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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 163-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006360

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairment in behavior, communication, and social interaction. Thus, accurate identification, regular behavioral and other nonmedical interventions would improve the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this condition.In this chapter, we investigate the importance of diagnosing and identifying comorbid psychiatric disorders that occur with ASD as these conditions can often complicate treatment, and failure to recognize them can result in deficits that can persist into adolescence and adulthood. In addition, we explore the impact of comprehensive psychological intervention in ASD patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders with the ultimate goal of improving overall quality of life.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973775

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies analysing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of suicide have primarily focused on sociodemographic factors. Limited research has focused on psychosocial factors and co-ingestion of other substances to understand the mechanisms of how alcohol contributes to death by suicide. The aim was to examine time trends, psychosocial factors related to acute alcohol use and co-ingestion of alcohol and other substances before suicide. METHODS: The Queensland Suicide Register in 2004-2015 was utilised and analysed in 2019. The cut-off point for positive BAC was set at ⩾0.05 g/dl. Substances were categorised as medicines, illegal drugs and other. Medicines were coded by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Joinpoint regression, univariate odds ratios, age and sex-adjusted odds ratios and Forward Stepwise logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: BAC information was available for 6744 suicides, 92% of all cases in 2004-2015. The final model showed that independent factors distinguishing BAC+ from BAC- were: age group 25-44 years, Australian Indigenous background, being separated or divorced, hanging, diagnosis of substance use, lifetime suicidal ideation, relationship and interpersonal conflict, not having psychotic and other psychiatric disorder, and no nervous system drugs or any other substances in blood at the time of suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that people who die by suicide while under the influence of alcohol are more likely to be under acute stress (e.g. separation) and not have earlier psychiatric conditions, except substance use. This highlights the importance of more strict alcohol policies, but also the need to improve substance use treatment.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Suicídio/psicologia
4.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(1): 47-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375920

RESUMO

Progress and challenges in the analysis of big data in social media of adolescents Abstract. Social media are ubiquitous today, and adolescents use them to express their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. New interdisciplinary methods allow the automatic analysis of the massive amounts of data (big data) available on social networking websites using machine-learning tools to detect indicators of mental-health problems and disorders by identifying differences with common activity and communication patterns. This review first introduces the concept and potential fields of applications of big data in social media. It then discusses the first studies that used big data analyses and detected mental-health problems by identifying differences in the structure of social networks, in the use of certain words, and in the communication of opinions and sentiments. Future studies employing several assessment points could use longitudinal mediation analysis to model intraindividual changes in order to understand when and through which mechanisms social media use has an impact on mental health. Furthermore, future studies should include additional mental disorders, various sources of information, a broader age range, and additional social-networking websites to develop more precise models for the early detection of mental disorders. This would enable the development of personalised intervention programs to promote mental health and resilience in adolescents.


Assuntos
Big Data , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comunicação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 160-165, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343744

RESUMO

The characteristics of mental disorders, as well as deficiencies in their treatment, must be properly defined. This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational study, in which all men referred to a penitentiary psychiatric consultation of three penitentiary centers in Spain were invited to participate. Those who consented to participation (1328) were interviewed at the baseline timepoint and at intervals for up to 3 years. The presence of mental disorders was high: 68.2% had a cluster B personality disorder, 14% had an affective and/or anxiety disorders, 13% had schizophrenia, and over 80% had a dual disorder. Polypharmacy was the norm. Moreover, the health care received in prison did not match that provided in the community in terms of quantity and quality. These results should help to facilitate the design of mental healthcare provision for prisoners, focusing on both the most frequent patient profiles and equality of care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Adulto , Coinfecção , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimedicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 154-159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404481

RESUMO

Homicide is the most serious and costly criminal offense and better forensic and criminological understanding of homicidal ideation as a potential psychobehavioral precursor to homicidal conduct is critical. Using data from the 2016 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) distributed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), we found 64,910 cases of homicidal ideation among a sample of 25.6 + million-a prevalence of 0.25%. Numerous conditions conferred increased substantially the likelihood of homicidal ideation including antisocial personality disorder (2406%), schizoaffective disorder (1821%), borderline personality disorder (1557%), paranoid personality disorder (1,504%), schizophrenia (1,143%), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (921%), brief psychotic disorder (771%), unspecified psychosis (737%), avoidant personality disorder (596%), and schizoid personality disorder (571%), delusional disorder (546%), and other psychotic disorder (504%). Homicidal ideation is comorbid with serious psychiatric and behavioral problems and has important implications for offender typologies and homicidality.


