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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1012, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support work for substance use disorders is widely implemented in high-income countries. More research is still needed to understand its applicability in settings which have proportionately low budgets allocated to mental health. Peer Support Workers are individuals who managed to achieve recovery from substance use disorders and help people remain engaged in their recovery and prevent relapse through shared understanding. AIM: To investigate the experience of peer support workers providing recovery support to people with substance use disorders in Egypt. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological design was used in which 17 adults working as peer support workers for substance use disorders were recruited by means of purposive and snowball sampling. A semi-structured interview with participants was conducted by phone or video-call. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed based on descriptive phenomenology. RESULTS: Three superordinate themes were identified: role responsibility, Peer Support Workers' need for organizational and stakeholders' support, and challenges to the role integrity. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The findings indicate the need for national and governmental support to peer support workers engaged with people with substance use disorders in Egypt and educating families and the public about the role of peer support workers in substance use disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Egito , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 983, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research in high-income countries has identified low socioeconomic status as a risk factor for disability pension (DP) due to common mental disorders (CMDs). Psychotherapy is an evidence-based treatment for the majority of CMDs along with medication and it is often targeted to prevent work disability. This study examines socioeconomic differences in the use of rehabilitative psychotherapy in Finland, where citizens have universal health coverage, but psychotherapy is partly dependent on personal finance. METHODS: The study subjects (N = 22,501) were all the Finnish citizens granted a DP due to CMD between 2010 and 2015 and a comparison group (N = 57,732) matched based on age, gender, and hospital district. Socioeconomic differences in psychotherapy use were studied using logistic regression models. Socioeconomic status was defined by education, income, and occupation. Age, gender, and family status were also examined. RESULTS: A lower level of education, lower occupational status (blue-collar worker), male gender, and older age, were associated with less frequent psychotherapy use, in both groups. Education was the strongest component of socioeconomic status associated with psychotherapy use, but the role of income was not straightforward. Unemployment when approaching DP, but not otherwise, was a risk factor for not receiving rehabilitative psychotherapy. Socioeconomic disparities were not any smaller among CMD patients approaching DP than in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the disparity in the provision of psychotherapy for CMD patients, even on the verge of DP with an acute need for services. This disparity is partly related to a complex interplay of socioeconomic factors and the service system characteristics. Factors predisposing to unequal access to mental health services are presumably diverse and should be studied further.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pensões , Psicoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 4997-5007, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considering the impact of mental illness and cancer on the society, the relationship between the two diseases should be assessed. This study aimed at determining the association between mental illness and cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Embase and Medline databases were searched on October 21, 2020. Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies were eligible for study inclusion. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to qualitatively assess the risk of bias. Funnel plots were drawn to evaluate the risks of bias across the included studies. RESULTS: We included 58 studies from 16 countries, incorporating approximately 30 national databases and 25 million individuals. Patients with psychiatric disorders did not show an increased risk of developing cancer. However, patients with cancer had a significantly increased risk of developing mental illness. The survival rates of patients with mental illness according to cancer occurrence and patients with cancer according to mental illness occurrence were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should conduct early screening to ensure that appropriate interventions for mental illness are administered in patients with cancer. Due to the high incidence of death in patients with mental illnesses due to unnatural causes, such as suicide, homicide, and accidents, clinicians should be aware of the importance of the treatment and management of these patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neoplasias , Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Homicídio , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
4.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 1110941, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935323

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders include severe psychiatric disorders and those in general with some psychiatric disorders having a clear etiology or in which a significant psychiatric predisposing factor is present. Whereas, psychiatric disorders precisely refer to those characterized by mild depression and mild anxiety and appear to affect a large number of people in any community. It has been reported that the disease is highly prevalent and has a huge impact on the individual, family, and community levels, resulting in a heavy burden on the healthcare system of a country. To explore the status of somatic symptoms in young and middle-aged psychiatric patients during long-term hospitalization, a total of 114 young and middle-aged psychiatric patients with prolonged hospitalization (more than 5 years) were included. Data information of the hospitalized patients was recorded, including preadmission somatic symptoms, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and blood tests. In addition, a homemade questionnaire was administered, and general information about the patients was also collected, including gender, age, current medication use, and duration of medication use. Correlations between cardiometabolic disease, osteoporosis, and long-term oral antipsychotic medication were analyzed in these young and middle-aged patients. The prevalence of comorbid somatic symptoms was 77.2%, and concomitant disorders included mainly cardiometabolic disorders, osteoporosis, pulmonary infections, cerebrovascular disorders, digestive disorders, fractures, and skin conditions. The incidence of somatic symptoms caused by long-term use of antipsychotic drugs was about 88.6%, and the incidence of concomitant somatic symptoms was higher in young and middle-aged psychiatric patients who were hospitalized for a long time. The current study observed a high prevalence of somatic symptoms in young and middle-aged patients with long-term inpatient psychiatric illness. Endocrine and metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, may trigger a range of deleterious effects. In addition to this, there is a high incidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be paid to the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, and appropriate measures are needed to make early diagnosis and provide early treatment to reduce the occurrence of cardiometabolic diseases and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Transtornos Mentais , Osteoporose , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 311, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927227

