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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 149-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583588

RESUMO

Astroglial cells are involved in most if not in all pathologies of the brain. These cells can change the morpho-functional properties in response to pathology or innate changes of these cells can lead to pathologies. Overall pathological changes in astroglia are complex and diverse and often vary with different disease stages. We classify astrogliopathologies into reactive astrogliosis, astrodegeneration with astroglial atrophy and loss of function, and pathological remodelling of astrocytes. Such changes can occur in neurological, neurodevelopmental, metabolic and psychiatric disorders as well as in infection and toxic insults. Mutation in astrocyte-specific genes leads to specific pathologies, such as Alexander disease, which is a leukodystrophy. We discuss changes in astroglia in the pathological context and identify some molecular entities underlying pathology. These entities within astroglia may repent targets for novel therapeutic intervention in the management of brain pathologies.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alexander/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 325-326, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570664

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Filosofia , Humanos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567960

RESUMO

Although both multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating diseases, their psychiatric disturbances may differ given differences in the neurological manifestations. We used subjective and objective measurements to compare the psychiatric disturbances in patients with MS and NMO.Psychiatric disturbances were assessed in 24 MS and 35 NMO patients using the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Symptom Checklist-95 and the brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life. Personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10. Disease-related function was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Global Assessment of Function. Positivity offset (PO) and negativity bias (NB) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured using a modified implicit affect test and photoplethysmograph, respectively. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates.MS patients had higher levels of depression, anxiety, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsiveness, aggression, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, self-regulation problems, stress vulnerability, and lower psychological quality of life (QOL) compared with NMO patients. The PO and NB and HRV values were not significantly different between groups. However, NMO patients had lower QOL, and higher levels of hopelessness, suicidality, and fatigue than the normal range. Disease duration was associated with hopelessness in NMO patients and with several psychiatric disturbances, but not hopelessness, in MS patients.Subjective psychiatric disturbances were more severe in patients with MS than in those with NMO, whereas PO and NB and HRV in patients with NMO were comparable with those of MS patients. Our findings highlight the need for different clinical approaches to assess and treat psychiatric disturbances in patients with MS and NMO.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Neuromielite Óptica/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Neuromielite Óptica/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/etiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Transtornos Paranoides/etiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 129-142, ago. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021776

RESUMO

Introdução:O suicídio é tido como um fenômeno complexo, multicausal, fruto da interação de fatores de ordem filosófica, biológica, antropológica, psicológica, e social, considerado nos dias de hoje um grave problema de saúde pública.Objetivo:realizar uma análise documental dos materiais lançados pelo SUS relacionados às medidas a serem adotadas em casos e tentativas de suicídio, bem como nos meios previni-las.Método:trata-se de um estudo descritivo, no qual foram verificadas as portarias e manuscritos do SUS relacionadas ao suicídio, tendo sido consultados oito documentos oficiais.Resultados:a primeira portaria a tratar especificamente do assunto, Portaria nº 1.876, foi lançada em 2006, e instituiu as Diretrizes Nacionais para Prevenção do Suicídio, norteando as estratégias do Ministério da Saúde para atuação e contenção do fenômeno. A partir dela, outros documentos foram instituídos, visando o aprimoramento do acesso, acolhimento, e tratamento aos indivíduos predispostos a desenvolverem depressão, ou que estão em situações de risco, além de garantir maiores esforços e investimentos para grupos específicos. Conclusões:as portarias estabelecidas garantem ao usuário do SUS acolhimento e acompanhamento, desde o nível de atenção básica até a atenção especializada (AU).


Introduction:Suicide is considered as a complex phenomenon, multicausal, fruit of the interaction of factors of philosophical, biological, anthropological, psychological, and social, considered today a serious public health problem.Objective:to perform a documentary analysis of the materials released by the SUS related to the measures to be adopted in cases and suicide attempts, as well asin the means to prevent them.Methods:this is a descriptive study, in which the ordinances and SUS manuscripts related to suicide were verified, and eight official documents were consulted.Results:the first ordinance to deal specifically with the subject, Ordinance No. 1,876, was launched in 2006, and established the National Guidelines for Suicide Prevention, guiding the strategies of the Ministry of Health to act and restrain the phenomenon. From this, other documents were instituted, aimed at improving access, shelter, and treatment to individuals predisposed to develop depression, or who are at risk, as well as guaranteeing greater efforts and investments for specific groups.Conclusions:established ordinances guarantee hosting and follow-upto the SUS user, from basic care level to specialized care (AU).


