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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 149-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583588

RESUMO

Astroglial cells are involved in most if not in all pathologies of the brain. These cells can change the morpho-functional properties in response to pathology or innate changes of these cells can lead to pathologies. Overall pathological changes in astroglia are complex and diverse and often vary with different disease stages. We classify astrogliopathologies into reactive astrogliosis, astrodegeneration with astroglial atrophy and loss of function, and pathological remodelling of astrocytes. Such changes can occur in neurological, neurodevelopmental, metabolic and psychiatric disorders as well as in infection and toxic insults. Mutation in astrocyte-specific genes leads to specific pathologies, such as Alexander disease, which is a leukodystrophy. We discuss changes in astroglia in the pathological context and identify some molecular entities underlying pathology. These entities within astroglia may repent targets for novel therapeutic intervention in the management of brain pathologies.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alexander/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 101-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562625

RESUMO

The treatment of psychiatric disorders remains a significant challenge in part due to imprecise diagnostic criteria and incomplete understanding of the molecular pathology involved. Current diagnostic and pharmacological treatment guidelines use a uniform approach to address each disorder even though psychiatric clinical presentation and prognosis within a disorder are known to be heterogeneous. Limited therapeutic success highlights the need for a precision medicine approach in psychiatry, termed precision psychiatry. To practice precision psychiatry, it is essential to research and develop multiple omics-based biomarkers that consider environmental factors and careful phenotype determination. Metabolomics, which lies at the endpoint of the "omics cascade," allows for detection of alterations in systems-level metabolites within biological pathways, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological conditions and pathologies. The eicosanoids, a family of metabolites derived from oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids, play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms and have been implicated in psychiatric disorders such as anorexia nervosa and depression. This review (1) provides background on the current clinical challenges of psychiatric disorders, (2) gives an overview of metabolomics application as a tool to develop improved biomarkers for precision psychiatry, and (3) summarizes current knowledge on metabolomics and lipidomic findings in common psychiatric disorders, with a focus on eicosanoids. Metabolomics is a promising tool for precision psychiatry. This research has great potential for both discovering biomarkers and elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Transtornos Mentais , Medicina de Precisão , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Metabolômica
3.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1101): 20181000, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170803

RESUMO

Psychoradiology is an emerging field that applies radiological imaging technologies to psychiatric conditions. In the past three decades, brain imaging techniques have rapidly advanced understanding of illness and treatment effects in psychiatry. Based on these advances, radiologists have become increasingly interested in applying these advances for differential diagnosis and individualized patient care selection for common psychiatric illnesses. This shift from research to clinical practice represents the beginning evolution of psychoradiology. In this review, we provide a summary of recent progress relevant to this field based on their clinical functions, namely the (1) classification and subtyping; (2) prediction and monitoring of treatment outcomes; and (3) treatment selection. In addition, we provide guidelines for the practice of psychoradiology in clinical settings and suggestions for future research to validate broader clinical applications. Given the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the importance of increased participation of radiologists in this field, a guide regarding advances in this field and a description of relevant clinical work flow patterns help radiologists contribute to this fast-evolving field.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Humanos
4.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986970

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcomes in psychiatric patients. Involvement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in brain functions is largely documented. DHA is incorporated into membrane phospholipids as structural component, especially in the central nervous system where it also has important functional effects. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between DHA and cognitive function in relation to mental disorders. Results from few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of DHA (alone or in combination) in psychotic, mood and neurodevelopmental disorders, respectively, suggest that no conclusive remarks can be drawn.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/metabolismo , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1891, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015401

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of medication use may contribute to understanding of disease etiology, could generate new leads relevant for drug discovery and can be used to quantify future risk of medication taking. Here, we conduct GWASs of self-reported medication use from 23 medication categories in approximately 320,000 individuals from the UK Biobank. A total of 505 independent genetic loci that meet stringent criteria (P < 10-8/23) for statistical significance are identified. We investigate the implications of these GWAS findings in relation to biological mechanism, potential drug target identification and genetic risk stratification of disease. Amongst the medication-associated genes are 16 known therapeutic-effect target genes for medications from 9 categories. Two of the medication classes studied are for disorders that have not previously been subject to large GWAS (hypothyroidism and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease).


