have been attempts to break through the existing phenotype-based diagnostic system using biomarkers, but researchers have yet to overcome the heterogeneity of the disease. Nowadays, the clinical staging models in psychosis, bipolar, and depressive disorders have been proposed as a heuristic and a practical alternative to this. This model is evolving to integrate various demographic factors, clinical symptoms, cognitive functions, and biomarkers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 355-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705505

RESUMO

From its beginning, psychiatry has been always characterized by different orientations in the forms of "schools", "fields", "branches", etc., some of which were dominating during different periods of time. Today psychiatry seems to be in cul de sac of a serious scientific crisis and in the midst of the paradigm clashes. Academic psychiatry has been more and more criticized to be more or less irrelevant to clinical practice. The new field called theoretical psychiatry is fundamental for further scientific and professional maturation of psychiatry at the twenty-first century. Theoretical psychiatry pursues knowledge and understanding of mental disorders, and it operates so through the formulation, testing, and evaluation of theories. Digital revolution is changing significantly all fields of science, medicine, and psychiatry changing regimes and methods of knowledge production. Big data approach promises to provide the scientific holy grail in psychiatry, a single overarching theory or multiple theories and models that unify all the scientific disciplines. Brain is place where biological, psychological, social, and spiritual mechanisms meet each other and interact. Theoretical psychiatry should give all psychiatrists a common language, build bridges over academic gaps, and creatively export insights across disciplinary borders.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 399-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705506

RESUMO

Theoretical psychiatry considers theoretical problems in psychiatry as well as the quality and effectiveness of mental health care. This chapter addresses the idea of predictive, preventive, precision, personalized, and participatory medicine in psychiatry from a theoretical transdisciplinary integrative perspective and systems networking. The aim of the chapter is to bring together some current ideas and concepts such as computational neuroscience, network theory, multi-omics profile, precision medicine, and person-centered psychiatry as a coherent system of theory and practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Psiquiatria/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 429-451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705507

RESUMO

Developmental psychopathology studies the basic mechanisms, including not only biological factors but also environmental and social factors that may interact with them, by means of which developmental pathways deviate toward pathological or typical outcomes. Family studies conducted during the last century show substantial evidence of heritability among psychiatric disorders. Besides, a large number of genes implicated in shaping the development of the central nervous system have been related to psychiatric conditions. In addition, there is a wide range of stressors and harmful agents that, when acting on sensitive developmental periods, might damage brain function and generate or precipitate psychopathology over time. All these factors have the potential to change the way disorders with a neurodevelopmental origin are expressed, including their age of appearance and clinical manifestations. Both symptoms and social impairment need to be considered in clinical evaluations, as treatment is unlikely to be effective if the problem has not been characterized correctly or if the patients' particular characteristics, which change throughout development, are not taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Humanos
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 479-489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705509

RESUMO

Understanding of the psychopathology of various psychiatric disorders is evolving, with newer avenues of research enlightening us from genetics, epigenetics, functional neurobiology, neural circuits, hormones and social/environmental determinants. We are now aware that neurobiological factors are contributing to the development of psychiatric illnesses coupled with their interaction with psychosocial factors. Resilience is defined as the ability to bounce back after an adversity or life event that was traumatic and life-changing. It is a factor that is a unique psychopathological construct as it is a biopsychosocial factor which determines an individual's response to an illness and recovery from the same. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stress and to revert to a positive state. There has been now a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience with respect to stress risk vulnerability and such dimensions of psychopathology. Resilience is a factor that must be evaluated in every patient and that shall help us determine the outcome of psychiatric disorders and will also be a determinant in the occurrence of relapses. Early identification of vulnerable patients shall lead to the implementation of resilience-based interventions in these populations and shall prevent against future occurrence of these disorders. In this chapter, we posit the construct of resilience as a psychopathological construct for mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Neurobiologia
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