Assuntos
Suicídio , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Documento Governamental , Portarias , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Depressão/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 207-217, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care pathway approaches were introduced into health care in the 1980s and have become standard international practice. They are now being introduced more specifically for health care in the criminal justice system. Care pathway delivery has the theoretical advantage of encouraging a whole-systems approach for health and social care within the criminal justice system, but how well is it supported by empirical evidence? AIMS: The aim of this study is to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. METHOD: We used an exploratory narrative method to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. The available literature was reviewed using a keyword search approach with three databases: PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. FINDINGS: Research in this field has covered police custody, courts, prisons, and the wider community, but there is little that follows the entire career through all these elements of offender placement. Main themes in the research to date, regardless of where the research was conducted, have been counting the disorder or the need, development and evaluation of screening tools, and evaluation of clinical intervention styles. Most evidence to date is simply observational, although the possibility of conducting randomised controlled trials of interventions within parts of the criminal justice system, especially prisons, is now well established. CONCLUSIONS: Access to health care while passing through the criminal justice system is essential because of the disproportionately high rates of mental disorder among offenders, and the concept of structured pathways to ensure this theoretically satisfying, but as yet empirically unsupported. Further, substantial cuts in services, generally following government economies, are largely unresearched. Considerable investment in new possibilities, driven by both pressure groups and government, tend to be informed by good will and theory rather than hard evidence and are often not evaluated even after introduction. This must change.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Polícia/organização & administração , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 196-206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small proportion of every nation's young people become sufficiently antisocial to come into contact with the criminal justice system. Many also have disorders of mental health or emotional well-being. Although countries vary in designating age of criminal responsibility, all must provide services for offenders, perhaps as young as 10, both to help them and safeguard their peers and the wider public. AIM: The aim of this article is to map the range of research required to support the development of satisfactory services for young mentally disordered offenders and identify knowledge gaps from a practitioner's perspective. METHODS: Using a public health prevention framework, we identified the main streams of research pertinent to young, mentally disordered offenders and sought examples of each to consider the extent to which they have been used to inform service development in England. FINDINGS: As in most countries, service development seems first driven by unusual, newsworthy cases. Overall, however, current English provision follows sound primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention principles with parallel tiers of service, including public health initiatives. Primary prevention and more specific treatments are likely to be informed by research findings, but service structure tends to emerge from a wider review base, including criminal justice, social and educational practitioner reviews, and also politics. Thus, services and populations of service users may change in advance of research evidence. Substantial reduction in numbers of young offenders in prison in England, for example, is clearly good in principle, but the intensity of need in the residual group is posing new challenges to which there are, yet, few answers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the last 15 years of coordinated service development in England has been broadly theoretically based, it has not been systematically assessed to establish what works best for whom. New problems emerging, such as new drugs of misuse, and new opportunities, such as technology for supporting and monitoring, require model studies. More research focusing on correlates of success is essential.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Direito Penal , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
8.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criminosos/psicologia , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoajuda , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Prisioneiros , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 247-255, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mentally disordered offenders may suffer discrimination on the basis of mental disorder, or on the basis of being offenders, or both. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to outline a framework for examining discrimination affecting mentally disordered offenders. It is argued that there should be systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and nonoffenders with mental disorder in order to identify and characterise specific failures to ensure equivalence of mental health care; and systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and offenders without mental disorder in order to identify how mental disorder may constitute a barrier to forms of support and constructive intervention available to other offenders. METHODS: A critical review was conducted of official documents presenting criminal justice and mental health policy for England and Wales, principally since 2012, together with reports of inspectorate and oversight bodies and relevant research studies. FINDINGS: There is evidence that offenders with mental disorder may not be able to access mental health care equivalent to that for nonoffenders with mental disorder. There is also evidence that they may not be able to access interventions available to other offenders. Further disadvantage may arise in the criminal courts since, in England and Wales, if inpatient care is required, the powers of criminal courts to effect hospital admission under Part III of mental health legislation are weakened by the statutory requirement of information that places are available. This is discriminatory against offenders with mental disorder insofar as forms of court disposal for other offenders are not prevented by the capacity of criminal justice agencies. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The review supports the need for systematic comparisons to identify forms of disadvantage and discrimination experienced by mentally disordered offenders in relation to both mental health and criminal justice policies services.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Discriminação (Psicologia) , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Inglaterra , Hospitalização , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos , País de Gales
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 239-246, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide with accompanying homicide is frightening and ill understood. AIMS: To raise professional awareness of its complexities and difficulties and identify areas for developing research. METHOD: A Crime in Mind seminar was held in London in December 2018, with four expert presentations and discussion. This paper draws on that seminar and supplementary literature. FINDINGS: Homicide/suicide is very difficult to predict and thus prevent. Victims and perpetrators may have a dependency relationship. Better training, especially of general practitioners, may increase the likelihood of detecting signs of despair and delusional ideas. Psychiatrists should be more alert to fixed delusions and homicidal thoughts. Individual assessment and management alone is unlikely to be sufficient. Public health strategies are likely to be important too. Weapons control is vital. Employers of people with great personal responsibility and special access to potentially lethal tools, such as airline pilots, and perhaps clinicians, should have regular, compulsory, mental health checks. CONCLUSIONS: Six points of clinical importance emerged, including lowering the threshold for diagnosing delusional disorder and the establishment of anti-violence clinics.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Armas
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 189-195, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483552

