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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 179-186, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130062

RESUMO

Antiracist health policy research requires methodological innovation that creates equity-centered and antiracist solutions to health inequities by centering the complexities and insidiousness of structural racism. The development of effective health policy and health equity interventions requires sound empirical characterization of the nature of structural racism and its impact on public health. However, there is a disconnect between the conceptualization and measurement of structural racism in the public health literature. Given that structural racism is a system of interconnected institutions that operates with a set of racialized rules that maintain White supremacy, how can anyone accurately measure its insidiousness? This article highlights methodological approaches that will move the field forward in its ability to validly measure structural racism for the purposes of achieving health equity. We identify three key areas that require scholarly attention to advance antiracist health policy research: historical context, geographical context, and theory-based novel quantitative and qualitative methods that capture the multifaceted and systemic properties of structural racism as well as other systems of oppression.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Racismo , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Racismo/prevenção & controle
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364019

RESUMO

Objetivos: conhecer a atuação do enfermeiro e os cuidados desempenhados em saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Método: estudo descritivo e qualitativo, tendo como cenário um polo de matriciamento em saúde mental. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista individual, com questionário semiestruturado. Resultados: os resultados obtidos foram agrupados e discutidos por meio das seguintes categorias: ações de enfermagem no campo da saúde mental desenvolvidas na Estratégia de Saúde da Família e apoio matricial em Saúde Mental como elemento facilitador da prática de enfermagem. Conclusão: os enfermeiros têm desenvolvido ações de enfermagem no campo da saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família, e o apoio matricial atua como principal elemento facilitador da prática de enfermagem, reafirmando a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira. Em contrapartida, a sobrecarga de ações e a restrita formação em saúde mental são elementos que dificultam o trabalho desse profissional.


Objectives: to know the role of nurses and the care performed in mental health in the Family Health Strategy. Method: a descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative study, with a scenario of matrix support in mental health. Data collection was carried out through individual interviews and with a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: the results obtained were grouped and discussed through the following categories: Nursing actions mental health field developed in the Family Health Strategy, and Matrix Support in Mental Health as a facilitating element of nursing practice. Conclusion: nurses have developed nursing actions mental health field in the Family Health Strategy and matrix support acts as the main facilitator of nursing practice, reaffirming the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. On the other hand, the overload of actions and the limited training in mental health are elements that hinder the work of these professionals.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estratégias de Saúde Nacionais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Enfermeiros , Cuidados de Enfermagem
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361739

RESUMO

Objetivos: contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de ansiedade, das classificações dos transtornos ansiosos e suas manifestações clínicas, bem como para a atualização sobre o processo de avaliação diagnóstica. Métodos: todas as edições das classificações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) - CID e da Associação Psiquiátrica Americana (APA) - DSM foram examinadas, além de livros-texto de referência de psiquiatria clínica, de publicações sobre a história e a evolução desses diagnósticos e de publicações produzidas pelas equipes responsáveis pela revisão das classificações atuais. Resultados: entende-se por ansiedade um estado afetivo normal, como um sintoma ou um termo para nomear um grupo de transtornos mentais. Nas primeiras e subsequentes edições das classificações da OMS e da APA, entre 1948 e 1975, os quadros ansiosos faziam parte do grupo das psiconeurose/neuroses. A partir do DSM-III (1980), o grupo das neuroses foi fragmentado em diversos outros, entre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade, o que foi seguido pela CID-10 (1992), apesar de alguma distinção na composição dos subtipos. Para as últimas versões, houve um empenho de compatibilização entre as duas, contudo restaram diferenças: o DSM-5 (2013) adota critérios diagnósticos; a CID-11 (2019) utiliza descrições clínicas e diretrizes diagnósticas, além de abordagens dimensionais para alguns transtornos. Conclusão: ocorreram modificações nas classificações psiquiátricas atuais, no grupo dos transtornos de ansiedade, que precisam ser disseminadas e agregadas a estratégias de formação e qualificação profissionais, incrementando habilidades diagnósticas e permitindo uma comunicação mais uniforme e precisa na prática clínica.


Objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the historical development of the concept of anxiety, the classifications of anxiety disorders and their clinical manifestations, as well as to update on the diagnostic evaluation process. Methods: all editions of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) - ICD and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) - DSM were examined, in addition to reference textbooks on clinical psychiatry, publications on the history and evolution of these diagnoses, and scientific articles produced by the teams responsible for reviewing the current classifications. Results: anxiety is understood as a normal affective state, as a symptom, or as a term to name a group of mental disorders. In the first and subsequent editions of the WHO and APA classifications, between 1948 and 1975, anxiety disorders were part of the psychoneuroses/neuroses group. As of DSM-III (1980) onwards, the neuroses group was fragmented into several others, including anxiety disorders, which was followed by ICD-10 (1992), despite some different choices of subtypes. For the latest versions, there was a compatibility effort between them. However, differences remained: DSM-5 (2013) adopts diagnostic criteria; ICD-11 (2019) uses clinical description and diagnostic guidelines, in addition to dimensional approaches for some disorders. Conclusion: modifications have occurred in current psychiatric classifications, in the group of anxiety disorders, which need to be disseminated and added to professional training and qualification strategies, increasing diagnostic skills and providing for more uniform and accurate communication in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Psiquiatria , Saúde , Estratégias de Saúde , Diagnóstico , História , Transtornos Mentais
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1012, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support work for substance use disorders is widely implemented in high-income countries. More research is still needed to understand its applicability in settings which have proportionately low budgets allocated to mental health. Peer Support Workers are individuals who managed to achieve recovery from substance use disorders and help people remain engaged in their recovery and prevent relapse through shared understanding. AIM: To investigate the experience of peer support workers providing recovery support to people with substance use disorders in Egypt. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological design was used in which 17 adults working as peer support workers for substance use disorders were recruited by means of purposive and snowball sampling. A semi-structured interview with participants was conducted by phone or video-call. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed based on descriptive phenomenology. RESULTS: Three superordinate themes were identified: role responsibility, Peer Support Workers' need for organizational and stakeholders' support, and challenges to the role integrity. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The findings indicate the need for national and governmental support to peer support workers engaged with people with substance use disorders in Egypt and educating families and the public about the role of peer support workers in substance use disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Egito , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
7.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(2): 2101346, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936869

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented stressor for frontline healthcare workers, notably increasing acute stress disorder and depression rates. Emotion regulation and social support could be major protective factors against such psychopathological states, but their role has not been explored outside Western contexts. Objective: To assess the association between emotion regulation, social support, acute stress disorder, and depression among healthcare workers directly confronted with the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Method: A cross-sectional study assessed acute stress disorder, depression, adaptive (i.e. acceptance, positive refocusing, …) and maladaptive (i.e. self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, …) emotion regulation strategies, social support (instrumental, emotional, and informational levels), as well as self-reported situations and feelings related to COVID-19, in a population of 252 frontline healthcare workers (121 women; 131 men; mean age: 39 ± 11 years old) at the Referral General Hospital of Bukavu. We also explored the relations between these variables through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Forty percent of participants presented symptoms of depression, and 16% presented acute stress disorder. In bivariate logistic regression, these psychiatric outcomes were associated with the availability of a COVID-19 protection kit [OR = 0.24 (0.12-0.98)], hostility toward health workers [OR = 3.21 (1.23-4.21)], putting into perspective [OR = 0.91 (0.43-0.98)], self-blame [OR = 1.44 (1.11-2.39)], catastrophizing [OR = 1.85 (1.01-4.28)], blaming others [OR = 1.77 (1.04-3.32)], emotional support [OR = 0.83 (0.49-0.98)], instrumental support [OR = 0.74 (0.28-0.94)], and informational support [OR = 0.73 (0.43-0.98)]. In multivariate logistic regression, hostility [OR = 2.21 (1.54-3.78)], self-blame [OR = 1.57 (1.02-2.11)], rumination [OR = 1.49 (1.11-3.13)] and emotional support [OR = 0.94 (0.65-0.98)] remained significantly associated with psychiatric outcomes. Conclusion: Depression and acute stress disorder were highly prevalent among Congolese healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 health pandemic. Hostility, self-blame, rumination, and social support were associated with depression and/or acute stress disorder and should be targeted by interventions aiming to support health workers' wellbeing. HIGHLIGHTS: Frontline health workers presented high prevalence of acute stress disorder (16%) and depression (40%) during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, as they were working in hostile environment without enough protection kits.Acute stress disorder and depression were negatively associated with adaptive emotion regulation and social support; and positively with maladaptive emotion regulation.Intervention aiming to support health workers in pandemics should target emotion regulation and social support.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 es un factor estresante sin precedentes para los trabajadores de atención médica de primera línea, que aumenta notablemente las tasas de trastorno por estrés agudo y depresión. La regulación de las emociones y el apoyo social podrían ser factores protectores importantes contra tales estados psicopatológicos, pero su papel no ha sido explorado fuera de los contextos occidentales.Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre la regulación de las emociones, el apoyo social, el trastorno de estrés agudo y la depresión entre los trabajadores de la salud que confrontaron directamente la primera ola de la pandemia de COVID-19 en el este de la República Democrática del Congo.Método: Un estudio transversal evaluó el trastorno de estrés agudo, la depresión, estrategias de regulación emocional adaptativas (es decir, aceptación, refocalización positiva, …) y desadaptativas (es decir, autoculpabilización, rumiación, catastrofización, …), apoyo social (niveles instrumental, emocional, e informacional), así como situaciones y sentimientos autoinformados relacionados con el COVID-19, en una población de 252 trabajadores de salud de primera línea (121 mujeres; 131 hombres; edad media: 39 ± 11 años) en el Hospital General de Referencia de Bukavu. También exploramos las relaciones entre estas variables mediante regresión logística bivariada y multivariada.Resultados: Cuarenta por ciento de los participantes presentó síntomas de depresión y el dieciséis por ciento presentó trastorno de estrés agudo. En regresión logística bivariada, estos resultados psiquiátricos se asociaron con la disponibilidad de un kit de protección COVID-19 [OR = 0.24 (0.12­0.98)], hostilidad hacia los trabajadores de la salud [OR = 3.21 (1.23­4.21)], postura en perspectiva [ OR = 0.91 (0.43­0.98)], autoculpabilización [OR = 1.44 (1.11­2.39)], catastrofización [OR = 1.85 (1.01­4.28)], heteroculpabilización [OR = 1.77 (1.04­3.32)], apoyo emocional [OR = 0.83 (0.49­0.98)], apoyo instrumental [OR = 0.74 (0.28­0.94)] y apoyo informativo [OR = 0.73 (0.43­0.98)]. En la regresión logística multivariada, hostilidad [OR = 2.21 (1.54­3.78)], autoculpabilización [OR = 1.57 (1.02­2.11)], rumiación [OR = 1.49 (1.11­3.13)] y apoyo emocional [OR = 0.94 (0.65­0.98)] permanecieron significativamente asociados con los resultados psiquiátricos.Conclusión: La depresión y el trastorno de estrés agudo fueron muy frecuentes entre los trabajadores de la salud congoleños durante la primera ola de la pandemia sanitaria de COVID-19. La hostilidad, la autoculpabilización, la rumiación y el apoyo social se asociaron con depresión y/o trastorno de estrés agudo y deberían ser el objetivo de las intervenciones destinadas a apoyar el bienestar de los trabajadores de la salud.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Regulação Emocional , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
8.
Bull Hist Med ; 96(2): 237-265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912620

