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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730915

RESUMO

In December 2019, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) infection was reported. In only few weeks it has caused a global pandemic, with mortality reaching 3.4%, mostly due to a severe pneumonia. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the central nervous system (CNS) and mental health outcomes remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of other types of coronaviruses in the brain, especially in the brainstem. There is evidence that the novel coronavirus can penetrate CNS through the olfactory or circulatory route as well as it can have an indirect impact on the brain by causing cytokine storm. There are also first reports of neurological signs in patients infected by the SARS-Cov-2. They show that COVID-19 patients have neurologic manifestations like acute cerebrovascular disease, conscious disturbance, taste and olfactory disturbances. In addition, there are studies showing that certain psychopathological symptoms might appear in infected patients, including those related to mood and psychotic disorders as well as post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence also indicates that the pandemic might have a great impact on mental health from the global perspective, with medical workers being particularly vulnerable. In this article, we provide a review of studies investigating the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS and mental health outcomes. We describe neurobiology of the virus, highlighting the relevance to mental disorders. Furthermore, this article summarizes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 from the public health perspective. Finally, we present a critical appraisal of evidence and indicate future directions for studies in this field.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological suffering by health professionals may be associated with the uncertainty of a safe workplace. Front-line professionals exposed and involved in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients are more susceptible. METHOD: This review was conducted based on papers that were published at MEDLINE, BMJ, PsycINFO, and LILACS, the according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). RESULTS: Health professionals had a higher level of anxiety (13.0 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01, OR = 1.6152; 95%CI 1.3283 to 1.9641; p < 0.0001) and depression 12.2 vs. 9.5%; p = 0.04; OR = 1.3246; 95%CI 1.0930 to 1.6053; p = 0.0042), besides somatizations and insomnia compared to professionals from other areas. CONCLUSION: Health professionals, regardless of their age, showed significant levels of mental disorders. We observed a prevalence of anxiety and depression. Insomnia was a risk factor for both.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health professionals are key personnel to containing infectious diseases like COVID-19. In the face of long work shifts (that reach 16 h per day on average), the risk of getting infected by a high-infectious disease and the lack of enough biological protection measures, mental suffering among health professionals suddenly became evident. METHOD: We carried out an updated meta-analysis to investigate the psychiatric impacts on health professionals in the face of the physical and psychological conditions to which they are subjected due to the high demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. Papers were researched in four databases from December 2019 to April 2020. In total, eight papers were included in the study. RESULTS: Health professionals working to fight COVID-19 are being more severely affected by psychiatric disorders associated with depression, anxiety, distress and insomnia, stress, and indirect traumatization than other occupational groups. No significant differences were observed in the publication bias. CONCLUSION: There is a strong association between health professionals and COVID-19 in terms of psychiatric repercussions. Our meta-analysis showed that health professionals have a higher level of indirect traumatization, in which the level of damage exceeds psychological and emotional tolerance and indirectly results in psychological abnormalities. The incidence of obsessive-compulsive traces and somatizations was higher in situations involving front-line professionals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Angústia Psicológica , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
7.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020011, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921709