Assuntos
Homicídio/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18399, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876712

RESUMO

Integration of psychiatric care at the Primary Health Care (PHC) could be an important strategy towards addressing the shortages of in-patient mental health care services in South Africa. This study describes the profiles of admitted psychiatric patients at the East London Mental Health Unit (ELMHU) of the Eastern Cape from January 2016 to December 2016.In this retrospective cross-sectional study, an audit of medical records of all psychiatric in-patients managed at the ELMHU during the study period was undertaken. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the profiles and examine the associations with the common psychiatric conditions.Of the participants with complete data (n = 186), the majority were males (n = 108); single (72.6%) and had secondary education (45.7%). The majority of in-patients were psychotic (38%), violent (31%), manic (16%) or suicidal (9.2%) at the time of admission. Patients who were 35 years and above, resided in urban areas, and presented with suicidal and depressive symptoms were more likely to be admitted voluntarily. Schizophrenia (31.6%), cannabis-related psychiatric disorders (31.6%), bipolar Type-1 disorder (21.9%) and alcohol related disorders (15.5%) were the main reasons for admission. There was a significant association between demographic characteristics and the common psychiatric disorders of the patients.Schizophrenia, bipolar 1 disorder, cannabis-related disorders and alcohol-related disorders are the predominant disorders leading to in- patient mental health care services being utilized in the study setting. Findings might inform training of health care workers at the PHCs with a view to integrating mental health care services in the Eastern Cape.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 767-777, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875627

RESUMO

Objectives The aim of this study is to report on the health status of residents in supportive housing in urban areas of Japan, and to explore the differences in health conditions across different age groups within this population.Methods The participants were 341 residents who had newly been admitted to supportive housing managed by a nonprofit organization. We examined their admission records and documented their health conditions. Differences in health conditions across age groups were also explored.Results More than 90 percent of the participants were single men, aged 40 or older, and living on welfare. The main reasons for their utilization of supportive housing were the lack of accommodation after leaving a hospital or facility, decrease in physical function, and progression of dementia. A high proportion of participants under 40 years had an addiction problem, schizophrenia, intellectual disorders, or developmental disorders. Participants aged 40-59 years had high rates of lifestyle-related diseases in addition to mental illnesses. Furthermore, for those aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of geriatric syndromes such as dementia, hearing impairment, and visual impairment was high. Additionally, there was a high proportion of elderly participants whose health status was unknown when they were admitted to supportive housing.Conclusion Most residents who had been admitted to supportive housing in the urban areas of Japan had physical or mental illnesses, and their life and support needs varied by age group. These findings suggest that it may be necessary for residents living in urban supportive housing in Japan to receive not only increased medical and psychological care but also age group-specific care.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Habitação Popular , Seguridade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 231-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clients on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) have high attrition rates that are attributed to personal and system-related factors. To develop supportive interventions for these clients, it is imperative to understand social demographic characteristics and challenges that clients in the MMT program face. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe (a) the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical profiles of clients in a MMT program, (b) factors that impact their positive clinical outcomes, and (c) the study's implications for practice. METHODS: A retrospective review of 101 randomly selected electronic medical records representing one third of all the records were examined for sociodemographic characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze these variables. Interviews with 18 healthcare providers focusing on their experiences of caring for clients in the MMT program were analyzed thematically. RESULTS: The average age of clients on MMT is 35.5 years. Clients had early exposure to alcohol and drugs, and at the time of enrollment to the program, they presented with complex healthcare needs, borne from chronic use, and exposure to adverse traumatic events. Personal and systemic factors impact clients' recovery. These include poverty, homelessness, and inadequate healthcare services. Understanding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical profiles, and clients' challenges is central to the development of supportive interventions that enhance retention to care and recovery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Meio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1418, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. METHODS: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Emprego , Renda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego
13.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 367-371, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685575

RESUMO

This article will describe the mental health/substance use issues of justice-involved youth, highlight the role that trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have in the development of these issues, discuss what services are offered at the highest levels of confinement, identify the service gaps and needs for this vulnerable population, and briefly examine the anticipated effects of the upcoming North Carolina Raise the Age legislation.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 263-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705499

RESUMO

This article gives an overview of the concept and brain mechanisms of Internet game and smartphone addiction and the applicability of precision medicine and smart healthcare system. Internet game and smartphone addiction are categorized as behavioral addictions, which share similar phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings with substance addictions. Neuroimaging studies revealed the alteration in the functional activity and structure of individuals with Internet game and smartphone addiction, which also can be potent biomarkers. Precision medicine is defined as treatments targeted to the individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics. Recent advances in high-throughput technology and bioinformatics have enabled us to integrate these big data with behavioral data collected from smartphones or other wearable devices. Data collected via smart devices can be transferred to medical institute and integrated in order to diagnose current status precisely and to provide optimal intervention. The feedbacks of intervention are sent back to the medical provider via self-reports or objective measures to evaluate the appropriateness of the intervention. In conclusion, Internet game and smartphone addiction can be diagnosed precisely using high-throughput technology and optimally managed via smart healthcare system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1534, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(672): 2159-2163, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746573

RESUMO

The main aims of the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus cohort study are to better understand: 1) the personal, biologic, genetic end environmental determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, and 2) the existing association of mental disorders with cardiovascular diseases. The study was initiated in 2003 and over 6700 participants from the city of Lausanne were include and very rich phenotypic data were collected making the study unique worldwide. Numerous scientific articles were published in various fields such as epidemiology, public health, genetic, social and environmental determinants of cardiovascular diseases and their association with mental health. We briefly present here some key results obtained over the last 16 years.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
19.
Metas enferm ; 22(9): 16-26, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185038