RESUMO

Looking in from the outside, what would the ordinary person expect of forensic mental health services? I suggest that there are three questions he or she would ask: (a) Are there public health measures that can be introduced to prevent those with mental disorder going on to commit crimes? (b) Can we identify in advance the individual who is likely to go on and commit a violent act because of his or her mental health difficulties, and prevent that or limit damage? (c) If a seriously harmful act has already been committed, what interventions might prevent a repetition? All of these questions are about prevention of an untoward event in the future and anticipate knowledge. How secure can we be that current forensic mental health practitioners can make adequately evidenced responses? I fear that examination of current literature would indicate that they and their academic colleagues would fall short of these expectations. Reasons for this are undoubtedly numerous. The issues are complex, with the interplay of many variables from the vagaries of human nature through varying presentations of disorders, still often classified rather than diagnosed, to widely differing environments which, further, may suddenly change in a critical way. The impact of a serious offence can be so catastrophic that officialdom often decides that "something must be done." Yet, without a good evidence base, such decision-making is often ineffective and wasteful of resources. The limited evidence base has not been helped by the virtual extinction of an academic forensic psychiatry infrastructure and funding within British universities and the National Health Service. This does not bode well for the future.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 310-317, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496164

RESUMO

The habenula is a small and bilateral nucleus above dorsal thalamus, which contains several different types of neurons. The habenula has extensive connections with the forebrain, septum and monoaminergic nuclei in the midbrain and brainstem. Habenula is known as an 'anti-reward' nucleus, which can be activated by aversive stimulus and negative reward prediction errors. Accumulating researchs have implicated that the habenula is involved in several behaviors crucial to survival. Meanwhile, the roles of the habenula in neuropsychiatric diseases have received increasing attention. This review summaries the studies regarding the roles of habenula and the related circuits in neuropathic pain, depression, drug addiction and schizophrenia, and discusses the possibility to use the habenula as a treatment target.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Habenula , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Mesencéfalo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Recompensa
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305395010p1-7305395010p5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484037

RESUMO

Occupational therapy practitioners have education, skills, and knowledge to provide occupational therapy interventions for adults living with serious mental illness. Evidence-based interventions demonstrate that occupational therapy practitioners can enable this population to engage in meaningful occupations, participate in community living, and contribute to society. Systematic review findings for occupational therapy interventions for adults living with serious mental illness were published in the September/October 2018 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults Living With Serious Mental Illness. Each article in the Evidence Connection series summarizes evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. These articles illustrate how research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical decision making. Through a case story, this article illustrates how current evidence is applied for effective occupational therapy intervention with an adult living with serious mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Humanos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558931

RESUMO

Introduction: Studies have reported that emergency medical care practitioners (EMCPs) encounter challenges when attending to psychiatric emergencies. The EMC provider's ability to understand, assess and manage psychiatric emergencies has been reported to be poor due to limited knowledge and insufficient training. In South Africa (SA), little is known about the knowledge of EMCPs on pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of EMCPs working in the Free State province on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This descriptive study used a questionnaire survey to obtain data on the knowledge of EMCPs on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Results: Only 159 of the initial 192 questionnaires distributed were returned, giving a response rate of 82.8%. The majority (87.4%) of the participants reported inadequate knowledge of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. More than a third of the participants reported that they are not knowledgeable on how to assess a psychiatric patient (P < 0.01), 64.2% and 73.6% (P < 0.001 in both cases) could not perform mental status examination and lack the knowledge of crisis intervention skills for managing a psychiatric emergencies. The majority (76.7%; P < 0.001) of the participants are not conversant with the Mental Health Care Act 2002 (Act no. 17 of 2002). Finally, participants (94.3% and 86.8%, respectively; P < 0.001) agree that teaching and prior exposure to a psychiatric facility, as in work integrated learning, will empower EMC graduates with skills required to effectively manage psychiatric emergencies. Conclusion: EMC practitioners are often the first healthcare professionals arriving at any scene of medical emergencies including psychiatric emergencies. To avoid malpractices, which could be detrimental to patient's health, it is of utmost importance that EMCPs are well trained and equipped to manage any form of medical emergency including those involving psychiatric patients.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
N C Med J ; 80(5): 317-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471520