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused massive effects on the situation of public mental health. A fast online questionnaire for screening and evaluating mental symptoms is urgent. In this work, we developed a new 19-item self-assessment Fast Screen Questionnaire for Mental Illness Symptoms (FSQ-MIS) to quickly identify mental illness symptoms. The FSQ-MIS was validated on a total of 3828 young adult mental disorder patients and 984 healthy controls. We applied principal component analysis (PCA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and general log-linear analysis (GLA) to evaluate the construct and parallel validity. Results demonstrate that the proposed FSQ-MIS shows high test-retest reliability (0.852) and split-half reliability (0.844). Six factors obtained using PCA explained 54.3% of the variance and showed high correlations with other widely used scales. The ROC results (0.716-0.983) revealed high criterion validity of FSQ-MIS. GLA demonstrated the advantage of FSQ-MIS in predicting anxiety and depression prevalence in COVID-19, supporting the efficiency of FSQ-MIS as a tool for research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926859

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with complex medical or surgical problems who also demonstrate psychiatric symptoms or conditions. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 523, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental distress is the most common problem among medical students. This is associated with severe consequences of lack of empathy for their patients, committing medical errors, and suicidal ideations and attempts. However, there is limited data on this aspect where the study was conducted especially in this segment of the population. Considering its seriousness, this study will have pivotal input information to plan possible interventions for the future. So, this study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of mental distress and its associated factors among medical students of the University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, 2021. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling technique to get a total of 438 study subjects from April 15-30/2021. Mental distress data were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire of the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Data was entered to Epi-data version 4.6.02 and cleaned, coded, and analyzed using STATA version 14. RESULTS: The prevalence of mental distress among medical students was 193(45.95%) with 95% CI (41.2, 50.7). In multi-variable logistic regression being female sex (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.66, 8.12), lack of interest towards field of study (AOR = 4.4, 95%, CI = (2.18, 8.78), current alcohol use (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI = 3.03, 11.15), monthly pocket money < 735 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.53, 6.04), extremely high test anxiety (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.27, 11.88), family history mental illness (AOR = 2.5 95% CI = 1.12, 5.53) and poor social support (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = (1.94, 9.16) were significantly associated with mental distress. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Prevalence of mental distress among medical students of University of Gondar was found to be higher when compared to previous studies among this population in Ethiopia. It is recommended that the school of medicine should give undue attention to address those identified factors by establishing counseling centers to minimize mental distress.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Universidades
8.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(4): 201-208, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems that affect different population groups. According to the national survey in 2015 based on General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), 23.44% of Iranians older than 15 years were suspected of having a mental disorder. The study aimed to determine the mental health status of the population over 15 years of age in the Islamic Republic of Iran, one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: The population-based study was performed on 24584 individuals over 15 years of age in Iran between December and February, 2020. The GHQ-28 was completed through telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent t-test, and multiple logistic regression at 95% confidence level. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean age of participants was 44.18±16.47 years. The prevalence of mental disorders was 29.7%. Mental disorder was associated with female gender (OR=1.195, 95% CI 1.10-1.29), 25-44 years (OR=1.206, 95% CI 1.06-1.36), urban life (OR=1.116, 95% CI 1.04-1.19), illiteracy (OR=1.286, 95% CI 1.11-1.48), being divorced (OR=1.924, 95% CI 1.50- 2.45), and unemployment (OR=1.657, 95% CI 1.40-1.94). Among the participants and their families, 14.7% and 32.3% were infected with the disease, respectively. The COVID-19 mortality rate in their families was 13.2%. The prevalence of mental disorders in infected people (40% vs. 27.3%) and bereaved families (39.6% vs. 35.3%) was more than the non-infected groups. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that in Iran, the mental health of the general population had a rising trend compared to 2015, especially in people infected with COVID-19 and bereaved families. The observed difference may be due to the prevalence of the COVID-19 epidemic and rapid demographic, social, and economic changes in Iran. Planning to improve mental health in the mentioned population should be considered for the post COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Previsões , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Amostragem , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220059, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the interfaces between mental illness, based on common mental disorder screening, and sociodemographic, health and life habits aspects of nursing workers at COVID-19 units. METHOD: A mixed methods study, carried out with 327 nursing workers from COVID-19 units of seven public and philanthropic, medium and large hospitals in Brazil. The collection included a socio-employment, health and lifestyle questionnaire, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire, and interviews. chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied to quantitative data and thematic content analysis, with the help of NVivo in the qualitative ones. RESULTS: Common mental disorders were screened in 35.5% of the sample and were associated with female sex (p = 0.004), age up to 40 years (p = 0.003), nurse (p = 0.014), reporting previous illness (p = 0.003), using psychoactive drugs (p < 0.001), medication that was not used before the pandemic (p < 0.001) and reporting poor sleep/eating quality (p < 0.001). The impacts of the pandemic on social and family life presented interfaces with mental illness. CONCLUSION: The presence of psychological illness is suggested, possibly associated with the repercussions of the pandemic on work and personal life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Atenção à Saúde , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(789): 1345-1348, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792586