RESUMO

Objetivo: describir la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de Ciencias de la Salud acerca de las personas con problemas de salud mental e identificar los factores que se relacionan con dichas atribuciones. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal llevado a cabo en 2018. La muestra estaba formada por estudiantes de Enfermería y Fisioterapia del Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud San Rafael-Nebrija de Madrid (España). Se recopilaron variables identi- ficativas del sujeto de estudio y se utilizó el cuestionario de Atribución AQ-27, que consta de 27 ítems y nueve factores que informan sobre responsabilidad, piedad, ira, peligrosidad, miedo, ayuda, coacción, segregación y evitación. Se realizaron análisis uni y bivariantes. Resultados: participaron 262 estudiantes de Ciencias de la Salud, 67,8% (n= 177) del Grado de Enfermería y 32,2% (n= 84) del Grado de Fisioterapia. El 77,4% (n= 202) era mujer. La edad osciló entre 18-45 años. El 9,3% tenía formación en salud mental, el 9,9% experiencia laboral en el área, el 23,3% presentó antecedentes familiares en trastornos de salud mentaly el 7% antecedentes personales. Los valores medios (desviación estándar) más altos los presentaron en los factores "ayuda" 7,66 (1,37), "coacción" 6,56 (1,62) y "piedad" 6,51 (1,36). Los más bajos en "ira" 3,41 (1,79) y "responsabilidad" 2,50 (1,35). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p< 0,05) en ira y ayuda respecto al título de Grado; en segregación respecto a la formación previa en salud mental; y en peligrosidad, miedo, ayuda, segregación y evitación respecto a antecedentes personales en salud mental. Conclusiones: los estudiantes de Ciencias de la Salud destacan en las dimensiones de ayuda, piedad y coacción; y obtienen valores más bajos en ira y responsabilidad. La formación previa en salud mental influye sobre el factor segregación. La presencia de antecedentes personales en salud mental influye sobre los factores miedo, peligrosidad, ayuda, segregación y evitación


Objective: to describe the perception by Health Sciences students of persons with mental health problems, and to identify the factors associated with said attributions. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 2018. The sample included Nursing and Physical Therapy students from the Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud San Rafael-Nebrija from Madrid (Spain). Identification variables of the study subject were collected, and the AQ-27 Attribution Questionnaire was used, which consists of 27 items and nine factors informing about Blame, Anger, Pity, Dangerousness, Fear, Help, Segregation, Coercion and Avoidance. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out. Results: the study included the participation of 262 Health Sciences students: 67.8% (n= 177) from Nursing and 32.2% (n= 84) from Physical Therapy; 77.4% (n= 202) were female. There was an 18-to-45-year-old age range; 9.3% had mental health training, 9.9% had working experience in the area, 23.3% presented a family background with mental health disorders, and 7% had a personal background. The highest mean values (standard deviation) were present in the following factors: "help" with 7.66 (1.37), "coercion" with 6.56 (1.62), and "pity" with 6.51 (1.36). The lowest values (p≤ 0.05) were found in "anger" with 3.41 (1.79) and "blame" with 2.50 (1.35). Statistically significant differences were found in Anger and Help in terms of the type of degree; in Segregation in terms of previous training in Mental Health; and in Dangerousness, Fear, Help, Segregation and Avoidance in terms of personal mental health background. Conclusions: Health Sciences students stood out in the Help, Pity and Coercion dimensions, and obtained lower values in Anger and Blame. Previous training in mental health had impact on the Segregation factor. The presence of personal background in mental health had impact on these factors: Fear, Dangerousness, Help, Segregation and Avoidance


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde Mental
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1286, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational stressors in police work increase the risk for officer mental health morbidities. Officers' poor mental wellbeing is harmful to the individual, can affect professionalism, organisational effectiveness, and public safety. While the impact of operational stressors on officers' mental wellbeing is well documented, no review has systematically investigated organisational stressor impacts. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to assess the relationship between organisational stressors and police officer mental wellbeing. METHODS: Systematic review conducted following PRISMA and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Literature search was undertaken from 1990 to May 2017 on four databases (EBSCOHOST Medline/SocINDEX/PsycINFO/OVID Embase) and grey literature. Included articles were critically appraised and assessed for risk of bias. Narrative and evidence syntheses were performed by specific mental health outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 3571 results were returned, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies were published in English between 1995 and 2016, had cross-sectional study designs, spanned across four continents and covered 15,150 officers. Strong evidence of significant associations was identified for organisational stressors and the outcomes of: occupational stress, psychiatric symptoms/psychological distress, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. The organisational stressors most often demonstrating consistently significant associations with mental health outcomes included lack of support, demand, job pressure, administrative/organisational pressure and long working-hours. CONCLUSIONS: This review is the first to systematically examine organisational stressors and mental health in police officers. Organisational stressors that can be targeted by interventions and policy changes to secure officer wellbeing, a healthy work environment, and benefits to the organisation and the public are identified.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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