RESUMO

The rise of psychiatric deinstitutionalization policies in the formerly colonized world is commonly narrated as a novel and decolonial intervention imparted by Euro-American NGOs of the global mental health era of the past two decades. By contrast, this article uncovers the history of a British imperial push for deinstitutionalization that originated in West Africa in the 1930s-decades prior to the rise of global mental health policies. Colonial austerity measures, combined with British officials' observations of West African ethno-psychiatric healing practices, motivated an empire-wide policy favoring family and community care over institutional treatment for most mentally distressed colonial subjects. Global mental health policies that ideologically sanction state austerity measures for the mentally ill through community care are neither new nor decolonial. They remake colonial-era mandates for public services to operate on shoestring budgets.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , África Ocidental , Desinstitucionalização , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 983, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research in high-income countries has identified low socioeconomic status as a risk factor for disability pension (DP) due to common mental disorders (CMDs). Psychotherapy is an evidence-based treatment for the majority of CMDs along with medication and it is often targeted to prevent work disability. This study examines socioeconomic differences in the use of rehabilitative psychotherapy in Finland, where citizens have universal health coverage, but psychotherapy is partly dependent on personal finance. METHODS: The study subjects (N = 22,501) were all the Finnish citizens granted a DP due to CMD between 2010 and 2015 and a comparison group (N = 57,732) matched based on age, gender, and hospital district. Socioeconomic differences in psychotherapy use were studied using logistic regression models. Socioeconomic status was defined by education, income, and occupation. Age, gender, and family status were also examined. RESULTS: A lower level of education, lower occupational status (blue-collar worker), male gender, and older age, were associated with less frequent psychotherapy use, in both groups. Education was the strongest component of socioeconomic status associated with psychotherapy use, but the role of income was not straightforward. Unemployment when approaching DP, but not otherwise, was a risk factor for not receiving rehabilitative psychotherapy. Socioeconomic disparities were not any smaller among CMD patients approaching DP than in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the disparity in the provision of psychotherapy for CMD patients, even on the verge of DP with an acute need for services. This disparity is partly related to a complex interplay of socioeconomic factors and the service system characteristics. Factors predisposing to unequal access to mental health services are presumably diverse and should be studied further.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pensões , Psicoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(8): 472-473, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923281