RESUMO

The practice of psychiatry and psychology in prisons is essential because of the high prevalence of mental disorders that is observed. Psychiatrists and psychologists, such as other health care professionals, should be affiliated to the health department and intervene in the therapeutic role, which must be distinguished from the role of the psychiatric expert mandated by the court. Therapy in prison is challenging because of the sometimes contradictory issues, at the interface of clinical, societal, security, legal and political fields. Health care professionals can thus be subject to important pressures or to ethical and deontological issues.


La pratique de la psychiatrie et de la psychologie en milieu pénitentiaire est essentielle du fait de la forte prévalence des troubles mentaux qui y est observée. Comme l'ensemble du personnel médicosoignant, les psychiatres et psychologues devraient être rattachés au département de la santé et interviennent dans un rôle de thérapeute qui doit être bien distinct du rôle de l'expert psychiatre mandaté par la justice. Les prises en charge thérapeutiques sont complexes en raison des enjeux parfois contradictoires, à l'interface des champs cliniques, sociétaux, sécuritaires, juridiques et politiques. Les thérapeutes peuvent ainsi être soumis à d'importantes pressions ou à des questionnements éthiques et déontologiques.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prisões
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805615

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare associations between stress and sleep disorders (insomnia, hypersomnia, and sleep apnea), identify potential modifying effects, and compare associations between stress and types of sleep disorders with selected mental health conditions. Analyses were based on 21,027 employees aged 18-64 years in 2020 who were insured by the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). The risk of stress (2.3%) was significantly greater in women, singles, and those with dependent children. The risk of a sleep disorder was 12.1% (2.1% for insomnia, 1.0% for hypersomnia, and 10.1% for sleep apnea). The risk of stress was significantly greater for those with a sleep disorder (136% overall, 179% for insomnia, and 102% for sleep apnea after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, dependent children, and sleep disorders). The risk of stress among those with sleep apnea was significantly greater for singles than for married individuals. Approximately 9.5% had anxiety, 8.5% had depression, 2.0% had ADHD, 0.6% had bipolar disorder, 0.4% had OCD, and 0.1% had schizophrenia. Each of these mental health conditions was significantly positively associated with stress and sleep disorders. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were more strongly associated with stress and sleep disorders than were the other mental health conditions. Insomnia was more strongly associated with anxiety, bipolar disorder, OCD, and schizophrenia than was sleep apnea.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Transtornos Mentais , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805746

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between the heat-related illness (HRI) and the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. From 2000 to 2015, there were 3126 patients with newly diagnosed HRI selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database, along with 31,260 controls matched for gender and age. Fine and Gray's analysis was used to compare the risk of psychiatric disorders during the 16 years of follow-up. Among the subjects, 523 of the HRI patients and 3619 of the control group (1774.18 vs. 1193.78 per 100,000 person-years) developed psychiatric disorders. Compared with non-HRI patients, the HRI ones had a 3.849-fold risk of being attacked by psychiatric disorders (95% CI: 3.632-4.369, p < 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationship between the HRI and the listed psychiatric disorders was determined by the exclusion of the first-year psychiatric events after the HRI. In spite of deleting the psychiatric diagnoses of the first five years, the HRI was still correlated with the development of psychiatric disorders with the exception of schizophreniform disorders, posttraumatic stress disorders, and acute stress disorder. Therefore, our findings concluded that the HRI could be a potential influence on the increased hazard of psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Transtornos Mentais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(4): 277-284, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781467

