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1.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2123090, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited information is known from studies regarding traditional, religious, and cultural perspectives on mental illness and the use of traditional and alternative therapies by mentally ill people in Indonesia. This study explored traditional, religious, and cultural beliefs about causes of mental illness and the use of traditional/alternative treatments for mentally ill patients. METHOD: We adopted a qualitative content analysis method as proposed by Schreier. This study was conducted at a mental Hospital in Indonesia. We interviewed 15 nurses and 15 patients. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis method. RESULTS: Five discrete but interrelated themes emerged: 1) Possessed illness and belief in supernatural forces; 2) Sinful or cursed illness; 3) Witchcraft or human-made illness; 4) traditional/alternative treatments; and 5) Barriers to treatment of mental illness. CONCLUSION: Traditional/alternative treatments play an important role in meeting the need for mental health treatment. The findings are relevant for mental health nurses who provide direct to their patients, and for other areas of mental health practice. We also found a lack of knowledge about the causes of mental illness among patients and families. Education should be at the heart of mental health promotion to raise the level of mental health literacy in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião
2.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 216, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), public attitudes and stigma toward mental health illness seem to prevent people from seeking psychological help, which negatively impacts an individual's life. The primary objective of this study was to investigate people's attitudes toward seeking psychological help and identify the extent to which the associated stigma is responsible for preventing them from seeking psychological help. METHODS: Two hundred eighteen adults recruited from the community living in the Eastern Province of the KSA completed the questionnaires, customized to create the Arabic version of Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form (ATSPPH-SF-A), the Arabic version of Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH-A), and the Arabic version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25-A). RESULTS: Both stigma and psychological distress significantly affected attitudes toward seeking professional help. Furthermore, it indicated that attitudes were negatively correlated with stigma while positively correlated with psychological distress. No significant difference in attitudes toward psychological help-seeking was identified between male and female participants. However, males displayed higher levels of stigma, while females showed greater psychological distress. Furthermore, the groups who received psychological treatment demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward seeking psychological help. CONCLUSION: Stigma and psychological stress influence attitudes toward treatment-seeking behavior for mental illness, making them two major predictors responsible for the underutilization of mental health services. More research is needed to assess specific sociodemographic disparities across more data sources and the factors that further contribute to stigma and psychological distress.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Arábia Saudita , Estigma Social
4.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 529-534, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117487

RESUMO

Background  Psychiatry and psychology have struggled since their earliest development with the question whether psychopathology manifests itself identically around the world, and whether a disorder can be better understood from a biological or a socio-cultural perspective. Aim  To describe the culture and psychopathology debate based on recent developments in ICD and DSM, illustrated with depression and PTSD. Method  Clinical experience, previous publications in other languages, and a recent PubMed search on culture and psychopathology. Results  There is some consensus in worldwide studies on the universal manifestation of these two disorders. On the other hand, there is broad criticism due to three forms of bias: poor construct validity, looping effects and category truncation. DSM has developed concepts and tools that can enhance cultural competence in practice and in research. Conclusion  Researchers and practitioners should develop phenomenological skills to describe and incorporate the local expression of psychological problems into practice. And take into account the three forms of bias mentioned.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psiquiatria/métodos , Psicopatologia
5.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 545-548, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117490

RESUMO

Background  Prejudice, stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems are largely responsible for their limited social participation. Joining the globalised wokeness movement could reduce the tendency of social injustice. Aim  To explore the reasons why people with mental health problems experience difficulties to integrate into the wokeness debate and to suggest possible solutions. Results  Intersectionality, persons with mental health problems often being part of different vulnerable minority groups, stress and public stigma, are the main reasons of the limited level of advocacy for this target group. Conclusion  The struggle against social injustice that mental vulnerable persons are victims of, remains unequal even in times of wokeness. A strategic, non-patronising cooperation between psychiatrists, patients, family members and interest groups in the media and in the public and political forum, could make it possible to join the international wokeness movement.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social
6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 179(9): 628-639, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychotic experiences are common in children and adolescents and are associated with concurrent and subsequent psychopathology. Most findings originate from general population studies, whereas little is known of the clinical outcomes of psychotic experiences in children and adolescents at familial high risk of psychosis. We examined the prevalence of psychotic experiences in middle childhood and whether early childhood psychotic experiences and developmental pathways of psychotic experiences predicted mental disorders in middle childhood in children at familial high risk of schizophrenia (FHR-SZ), bipolar disorder (FHR-BP), and a population-based control group. METHODS: In a longitudinal population-based cohort study children at FHR-SZ (N=170), FHR-BP (N=103), and the control group (N=174) were assessed for psychotic experiences and axis I disorders with face-to-face interviews in early and middle childhood (at 7 and 11 years of age). RESULTS: Psychotic experiences were more prevalent in children at FHR-SZ (31.8%, odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4) than in the control group (18.4%) in middle childhood. Early childhood psychotic experiences predicted mental disorders in middle childhood after adjusting for early childhood disorders and familial risk (odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.1). Having three or more psychotic experiences increased odds the most (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). Persistent psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of middle childhood disorders (odds ratio 4.1, 95% CI 2.1-8.4). Psychotic experiences were nondifferentially associated with mental disorders across the three familial risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood psychotic experiences predict mental disorders in middle childhood. Psychotic experiences index vulnerability for psychopathology nondifferentially in children at familial high risk and the control group. Psychotic experiences should be included in mental health screenings including children at familial high risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
7.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2122135, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073745