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 epidemic, home care and remote working showed important technological innovations, leading to review all public mental health policies. In this article, some considerations based on the Italian COVID-19 experience in order to plan post-COVID psychiatric interventions are reported.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21428, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide. The reported possible neurological symptoms are varied and range from subtle neurologic deficits to unconsciousness. Knowledge regarding the detection, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of COVID-19-associated neurological damage is still limited. We report a case of serious neurological damage and mental abnormalities in a patient who was finally confirmed to have COVID-19 based on IgM and IgG antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 68-year-old man had slight flu-like symptoms and transient loss of consciousness in early February. Exaggerated unconsciousness and deteriorating mental abnormalities occurred over the next month without severe respiratory symptoms. Craniocerebral computed tomography showed normal results, but antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were 100 times higher in the CSF than in the serum; tests for viral ribonucleic acid showed negative results with both a nasopharyngeal swab and CSF sample. DIAGNOSIS: COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed based on symptoms and positive results for IgM and IgG in the CSF. INTERVENTIONS: Antiviral, fluid, and nutritional support were administered for 30 days before admission without obvious improvement. A further 18 days of routine antiviral therapy, immunoglobulin therapy (10 g per day for 5 days), and antipsychotic drug treatment were administered. OUTCOMES: The patient's neurological and mental abnormalities were greatly ameliorated. He was discharged with mild irritability, slight shaking of the hands, and walking fatigue. These symptoms have persisted up to our last follow-up (May 4, 2020). CONCLUSION: We believe this is the first case involving neural system injury in a patient who confirmed COVID-19 based on CSF antibody test results. Negative ribonucleic acid test results, strong positivity for antibodies, and high protein levels in the CSF suggest the possibility of autoimmune encephalitis secondary to COVID-19. This case highlights additional novel symptoms of COVID-19, and these data are important for the assessment and follow-up of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Imunoglobulina M/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify publishing related to the mental health of health professionals working in the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: an integrative review that included primary articles indexed in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct databases and US National Library of Medicine databases. The result analysis was performed descriptively, in four analytical categories. RESULTS: The publishing involved aspects related to insufficient personal protective equipment, feelings of fear and stigma, the need for psychological and psychiatric support and the possibility of post-outbreak mental disorders. CONCLUSION: All mentioned aspects have a direct impact on the mental health of professionals, demanding the creation of strategies that minimize the emotional burnout of workers, considering that each country and culture reacts differently to the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estereotipagem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to assess prevalence of mental disorders during Covid-19 pandemic- and respective lockdown in Germany, and potential behaviors/states that can have protective functions on preventing severe mental problems. Assessing prevalence of mental disorders, as well as to find potential protective variables is very important in order to determine people's psychological suffering. It provides the basis for teaching possible coping styles in order to prevent a major breakdown on mental health. Prevalence on mental disorders was expected to increase during the pandemic, especially depression, (general-/and health-) anxiety, panic attacks- and disorder, as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, potentially protective variables, such as resilience and coping, were included. METHODS: N = 949 subjects completed an online-survey that asked for symptoms regarding depression, (health) anxiety, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and lock-down related behavior-starting 14 days after lockdown in Germany. RESULTS: Prevalence of mental disorders in the current sample was much higher than usual prevalence of mental disorders, with 50.6% expressing at least one mental disorder. Resilience was associated with lower risks for any mental disorder (OR = 4.23, p < .0001, 95%CI = 3.21-5.57), as well as with any other measured mental illness (all ORs between = 2.82 for obsessive-compulsive disorder and OR = 41.44 for panic disorder, all p < .001). Similar results were obtained regarding coping (focus on positive). CONCLUSION: Results are highly relevant in order to provide a glance on what substantial influence the current pandemic- and lockdown situation has on mental health across the country, and possibly across the world. Possible ways in order to prevent deterioration and help coping with the current situation are being elaborated and discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 261, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732883

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a severe multiorgan pathology which, besides cardio-respiratory manifestations, affects the function of the central nervous system (CNS). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), similarly to other coronaviruses demonstrate neurotropism; the viral infection of the brain stem may complicate the course of the disease through damaging central cardio-respiratory control. The systemic inflammation as well as neuroinflammatory changes are associated with massive increase of the brain pro-inflammatory molecules, neuroglial reactivity, altered neurochemical landscape and pathological remodelling of neuronal networks. These organic changes, emerging in concert with environmental stress caused by experiences of intensive therapy wards, pandemic fears and social restrictions, promote neuropsychiatric pathologies including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), various psychoses, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 represent serious clinical challenge that has to be considered for future complex therapies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21422, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791761