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of premature death in people with severe mental disorders (SMDs). This review provides an update on the level of CVD mortality and morbidity, as well as the socioeconomic, psychosocial and genetic factors associated with the comorbidity, and offer directions for improved interventions to reduce CVD in SMDs. RECENT FINDINGS: The level of CVD mortality and morbidity has sustained high in people with SMDs during the past decades, but the causal mechanism must be further elucidated. Psychosocial and socioeconomic challenges are frequent in SMDs as well as in CVD. Further, recent studies have revealed genetic variants jointly associated with SMDs, CVD risk and social factors. These findings highlight the need for more targeted interventions, prediction tools and psychosocial approaches to comorbid CVD in SMDs. SUMMARY: The level of CVD comorbidity remains high in SMDs, indicating that most people with SMDs have not benefitted from recent medical advances. A complex interplay between genetic and social vulnerability to CVD, which differs across subgroups of patients, seems to be involved. Further research is required to meet the urgent need for earlier, more efficient intervention approaches and preventive strategies for comorbid CVD in SMD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos Mentais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with mental disorders (MD). People who smoke are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and experiencing more severe symptoms of the illness. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and MD before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether it was influenced by COVID-19-related stress in the MASH cohort. METHODS: An ambispective design was used with data collected during the pandemic (July/August 2020) by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, a parameter for stress, and data collected at the participants' last cohort visit before the pandemic (December 2019). RESULTS: In our sample of 314 participants, 58.6% were living with HIV, 39.2% had MD, 52.5% smoked before, and 47.8% smoked during the pandemic. Participants with MD were twice as likely to smoke cigarettes both before (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21-3.37, p = 0.007) and during the pandemic (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.56, p = 0.006); and experienced higher levels of stress measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale (8.59 [5.0-10.0] vs. 7.65 [5.0-10.0]; p = 0.026) compared to those without MD. Participants with MD and high levels of stress smoked more days per month (20.1 [0-30] days) than those with lower levels of stress (9.2 [0-30] days, p = 0.021), and more than those with high levels of stress, but no MD (2.6 [0-30] days, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking decreased in the MASH cohort during the pandemic, but increased in participants with MD and higher levels of stress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fumar Cigarros , Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(9): 1135-1144, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior research suggested the increased likelihood of brain cancer diagnosis following certain psychiatric diagnoses. This association may result from detection bias or suggest an early sign for brain cancer. This study investigated whether psychiatric illness may be an early manifestation of brain cancer while considering potential effects of detection bias. METHODS: This case-control study used the data from the Department of Defense's Central Cancer Registry and the Military Health System Data Repository. Four cancer-free controls and one negative-outcome control (cancers not associated with psychiatric illness) were matched to each brain cancer case diagnosed from 1998 to 2013 by age, sex, race, and military status. The groups were compared in the likelihood of having a pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We found a significant association of psychiatric illnesses with brain cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.18-3.16) and other cancers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.49-2.19), compared to non-cancer controls. The association was stronger for psychiatric diagnoses within three months before cancer (brain cancer: OR = 26.77, 95% CI = 15.40-46.53; other cancers: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.96-8.65). The association with psychiatric disorders within 3 months were higher for small brain tumors (OR = 128.32, 95% CI = 17.28-952.92 compared to non-cancer controls) while the OR was 2.79 for other cancers (95% CI = 0.86-8.99 compared to non-cancer controls). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest an association between diagnosed psychiatric illnesses and subsequent brain cancer diagnosis, which may not be solely explained by detection bias. Psychiatric illness might be a sign for early detection of brain cancer beyond the potential effects of detection bias.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Militar , Militares , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Razão de Chances
17.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883505