RESUMO

PURPOSE: People with severe mental ill-health (SMI) experience profound health inequalities. The Optimizing Wellbeing in Self-isolation study (OWLS) explored the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on people with SMI, including how and why their physical and mental health may have changed during the pandemic. METHODS: The OLWS study comprised two surveys and two nested qualitative studies. Of 367 people recruited to the study, 235 expressed interest in taking part in a qualitative interview. In the first qualitative study eighteen interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of participants. RESULTS: We identified six factors which influenced peoples' health, positively and negatively: Staying Physically Active; Maintaining a Balanced and Healthy Diet; Work or Not Working; Daily Routine and Good Sleep; Staying Connected to Family, Friends and the Local Community; and Habits, Addictions and Coping with Anxiety Created by the Pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Different aspects of lifestyle are highly interconnected. For people with SMI, loss of routine and good sleep, poor diet and lack of exercise can compound each other, leading to a decline in physical and mental health. If people are supported to understand what helps them stay well, they can establish their own frameworks to draw on during difficult times.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 604, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support is increasingly acknowledged as an integral part of mental health services around the world. However, most research on peer support comes from high-income countries, with little attention to similarities and differences between different settings and how these affect implementation. Mental health workers have an important role to play in integrating formal peer support into statutory services, and their attitudes toward peer support can represent either a barrier to or facilitator of successful implementation. Thus, this study investigates mental health workers' attitudes toward peer support across a range of high- (Germany, Israel), middle- (India), and low-income country (Tanzania, Uganda) settings. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted in Ulm and Hamburg (Germany), Butabika (Uganda), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Be'er Sheva (Israel), and Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India) with a total of 35 participants. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Participants across the study sites demonstrated overall positive attitudes towards peer support in mental health care, although some concerns were raised on potentially harmful effects of peer support such as negative role modelling and giving inadequate advice to service users. Notably, mental health workers from low- and middle-income countries described peer support workers as bridge-builders and emphasized the mutual benefits of peer support. Mental health workers' views on peer support workers' roles and role boundaries differed between sites. In some settings, mental health workers strongly agreed on the need for role clarity, whereas in others, mental health workers expressed mixed views, with some preferring blurred role boundaries. Regarding collaboration, mental health workers described peer support workers as supporters and utilizers, equal partners or emphasized a need for trust and commitment. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health workers' attitudes toward peer support workers were positive overall, but they also varied depending on local context, resources and previous experiences with peer support. This affected their conceptions of peer support workers' roles, role clarity, and collaboration. This study demonstrated that reconciling the need for local adaptations and safeguarding the core values of peer support is necessary and possible, especially when the implementation of recovery-oriented interventions such as peer support is accelerating worldwide.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Tanzânia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078334