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly used for urinary symptoms in Eastern countries. Since there are few effective treatments available for patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), the psychological burden leads to increased healthcare-seeking behavior. Some patients may therefore seek TCM treatment for related urinary symptoms. Due to limited clinical research evaluating the effects of TCM on IC/BPS, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the relationship between TCM and mental disorders among these patients. The IC/BPS cohort and its matched non-IC/BPS comparison cohort were recruited from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database between 2000 and 2011. Patients with the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) granules or acupuncture over 90 days per year were enrolled as the TCM users. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) of mental disorders related to interstitial cystitis. The incidence of mental disorders in the 2 cohorts was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 1123 patients with IC/BPS and 4492 matched non-IC/BPS subjects were included in this study. The IC/BPS cohort demonstrated higher incidence rate of mental disorders than the cohort without IC/BPS (adjusted HR: 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-2.81). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of mental disorders between IC/BPS patients with and without CHM granules or acupuncture treatment (adjusted HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.58-1.68). Our results indicated that CHM and acupuncture showed insignificant efficacy in the prevention of mental disorders in IC/BPS patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Cistite Intersticial/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Cistite Intersticial/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 355-365, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial malformations demanding surgical treatment in infancy. Data on overall psychiatric morbidity among children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis remain limited. This study investigated the risk of psychiatric disorders in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. METHODS: The authors reviewed a register-based cohort of all individuals born with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis in Sweden between 1973 to 1986 and 1997 to 2012 (n = 1238). The nonsyndromic craniosynostosis cohort was compared with a matched community cohort (n = 12,380) and with unaffected full siblings (n = 1485). The authors investigated the risk of psychiatric disorders, suicide attempts, and suicides by using Cox regression adjusted for perinatal and somatic factors, season and birth year, sex, parental socioeconomic factors, and parental psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis had a higher risk of any psychiatric disorder (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.70; 95 percent CI, 1.43 to 2.02), including intellectual disability (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 4.96; 95 percent CI, 3.20 to 7.70), language disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 2.36; 95 percent CI, 1.57 to 3.54), neurodevelopmental disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.30; 95 percent CI, 1.01 to 1.69), and other psychiatric disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.43; 95 percent CI, 1.11 to 1.85). Full siblings with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were more likely, in the crude analyses, to be diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder, including intellectual disability, language disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders compared with nonaffected siblings. The higher risk for any psychiatric disorder and intellectual disability remained after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis demonstrated higher risks of any psychiatric disorder compared with children without nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. This risk cannot fully be explained by familial influences (i.e., genetic or environmental factors). CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Craniossinostoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21784, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke mental disorders (PSMDs) and post-stroke sleep disorders (PSSDs) are quite common condition in stroke's patients. Qigong has been widely applied as a replaced and useful treatment for PSMDs and PSSDs. However, the exact effects and safety of Qigong have yet be systematically investigated. Our study focused on summary of efficacy and safety of Qigong for the treatment of advanced PSMDs and PSSDs through the systematic analysis and meta-analysis, in order to provide scientific reference for the clinical. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Relevant randomized controlled trials were only considered. Search strategy will be performed in 4 English database including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpt Medical Database, 4 Chinese Database including Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Scientific Journal Database, Wanfang Database, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Papers in English or Chinese published from their inception to 30 June 2020. Study selection and data extraction will be performed independently by 2 investigators. The clinical outcomes including overall Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton anxiety scale, the mental health part of the MOS item short from health survey, Generic Quality of Life Inventory-74, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Based on the Cochrane Assessment tool and Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, a modified assessment form should be used to evaluate the methodological quality. Review Manager 5.3 was used for data analysis and risk of bias. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We provide some more practical and targeted results examine the effect of Qigong exercises for PSMDs and PSSDs in the relative meta-analysis. We find out defects or inadequacies of Qigong in previous studies. The findings of this research will provide more evidence-based guidance in clinical practice and more rigorous study.International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (INPLASY) registration number: INPLASY202070051.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Qigong , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qigong/efeitos adversos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms (PS) can be non-motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD) which are common even in the prodromal, untreated phase of the disease. Some PS, especially depression and anxiety recently became known predictive markers for PD. Our objective was to explore retrospectively the prevalence of PS before the diagnosis of PD. METHODS: In the framework of the Hungarian Brain Research Program we created a database from medical and medication reports submitted for reimbursement purposes to the National Health Insurance Fund in Hungary, a country with 10 million inhabitants and a single payer health insurance system. We used record linkage to evaluate the prevalence of PS before the diagnosis of PD and compared that with patients with ischemic cerebrovascular lesion (ICL) in the period between 2004-2016 using ICD-10 codes of G20 for PD, I63-64 for ICL and F00-F99 for PS. We included only those patients who got their PD, ICL and psychiatric diagnosis at least twice. RESULTS: There were 79 795 patients with PD and 676 874 patients with ICL. Of the PD patients 16% whereas of those with ischemic cerebrovascular lesion 9.7% had a psychiatric diagnosis before the first appearance of PD or ICL (p<0.001) established in psychiatric care at least twice. The higher rate of PS in PD compared to ICL remained significant after controlling for age and gender in logistic regression analysis. The difference between PD and ICL was significant for Mood disorders (F30-F39), Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09), Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F48) and Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-F29) diagnosis categories (p<0.001, for all). DISCUSSION: The higher rate of psychiatric morbidity in the premotor phase of PD may reflect neurotransmitter changes in the early phase of PD.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750080

RESUMO

Long working hours are known to have a negative effect on health. However, there is no clear evidence for a direct link between mental health and long working hours in the young adult populations. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether long working hours are associated with mental health in young adult workers. Data were collected from a 2012 follow-up survey of the Youth Panel 2007. A total of 3,332 young adult employees (aged 20 to 35) were enrolled in the study. We analyzed stress, depression, and suicidal thoughts by multivariate logistic regression analysis based on working hours (41 to 50, 51 to 60 and over 60 hours, compared to 31 to 40 hours per week), which was adjusted for sex, age, marriage status, region, and educational level. From the 3,332 young adult employees, about 60% of the workers worked more than 40 hours and 17% of the workers worked more than 50 hours per week. In a Chi-square test, stress level, depression, and suicidal thoughts increased with increasing working hours (p-value <0.001, 0.007, and 0.018, respectively). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that, compared to the 31 to 40 hours per week group, the adjusted odds ratios of the 41 to 50, 51 to 60, and over 60 hours per week groups for stress were 1.46(1.23-1.74), 2.25(1.79-2.83) and 2.55(1.72-3.77), respectively. A similar trend was shown in depression [odds ratios: 2.08(1.23-3.53), 2.79(1.44-5.39) and 4.09(1.59-10.55), respectively] and suicidal ideation [odds ratios: 1.98(0.95-4.10), 3.48(1.48-8.19) and 5.30(1.61-17.42), respectively]. We concluded that long working hours were associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation in young employees, aged 20 to 35.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Ideação Suicida , Fatores de Tempo
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