RESUMO

High comorbidity rates, especially mental-physical comorbidity, constitute an increasing health care burden, with women and men being differentially affected. To gain an overview of comorbidity rates stratified by sex across a range of different conditions, this study examines comorbidity patterns within and between cardiovascular, pulmonary, skin, endocrine, digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, neurological diseases, and psychiatric conditions. Self-report data from the LifeGene cohort of 31,825 participants from the general Swedish population (62.5% female, 18-84 years) were analyzed. Pairwise comorbidity rates of 54 self-reported conditions in women and men and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for their comparison were calculated. Overall, the rate of pairwise disease combinations with significant comorbidity was higher in women than men (14.36% vs. 9.40%). Among psychiatric conditions, this rate was considerably high, with 41.76% in women and 39.01% in men. The highest percentages of elevated mental-physical comorbidity in women were found for musculoskeletal diseases (21.43%), digestive diseases (20.71%), and skin diseases (13.39%); in men, for musculoskeletal diseases (14.29%), neurological diseases (11.22%), and digestive diseases (10%). Implications include the need for integrating mental and physical health care services and a shift from a disease-centered to an individualized, patient-centered focus in clinical care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 315: 114704, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the impact of the pandemic on antidepressant (AD) use. METHODS: The Social and Health Information System of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, provided data on AD use. Sex, age, AD class and month used the amount of AD prescriptions, measured by defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day, to compare AD use in 2020 with the period 2015-2019. A linear trend model predicted AD use for 2020, based on years 2015-2019. RESULTS: AD use was on average 20% higher in each month of 2020 when compared with the same month for the period 2015-2019, with an increase of more than 30% in the first four and in the last two months of 2020. The observed AD use in 2020 was higher than predicted, particularly in men, and in the 30-59 years age group. LIMITATIONS: Descriptive study of AD use without analysis of data at the individual level. No information on psychiatric diagnoses of AD users. CONCLUSION: AD use was higher in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is warranted to understand if this may be related to a rise in mental disorders in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prescrições
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 315: 114720, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834863

RESUMO

Treatment needs of adults diagnosed with both psychiatric and substance use disorders (i.e., dual diagnosis) have not received detailed characterization in a nationally representative US sample. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III were used to compare socio-behavioral, diagnostic, and service use characteristics of dually diagnosed adults to those with psychiatric disorders or SUDs alone. Adults with dual diagnosis were estimated to constitute 25.8% of those with any psychiatric disorder; 36.5% of those with any SUD and 17.8% of the 75.8 million adults with either disorder. Among those with psychiatric disorders, the independent correlates of dual diagnosis reflected substantial social or psychopathological disadvantages (e.g., violent behavior, poor mental health-related quality of life [HRQOL], police trouble, homelessness, and incarceration). Similarly, among those with SUD all independent correlates of dual diagnosis also reflected social or psychopathological disadvantages including poor mental HRQOL, witnessing trauma in childhood, childhood sex abuse, drug use diagnoses, suicide attempt, medical problems, having more than one SUD diagnosis, child neglect, repeated adult traumas, and less social support. Provision of medical, psychiatric, addiction and especially diverse social services in an integrated and accessible setting appear necessary and deserve further study.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Criança , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12763, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896566

RESUMO

There is no comprehensive study on the mental health of Sri Lankan undergraduate in higher education, as most existing studies have been done for medical students only. It is unknown how academic and environmental factors contribute for the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses. Further, there is no sufficient information on the student/university based remedies to reduce the psychological distress of students. This research is carried out to find the overall psychological distress, well-being, prevalence percentages of psychiatric illnesses, associated risk factors, and student/university remedies to overcome them. We use standard questionnaires to screen for psychiatric illnesses, and we analyze the responses for our own questionnaire using Binary logistic regression analysis to identify demographic factors, academic factors, and environmental factors causing each mental disorder. We use Pearson correlation coefficient to identify correlation between prevalence of each psychiatric illnesses. All 13 psychiatric illnesses were found with a moderate correlation among diseases having a mean prevalence percentage of 28 and a standard deviation of 14.36, despite the prevalence of well-being factors among students and only 8% are clinically diagnosed. 89% of the students were suffering from at least one psychiatric illness and 68% were found to be psychologically distressed. Sets of overall and individual demographic, academic, and environmental risk factors contributing for the prevalence of a psychiatric illness in general and in particular were identified respectively after a binary logistic regression analysis. 61% of the students don't receive psychiatric help from the university and are using their own remedies. The universities must consider the environmental and academic risk factors associated with psychiatric illnesses and design curriculum, expand resources, and provide counseling services to reduce the impact of risk factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
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