RESUMO

Mental health-related anti-stigma strategies are premised on the assumption that stigma is sustained by the public's deficiencies in abstract professional knowledge. In this paper, we critically assess this proposition and suggest new directions for research. Our analysis draws on three data sets: news reports (N = 529); focus groups (N = 20); interviews (N = 19). In each social context, we explored representations of mental health and illness in relation to students' shared living arrangements, a key group indicated for mental health-related anti-stigma efforts. We analysed the data using term-frequency inverse-document frequency (TF-IDF) models. Possible meanings indicated by TF-IDF modelling were interpreted using deep qualitative readings of verbatim quotations, as is standard in corpus-based research approaches to health and illness. These results evidence the flawed basis of dominant mental health-related anti-stigma campaigns. In contrast to deficiency models, we found that the public made sense of mental health and illness using dynamic and static epistemologies and often referenced professionalised understandings. Furthermore, rather than holding knowledge in the abstract, we also found public understanding to be functional to the social context. In addition, rather than being agnostic about mental health-related knowledge, we found public understandings are motivated by group-based identity-related concerns. We will argue that we need to develop alternative anti-stigma strategies rooted in the public's multiple contextualised sense-making strategies and highlight the potential of engaging with ecological approaches to stigma.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estudantes
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274196, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study examined the relationship between mental health, homelessness and housing instability among young people aged 15-18 years old who transitioned from out-of-home in 2013 to 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia with follow-up to 2018. We determined the various mental health disorders and other predictors that were associated with different levels of homelessness risk, including identifying the impact of dual diagnosis of mental health and substance use disorder on homelessness. METHODOLOGY: Using retrospective de-identified linked administrative data from various government departments we identified various dimensions of homelessness which were mapped from the European Topology of Homelessness (ETHOS) framework and associated mental health variables which were determined from the WHO ICD-10 codes. We used ordered logistic regression and Poisson regression analysis to estimate the impact of homelessness and housing instability respectively. RESULTS: A total homelessness prevalence of 60% was determined in the care-leaving population. After adjustment, high risk of homelessness was associated with dual diagnosis of mental health and substance use disorder, intentional self-harm, anxiety, psychotic disorders, assault and maltreatment, history of involvement with the justice system, substance use prior to leaving care, residential and home-based OHC placement and a history of staying in public housing. CONCLUSIONS: There is clearly a need for policy makers and service providers to work together to find effective housing pathways and integrated health services for this heterogeneous group of vulnerable young people with complex health and social needs. Future research should determine longitudinally the bidirectional relationship between mental health disorders and homelessness.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Instabilidade Habitacional , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Habitação Popular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Vitória/epidemiologia
11.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 50(3): 513-528, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047798

RESUMO

Our aim was to better understand the underlying psychiatric, psychosocial, and psychodynamic aspects of mass shootings in the United States (US). The Mother Jones database of 115 mass shootings from 1982-2019 was used to study retrospectively 55 shooters in the US. After developing a psychiatric-assessment questionnaire, psychiatric researchers gathered multiple psychosocial factors and determined diagnoses and treatment by evaluating the clinical evidence obtained by interviewing forensic psychiatrists, who had assessed the assailant, and/or by reviewing psychiatric evaluations conducted during the judicial proceedings. All 35 surviving-assailant cases were selected. Additionally, 20 cases where the assailant died at the time of the shootings were randomly selected from the remaining 80 cases. The majority of assailants (87.5%) had misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated or undiagnosed and untreated psychiatric illness. Most of the assailants also experienced profound estrangement not only from families, friends, and classmates but most importantly from themselves. Being marginalized and interpersonally shunned rendered them more vulnerable to their untreated psychiatric illness and to radicalization online, which fostered their violence. While there are complex reasons that a person is misdiagnosed or not diagnosed, there remains a vital need to decrease the stigma of mental illness to enable those with severe psychiatric illness to be more respected, less marginalized, and encouraged to receive effective psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic treatments.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Violência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126919

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown on patients with psychiatric illness.Methods: An online survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients receiving follow-up treatment at a tertiary care center from January to March 2020. The data were collected using a questionnaire about the possible challenges in 3 broad areas: treatment-related challenges, psychosocial difficulties, and concerns related to COVID-19.Results: The majority of patients (72.6%) reported a positive impact due to the increased availability of family support. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (39.0%) experienced a more negative impact compared to those with psychotic disorders. Many of the psychiatric patients (22.6%) stopped medications and had difficulties accessing health services. Patients also experienced increased interpersonal conflict, sleep difficulties, and a surge in screen time.Conclusions: The findings highlight the difficulties faced by patients with psychiatric illnesses and emphasize the importance of family cohesion during times of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(796): 1749-1752, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134629

RESUMO

Stigmatization and self-stigmatization of people suffering from mental disorders have been denounced for several years, however they still impact treatment and identity construction. Education, social sharing, and institutional engagement are interventions that challenge public stigma. Interventions based on individual or group therapies that oppose self-stigma proved effective. Questions regarding the effects of media coverage or the intersectionality of stigmatized identities remain open. In this article, we made a summary of the current situation based on recent literature.