RESUMO

Medicaid transformation in North Carolina marks the next step in a lengthy history of caring for individuals with behavioral health challenges. "Tailored" health plans will cover people with severe mental illness, substance use disorders, intellectual/developmental disabilities, and traumatic brain injury, a vulnerable population that North Carolina's LME/MCOs are uniquely qualified to serve.


Assuntos
Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Medicaid/organização & administração , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos Mentais , North Carolina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
17.
Soins ; 64(838): 42-44, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542120

RESUMO

A key government priority, artificial intelligence (IA) in healthcare is a real opportunity for nursing professionals. Faced with the daily difficulties encountered, AI could bring a new perspective to nursing care in psychiatry and free up time for professionals which they can then spend with the patient. More training and a multi-disciplinary approach are required.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Humanos
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 101-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562625

RESUMO

The treatment of psychiatric disorders remains a significant challenge in part due to imprecise diagnostic criteria and incomplete understanding of the molecular pathology involved. Current diagnostic and pharmacological treatment guidelines use a uniform approach to address each disorder even though psychiatric clinical presentation and prognosis within a disorder are known to be heterogeneous. Limited therapeutic success highlights the need for a precision medicine approach in psychiatry, termed precision psychiatry. To practice precision psychiatry, it is essential to research and develop multiple omics-based biomarkers that consider environmental factors and careful phenotype determination. Metabolomics, which lies at the endpoint of the "omics cascade," allows for detection of alterations in systems-level metabolites within biological pathways, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological conditions and pathologies. The eicosanoids, a family of metabolites derived from oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids, play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms and have been implicated in psychiatric disorders such as anorexia nervosa and depression. This review (1) provides background on the current clinical challenges of psychiatric disorders, (2) gives an overview of metabolomics application as a tool to develop improved biomarkers for precision psychiatry, and (3) summarizes current knowledge on metabolomics and lipidomic findings in common psychiatric disorders, with a focus on eicosanoids. Metabolomics is a promising tool for precision psychiatry. This research has great potential for both discovering biomarkers and elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Transtornos Mentais , Medicina de Precisão , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Metabolômica
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(663): 1657-1660, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532116

RESUMO

Old age with its succession of losses is a vulnerable phase in life for developing or exacerbating mental illnesses. Pragmatically, we can identify three types of senior patients: patients presenting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, patients affected by a chronic mental illness, patients experiencing a first major psychiatric syndrome in later life. The purpose of this article is to describe the specific programs developed by the day care hospital of the Geriatric Psychiatry Service, Geneva University Hospitals, to respond to the need of these groups of patients as well as their relatives. This community psychiatric care intends to provide a better psychological adaption in order to support functional and social recovery.


Assuntos
Hospital Dia , Psiquiatria Geriátrica , Transtornos Mentais , Doença Crônica , Hospital Dia/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/métodos , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/tendências , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(10): 487-495, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the MINDBODYSTRONG for Healthcare Professionals Program on stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and job satisfaction on newly licensed RNs (NLRNs) participating in a nurse residency program. BACKGROUND: The constellation of burnout, depression, and suicide in clinicians is a public health epidemic that affects the quality and safety of healthcare. The National Academy of Medicine's Action Collaborative on Clinician Well-being and Resilience has called for an increase in evidence-based interventions to combat this alarming problem. The MINDBODYSTRONG Program is a novel adaptation of an evidence-based cognitive behavioral skills-building intervention that provides a theory-based approach to improve the mental health, healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and job satisfaction of NLRNs. METHODS: A 2-group, cluster randomized controlled trial was used with 89 new nurses participating in a new-graduate nurse residency program. The experimental intervention, MINDBODYSTRONG, consisted of 8 manualized weekly 45-minute sessions. Data were collected at baseline, immediately following, and 3 months after intervention that measured stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and job satisfaction. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The intervention group scored significantly better with moderate to large positive effects on the mental health variables as well as healthy lifestyle beliefs and healthy lifestyle behaviors at both follow-up time points compared with the attention control group. Moderate to large positive effects also were found for job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The MINDBODYSTRONG Program has excellent potential as an evidence-based intervention for improving the mental health, healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and job satisfaction, in NLRNs.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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