RESUMO

Ahmed Hankir talks to Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan about his work at the frontier between the arts and clinical psychiatry to combat stigma.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 4997-5007, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considering the impact of mental illness and cancer on the society, the relationship between the two diseases should be assessed. This study aimed at determining the association between mental illness and cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Embase and Medline databases were searched on October 21, 2020. Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies were eligible for study inclusion. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to qualitatively assess the risk of bias. Funnel plots were drawn to evaluate the risks of bias across the included studies. RESULTS: We included 58 studies from 16 countries, incorporating approximately 30 national databases and 25 million individuals. Patients with psychiatric disorders did not show an increased risk of developing cancer. However, patients with cancer had a significantly increased risk of developing mental illness. The survival rates of patients with mental illness according to cancer occurrence and patients with cancer according to mental illness occurrence were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should conduct early screening to ensure that appropriate interventions for mental illness are administered in patients with cancer. Due to the high incidence of death in patients with mental illnesses due to unnatural causes, such as suicide, homicide, and accidents, clinicians should be aware of the importance of the treatment and management of these patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neoplasias , Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Homicídio , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
13.
Medwave ; 22(6)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916893

RESUMO

Introduction Suicide is the second leading cause of premature death in people between 15 and 29 years old and the third in young people between 15 and 19 years old. Adolescence is a critical period concerning mental health disorders since there is greater vulnerability to suicidal behaviors. The situation in Latin America is worrying, with Chile being one of the two countries where suicide rates of children and adolescents increase yearly. This study aims to analyze clinical, psychological, family, and social risk factors associated with suicidal behavior in a clinical sample of adolescents treated in the public health system of the Maule region. Methods The study design is cross- sectional. We used a sample of 388 adolescents between 10 and 21 years old admitted to the health system of the Maule Region. The participants were evaluated by applying five measuring instruments (The Barrat Impulsivity Scale, The Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale, The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, The General Help-Seeking Questionnaire for mental health problems in adolescents, and The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale) in addition to collecting social and family information and relevant clinical history from the medical records. Results The analysis allowed us to identify distinctive characteristics of adolescent suicidal behavior by describing clinical, psychological, and family social factors. Conclusions Adolescents with a history of suicide attempts are characterized by having suicidal ideation, anxious-depressive symptoms, stress, insomnia, and impulsiveness. Likewise, they report being non-religious, belonging to sexual minorities, and victims of sexual harassment and/or abuse.


Introducción El suicidio es la segunda causa de muerte prematura en personas entre 15 y 29 años, y la tercera en jóvenes entre 15 y 19 años. La adolescencia es un periodo crítico, dado que existe mayor vulnerabilidad para conductas suicidas. La situación en América Latina es crítica, siendo Chile uno de los dos países donde las tasas de suicidio de niños y adolescentes aumentan año tras año. En este estudio se analizan factores de riesgo clínicos, psicológicos y sociofamiliares asociados con la conducta suicida, en una muestra clínica de adolescentes atendidos en el sistema de salud público de la región del Maule. Método El diseño del presente estudio es transversal. En él se utilizó una muestra de 388 adolescentes de 10 a 21 años ingresados al sistema de salud de la Región del Maule. Durante la recogida de información se aplicaron cinco instrumentos de medición (escalas de impulsividad de Barrat, de dificultades de regulación emocional, de depresión, ansiedad y estrés, cuestionario general de búsqueda de ayuda para problemas de salud mental en adolescentes y escala de clasificación de gravedad del suicidio de Columbia). Además se recabó información sociofamiliar y antecedentes relevantes desde las fichas clínicas. Resultados El análisis realizado permitió identificar características distintivas de la conducta suicida adolescente, mediante la descripción de factores clínicos, psicológicos y sociofamiliares evaluados. Conclusión Los adolescentes con historial de intentos de suicidio se caracterizan por presentar ideación suicida, sintomatología ansiosa- depresiva, estrés, insomnio e impulsividad. Asimismo, reportan no tener creencias religiosas, pertenecer a minorías sexuales y haber sido víctima de acoso y/o abuso sexual.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acad Med ; 97(8): 1170-1174, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917544