Bien que dénoncées depuis plusieurs années, la stigmatisation et l'autostigmatisation des personnes souffrant de troubles psychiques ont un impact toujours très négatif, tant en termes de soins que de construction identitaire. Différents types d'interventions ont été élaborés pour lutter contre la stigmatisation publique, tels les interventions éducationnelles, le partage du vécu ou l'engagement institutionnel. Quant à la prise en charge de l'autostigmatisation, elle repose sur des thérapies individuelles ou groupales dont l'efficacité est de mieux en mieux étayée. Néanmoins, d'autres questionnements persistent comme les effets de la médiatisation ou l'intersectionnalité des identités stigmatisées. Dans cet article, nous proposons un bref résumé de la situation actuelle à partir de la littérature récente.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estigma Social , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estereotipagem
15.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 56-59, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064246

RESUMO

It is common knowledge that people with psychiatric illnesses are stigmatized by a broad spectrum of society. The purpose of this study was to assess the beliefs of undergraduate students toward people with mental illnesses, and determine the impact of psychiatric education and clinical practice on their beliefs. A Quasi-Experimental, single-group pre-test post-test design was used. The study was performed at a private school of health sciences in Saudi Arabia. The study sample consisted of 42 students. For data collection, the Beliefs toward Mental Illness Scale was used. Following the psychiatric education and clinical practice, the total BMIS and subscale scores were significantly lower than the scores obtained before the course. There was a statistically significant difference in the BMIS total scores (t = 2.17, p = 0.001) and subscale scores (Poor social and interpersonal skills: t = 0.78, p = 0.001; Dangerousness: t = 1.17, p = 0.001; Incurability: t = 0.42, p = 0.001) between the pre-test and post-test data. This research indicates that psychiatric educational intervention using face-to-face interaction and clinical practice interaction can positively change stigmatizing beliefs of undergraduate students toward people with mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolaridade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
16.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 77-83, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental illness from healthcare providers continues to be a problem affecting recovery in people with mental illness. The process of recovery was explored through digital stories created by service users, with support from nursing students. Stigmatized attitudes in nursing students and stigma resistance in service users were also investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, pilot study in which service users/nursing student teams created digital stories. Surveys testing stigmatized attitudes and stigma resistance were employed. FINDINGS: Statistical significance was not found, however, qualitative analysis revealed recovery elements and greater appreciation of individuals with mental illness by the nursing students. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Digital story-telling assists service users in doing the internal work of making meaning from experience. Nursing students benefit from involvement in the activity.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e065084, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with serious mental illness (SMI) have poor health outcomes, in part because of inequitable access to quality health services. Primary care is well suited to coordinate and manage care for this population; however, providers may feel ill-equipped to do so and patients may not have the support and resources required to coordinate their care. We lack a strong understanding of prevention and management of chronic disease in primary care among people with SMI as well as the context-specific barriers that exist at the patient, provider and system levels. This mixed methods study will answer three research questions: (1) How do primary care services received by people living with SMI differ from those received by the general population? (2) What are the experiences of people with SMI in accessing and receiving chronic disease prevention and management in primary care? (3) What are the experiences of primary care providers in caring for individuals with SMI? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a concurrent mixed methods study in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, including quantitative analyses of linked administrative data and in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with SMI and primary care providers. By comparing across two provinces, each with varying degrees of mental health service investment and different primary care models, results will shed light on individual and system-level factors that facilitate or impede quality preventive and chronic disease care for people with SMI in the primary care setting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the University of Ottawa Research Ethics Board and partner institutions. An integrated knowledge translation approach brings together researchers, providers, policymakers, decision-makers, patient and caregiver partners and knowledge users. Working with this team, we will develop policy-relevant recommendations for improvements to primary care systems that will better support providers and reduce health inequities.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Colúmbia Britânica , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Ontário , Atenção Primária à Saúde
18.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(10): 1107-1110, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123310

RESUMO

The primary goal motivating the scientific field of Developmental Psychopathology is to discover why some individuals develop mental health and neuro-developmental difficulties while others do not. This is not simply a 'blue skies' preoccupation: the underlying hope, of course, is to translate such discoveries to the benefit of individuals, families and communities, reducing poor outcomes for those at risk and - in the best case scenario - ensuring that they thrive. A core tenet of the bio-psycho-social framework within which this field of enquiry operates is that children's difficulties are determined by the interplay of predisposing genetic risk and resilience factors and the environments and experiences to which individuals are exposed. From this perspective, understanding gene-environment (GE) interplay is a necessary condition for explaining and, as importantly predicting, why one individual is at risk while another is not. If we believe this, then the risk calculators designed to show who will and will not get a particular disorder - all the rage at the moment - are doomed to fail until they can go beyond modelling the main effects of genes and environments, and reliably estimate GE processes too. Despite significant progress, we remain a considerable way off cracking this problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Fatores de Risco
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