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Autoadministração , Autorrelato , Reino Unido
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853733

RESUMO

Modeling the extremes of mental/emotional conditions requires explicit account of evolutionary-developmental sources of human neurodiversity, not merely psychopathology. The target article's approach could be improved by incorporation of a hierarchical scheme wherein mental/emotional infrastructure interacts across differentiated layers of function. The notion "symptom networks" thus calls for differentiation into hierarchically interacting components of mental/emotional evolution and development.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Emoções , Humanos
10.
Neurosci Lett ; 701: 193-201, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825592

RESUMO

Converging lines of evidence suggest that heightened responding to unpredictable threat may be an important neurobiological marker of internalizing psychopathology (IP). Prior data also indicate that aversive responding to uncertainty may be mediated by hyperactivation of several brain regions within the frontolimbic circuit, namely the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). To date, however, the majority of this research has been focused on individual diagnoses and it is unclear whether abnormal neural reactivity to unpredictable threat is observed within heterogeneous, transdiagnostic IP patient populations, as theory would suggest. The aim of the current study was to therefore examine the neural correlates of temporally unpredictable (U) and predictable (P) threat in a sample of healthy controls (n = 24) and patients with a broad range of IP diagnoses (n = 51). We also examined whether symptom severity measures of fear and distress/misery dimensions correlated with neural reactivity to U- and P-threat. All participants completed a modified version of a well-validated threat-of-shock task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Across all participants, U- and P-threat elicited heightened activation in the aINS and brainstem, while P-threat alone also activated the dACC. Relative to healthy controls, patients displayed greater activation in the right aINS during U-threat, and greater right brainstem activation during P-threat. In addition, we found that brainstem activity during U-threat correlated with fear, but not distress/misery, psychopathology. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that exaggerated aINS reactivity during U-threat and brainstem reactivity during P-threat may have the potential to become important transdiagnostic biomarkers of IP; however, future research efforts are needed to corroborate and expand the present findings.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Medo , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 125: 1-4, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902132

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising intervention for psychiatric disorders; however, little is known with regards to the optimal regime. As cognition, either spontaneously generated by patients or guided by treatment, is important in psychiatry, we have proposed a model that integrates cognition activity with the biological mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of tDCS in psychiatric disorders. We propose that the valence of the outcome of these mechanisms may be determined by the cognitive activity of the patient before or during tDCS treatment. This hypothesis implies that proper cognition activity may work in cooperation with tDCS to achieve the maximum treatment effect. Negative cognition may decrease or even reverse the positive effect of tDCS. According to this hypothesis, the performance of explicit tasks or instructions before, during, or after tDCS is important. Harm caused by misuse of home-made tDCS equipment is also addressed in this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Animais , Cognição , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória , Modelos Neurológicos , Destreza Motora
12.
Yale J Biol Med ; 92(1): 139-143, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923481

RESUMO

The attention networks of the human brain have been under intensive study for more than twenty years and deficits of attention accompany many neurological and psychiatric conditions. There is more dispute about the centrality of attention deficits to these conditions. It appears to be time to study whether reducing deficits of attention alleviate the neurological or psychiatric disorder as a whole. In this paper we review human and animal research indicating the possibility of improving the function of brain networks underlying attention and their potential clinical role.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia
13.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 40(4): 240-252, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824180

RESUMO

The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that regulate cell physiology throughout the nervous system. The potential of mGlu receptors as therapeutic targets has been bolstered by current research that has provided insight into the diverse modes of mGlu activation and signaling. In particular, the allosteric modulation of mGlu receptors represents a major area of focus in studies of basic pharmacology as well as drug development, largely due to the high subtype specificity achievable by targeting allosteric sites on mGlu receptors. These provide sophisticated regulation of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission to influence behavioral output. Here, we review how these allosteric mechanisms have been leveraged preclinically to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of allosteric modulators for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease (PD), stress, and schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica
14.
Psychol Psychother ; 92(2): 208-223, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Humans evolved within the mammalian line as a highly social species. Indeed, sociality has been a major driver of human social intelligence. From birth, social relationships have emotional and self-regulating properties and operate through different body systems. This paper will explore how heart rate variability (HRV), an index of the vagal regulation of the heart and a central element of the physiological underpinnings of sociality, is related to mental health problems, with important implications for psychotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of the literature on the bi-directional links between prosocial motivations, HRV, and psychophysiological functioning. RESULTS: HRV is associated not only with the ability to downregulate physiological arousal, but also with a variety of psychological and behavioural variables which are usually the target of psychotherapeutic interventions. A modern neurovisceral integration model can be employed to explain the complex intercorrelation between HRV and psychophysiological functioning. In particular, the link between HRV, the experience of inter- and intrapersonal safeness, and the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex will be explored in the context of prosocial motives, such as compassion, that alleviate and help prevent mental health difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge of the social brain and its physiological underpinnings might influence important elements of a therapeutic intervention, from the initial assessment of patient's difficulties to the evaluation of therapy outcomes. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Social relationships have emotional and self-regulating properties. The experience of inter- and intrapersonal safeness is connected to prosocial motives, such as compassion, and the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. Social relationships and compassion influence different body systems, such as the vagus nerve. Many forms of psychopathology represent the activation of evolved, defensive strategies especially in contexts where there are few stimuli indicating safeness and social support. Heart rate variability predicts psychotherapy outcome.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia , Empatia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Motivação
15.
Psychother Psychosom ; 88(2): 71-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Network analysis (NA) is an analytical tool that allows one to explore the map of connections and eventual dynamic influences among symptoms and other elements of mental disorders. In recent years, the use of NA in psychopathology has rapidly grown, which calls for a systematic and critical analysis of its clinical utility. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of published empirical studies applying NA in psychopathology, between 2010 and 2017, was conducted. We included the literature published in PubMed and PsycINFO using as keywords any combination of "network analysis" with the terms "anxiety," "affective disorders," "depression," "schizophrenia," "psychosis," "personality disorders," "substance abuse" and "psychopathology." RESULTS: The review showed that NA has been applied in a plethora of mental disorders in adults (i.e., 13 studies on anxiety disorders; 19 on mood disorders; 7 on psychosis; 1 on substance abuse; 1 on borderline personality disorder; 18 on the association of symptoms between disorders), and 6 on childhood and adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: A critical examination of the results of each study suggests that NA helps to identify, in an innovative way, important aspects of psychopathology like the centrality of the symptoms in a given disorder as well as the mutual dynamics among symptoms. Yet, despite these promising results, the clinical utility of NA is still uncertain as there are important limitations on the analytic procedures (e.g., reliability of indices), the type of data included (e.g., typically restricted to secondary analysis of already published data), and ultimately, the psychometric and clinical validity of the results.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1118: 63-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747417