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Medical students experience high levels of burnout and face barriers to accessing support services. However, few studies have considered the feasibility and/or effectiveness of one-on-one peer support programs for medical students. This report aims to describe the development and implementation of such a program, the Side-by-Side Peer Support Program, at the University of Ottawa (August 2018-June 2020). APPROACH: Thirty-five medical students enrolled at the University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine were selected to participate in a training course aimed at developing the skills necessary to provide one-on-one support to their peers. The main responsibilities of peer supporters were to reach out to classmates, particularly those displaying changes in their usual behavior that might be indicative of mental illness, to provide basic counseling, and to refer at-risk students to professional services. Peer supporters offered weekly hours during which classmates could contact them for support. Information on interactions between students and peer supporters was recorded in an electronic database. An end-of-year survey collected information on barriers to seeking help perceived by medical students. OUTCOMES: A total of 303 interactions were recorded. Interactions took place in various formats, including in-person, via telephone or video call, or via texting or online messaging. Interactions were initiated by both students and peer supporters. Survey respondents identified more barriers to seeking help from Faculty of Medicine services than Side-by-Side, including fear of impact on career (22.2% vs 2.5%; P < .01) and belief that the services would not be helpful (42.0% vs 23.5%; P = .02). NEXT STEPS: The authors plan to quantify well-being through academic engagement metrics as well as mental health outcome metrics in future studies. Future studies should also consider whether peer support increases help-seeking behaviors and/or the use of professional services.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Medicina , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 314, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927242

RESUMO

Olfactory impairments contribute to the psychopathology of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression. Recent neuroscience research has shed light on the previously underappreciated olfactory neural circuits involved in regulation of higher brain functions. Although environmental factors such as air pollutants and respiratory viral infections are known to contribute to the risk for psychiatric disorders, the role of nasal inflammation in neurobehavioral outcomes and disease pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we will first provide an overview of published findings on the impact of nasal inflammation in the olfactory system. We will then summarize clinical studies on olfactory impairments in schizophrenia and depression, followed by preclinical evidence on the neurobehavioral outcomes produced by olfactory dysfunction. Lastly, we will discuss the potential impact of nasal inflammation on brain development and function, as well as how we can address the role of nasal inflammation in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. Considering the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which often causes nasal inflammation and serious adverse effects for olfactory function that might result in long-lasting neuropsychiatric sequelae, this line of research is particularly critical to understanding of the potential significance of nasal inflammation in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Psicofisiologia
19.
Behav Res Ther ; 156: 104127, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934488

RESUMO

This article reflects on the papers included in the Special Issue on The Network Approach and the Future of Clinical Psychology (Roefs, Jansen, & Fried, 2022). The emergence of major empirical research programs into symptom networks is discussed in relation to the research agenda involving the system dynamics of mental disorders. This research agenda is then related to major themes addressed in the special issue: the integration of empirical results into a larger theoretical framework, the role of mental representations and neurobiological factors, the problem of measurement error, and the presence of heterogeneity. Taken together, the generation of large scale research programs, the availability of new sources of data, and the availability of network approaches creates momentum that may allow us to take crucial steps forward in assessing, modeling, and intervening on mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicologia Clínica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
20.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 1110941, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935323

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders include severe psychiatric disorders and those in general with some psychiatric disorders having a clear etiology or in which a significant psychiatric predisposing factor is present. Whereas, psychiatric disorders precisely refer to those characterized by mild depression and mild anxiety and appear to affect a large number of people in any community. It has been reported that the disease is highly prevalent and has a huge impact on the individual, family, and community levels, resulting in a heavy burden on the healthcare system of a country. To explore the status of somatic symptoms in young and middle-aged psychiatric patients during long-term hospitalization, a total of 114 young and middle-aged psychiatric patients with prolonged hospitalization (more than 5 years) were included. Data information of the hospitalized patients was recorded, including preadmission somatic symptoms, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and blood tests. In addition, a homemade questionnaire was administered, and general information about the patients was also collected, including gender, age, current medication use, and duration of medication use. Correlations between cardiometabolic disease, osteoporosis, and long-term oral antipsychotic medication were analyzed in these young and middle-aged patients. The prevalence of comorbid somatic symptoms was 77.2%, and concomitant disorders included mainly cardiometabolic disorders, osteoporosis, pulmonary infections, cerebrovascular disorders, digestive disorders, fractures, and skin conditions. The incidence of somatic symptoms caused by long-term use of antipsychotic drugs was about 88.6%, and the incidence of concomitant somatic symptoms was higher in young and middle-aged psychiatric patients who were hospitalized for a long time. The current study observed a high prevalence of somatic symptoms in young and middle-aged patients with long-term inpatient psychiatric illness. Endocrine and metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, may trigger a range of deleterious effects. In addition to this, there is a high incidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be paid to the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, and appropriate measures are needed to make early diagnosis and provide early treatment to reduce the occurrence of cardiometabolic diseases and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Transtornos Mentais , Osteoporose , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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