RESUMO

Mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior, and relationships with others. Multiple risk factors incorporating genetic and environmental susceptibility are associated with development of these disorders. Mitochondria have a central role in the energy metabolism, and the literature suggests energy metabolism abnormalities are widespread in the brains of subjects with MDD, BPD, and SZ. Numerous studies have shown altered expressions of mitochondria-related genes in these mental disorders. In addition, environmental factors for these disorders, such as stresses, have been suggested to induce mitochondrial abnormalities. Moreover, animal studies have suggested that interactions of altered expression of mitochondria-related genes and environmental factors might be involved in mental disorders. Further investigations into interactions of mitochondrial abnormalities with environmental factors are required to elucidate of the pathogenesis of these mental disorders.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Animais , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
17.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(3): 253-263, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the concurrent use of self-report questionnaires and hormonal biomarkers, specifically levels of testosterone and cortisol, along with demographic variables and corrected age (CA) in the assessment of mental health and healthy behaviors among mothers of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, BW < 1,500 g) infants at five time points over 2 years post birth. METHOD: Data on 40 mothers from a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States were collected from the medical record, standard questionnaires for the mother (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, mental health status, parenting stress, and healthy lifestyle behaviors), and biochemical measurement of maternal testosterone and cortisol using enzyme immunoassay at birth, 40 weeks' postmenstrual age, and 6, 12, and 24 months CA. RESULTS: Maternal self-report of mental health improved from birth to 6 or 12 months then worsened at 24 months. Mixed linear models showed that mothers with higher testosterone levels had more depressive symptoms and smoked more, whereas mothers with higher cortisol levels had healthier behaviors and exercised more. Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with cortisol levels. Marital status, education, and health insurance were the most predictive demographic variables for the levels of hormonal biomarkers, mental health, and healthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of self-report and biochemical measurement was effective in assessing maternal mental health and healthy behaviors over 2 years post birth, when mothers of VLBW infants tend to experience more mental health problems and parenting difficulties than mothers of normal-BW full-term infants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Mães/psicologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
18.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809588

RESUMO

Prematurity is associated with significantly increased risk of neurobehavioral pathologies, including autism and schizophrenia. A common feature of these psychiatric disorders is prefrontal cortex (PFC) inhibitory circuit disruption due to GABAergic interneuron alteration. Cortical interneurons are generated and migrate throughout late gestation and early infancy, making them highly susceptible to perinatal insults such as preterm birth. Term and preterm PFC pathology specimens were assessed using immunohistochemical markers for interneurons. Based on the changes seen, a new preterm encephalopathy mouse model was developed to produce similar PFC interneuron loss. Maternal immune activation (MIA; modeling chorioamnionitis, associated with 85% of extremely preterm births) was combined with chronic sublethal hypoxia (CSH; modeling preterm respiratory failure), with offspring of both sexes assessed anatomically, molecularly and neurobehaviorally. In the PFC examined from the human preterm samples compared to matched term samples at corrected age, a decrease in somatostatin (SST) and calbindin (CLB) interneurons was seen in upper cortical layers. This pattern of interneuron loss in upper cortical layers was mimicked in the mouse PFC following the combination of MIA and CSH, but not after either insult alone. This persistent interneuron loss is associated with postnatal microglial activation that occurs during CSH only after MIA. The combined insults lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits which parallel human psychopathologies that may be seen after extremely preterm birth. This new preclinical model supports a paradigm in which specific cellular alterations seen in preterm encephalopathy can be linked with a risk of neuropsychiatric sequela. Specific interneuron subtypes may provide therapeutic targets to prevent or ameliorate these neurodevelopmental risks.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Interneurônios/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/lesões , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
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