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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(4): 676-687, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proposed underlying mechanisms of anxiety and depression, and of postoperative neurocognitive disorder (NCD), each include immune system involvement. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of postoperative NCD 3 months after surgery among oncological patients undergoing surgery and to evaluate the role of preoperative anxiety and depression. METHOD: A consecutive series of patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing surgery for the removal of solid tumors were included (n = 218). Cognitive performance was assessed preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively. Preoperative anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: NCD affected 12.3% of elderly patients (age ≥ 70 years, n = 57) at 3 months after surgery, with executive function mostly affected. By contrast, 8.4% of younger patients (age < 70 years, n = 107) were affected, with information processing speed mostly affected. Low educational attainment was a risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9-19.0) of overall NCD, whereas preoperative anxiety was associated with decline in the domain of executive function. CONCLUSION: Postoperative NCD is a complication of oncological surgery for all adults instead of the elderly only. Preoperative anxiety was associated with an increased risk of executive function decline, and low educational attainment was a key factor for overall NCD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190473, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p<0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p<0.001), cube copying (p<0.001), and clock drawing (p<0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 54(11-12): 652-667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805585

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (pNCD) are relevant to long term treatment outcome after elective surgery. The detection of pNCD is challenging and based on extended neuropsychological testing that often is not feasible due to economy driven time constraints during preoperative risk assessment. Only recently new recommendations for the nomenclature of cognitive change associated with anaesthesia and surgery facilitated the transition of the former research diagnosis postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) as a clinical diagnosis based on DSM-5 criteria. In our article we provide an overview of the new recommended diagnostic criteria for pNCD based on the publication by the Nomenclature Consensus Working Group in November 2018. We discuss ideas for the implementation of clinical routine pNCD screening in patients aged 70 years or older with elective surgery and possible options for further support of patients screened positively and their families and care givers.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Delírio , Idoso , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 5-12, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825337

RESUMO

The review is devoted to analysis of current trends in interdisciplinary approach to the differential diagnosis of patients' conditions on the first day after cardiac, ascending aortic and aortic arch surgery and repair of internal carotid arteries (neurological disorders, delirium, cognitive dysfunction, psycho-emotional disorders, postoperative sedation). This approach is valuable to determine the prognosis and timely treatment. The basic concepts reflecting the discussion between neurologists, cardiovascular surgeons, anesthetists, radiation diagnostics specialists and rehabilitators are summarized. The authors concluded that timely and correct differential diagnosis of the states on the first postoperative day using current tests and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of patients with postoperative impaired consciousness or neurological/psycho-emotional dysfunction can improve their quality of life and efficiency of medical care.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Cogn Behav Neurol ; 32(3): 193-200, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although incidence rates of postoperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) in aged individuals following noncardiac major surgery are rising as individuals are living longer, the mechanism of PND remains poorly understood. We wondered if mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling might be associated with PND since mTOR controls some essential intracellular events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether surgery activates the mTOR signaling pathway in aged rats, leading to PND, and whether the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, can be used to alleviate PND. METHODS: We randomly assigned aged rats to four groups: normal control (C), isoflurane (I), surgery (S), and rapamycin (R). Then, we anesthetized Groups I, S, and R, following which, Groups S and R underwent a splenectomy. After surgery, Group R was administered rapamycin. We used the Morris water maze to test the rats' spatial learning and memory after surgery. RESULTS: In Group S, escape latency (ie, the time to find the platform) was markedly higher, and the ratio of swimming time in the target quadrant was lower, compared to the other groups. In Group R, escape latency was markedly lower as compared with Group S, and the ratio of swimming time in the target quadrant was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that an altered mTOR signaling pathway after a splenectomy causes PND in aged rats, which can be alleviated by rapamycin.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurocognitivos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 27-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562619

RESUMO

Surgery can be a life-saving procedure; however, significant complications may occur after routine procedures especially in older and more frail patients. Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs), including delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction, are the most common complications in older adults following common procedures such as orthopedic or cardiac surgery. The consequences of PNDs can be devastating, with longer in-hospital stay, poorer prognosis, and higher mortality rates. Inflammation is gaining considerable interest as a critical driver of cognitive deficits. In this regard, resolution of inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, may provide novel approaches to treat neuroinflammation and PNDs. Herein we review the role for impaired resolution after surgery and the growing role of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) in regulating postoperative neuroinflammation and neurological complications after surgery.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/fisiopatologia , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia
8.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(5): 1095-1105, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective phase II study assessed safety and feasibility of surgery followed by hypofractionated radiosurgery (HSRS) on the tumor bed in oligometastatic patients with single large brain metastases (BMs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 2015 and May 2018, 101 patients were enrolled. Oligometastatic disease was defined by a maximum of 5 extracranial metastatic lesions. HSRS was performed within 1 month of surgery and consisted of 30 Gy in 3 fractions. Local control, occurrence of new BMs, overall survival, and treatment-related toxicities were assessed. RESULTS: At a median follow-up time of 26 months, local recurrence occurred in 6 patients (5.9%). Six-month, 1-year, and 2-year local control rates were 100%, 98.9% ± 1.1%, and 85.9% ± 0.6%, respectively. New BMs occurred in 39 patients (38.6%); median brain distant progression time and 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year brain distant progression rates were 39 months (95% CI, 19-39 months), 17% ± 3.7%, 31.4% ± 4.8%, and 42.5% ± 5.9%, respectively. At the last observation time, 50 patients (49.5%) were alive and 51 (50.5%) were dead; 10 patients died owing to neurologic causes and 40 as a result of systemic progression. Median overall survival time and 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates were 22 months (95% CI, 20-30 months), 95% ± 2.1%, 81.9% ± 3.8%, and 46.6% ± 6%, respectively. Infratentorial site, residual tumor volume, longer interval time between primary diagnosis and occurrence of BMs, and oligometastatic disease status significantly influenced outcome. Grade 2 to 3 radionecrosis occurred in 26 patients. Neurocognitive functions remained stable or, in some cases, improved. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery followed by HSRS on the tumor bed is a safe and effective approach, affording good brain control with acceptable toxicities. As for extracranial metastatic sites, patients with BMs can benefit from local ablative treatment in the context of an oligometastatic disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Causas de Morte , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasia Residual , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
9.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 35(3): 171-180, set. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023538

RESUMO

Introducción: la incidencia de formas leves y moderadas de trastornos neurocognitivos (TNC) en pacientes con VIH (virus de inmunodeficiencia humana) permanece en ascenso a pesar del uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV). En la región existen escasos trabajos que estudiaron los TNC en VIH. Objetivos: describir características de pacientes con TNC, identificar posibles etiologías y si se realiza su búsqueda. Material y método: estudio transversal de recolección prospectiva. Se reclutaron en forma consecutiva pacientes de 18 a 60 años VIH positivos sin patología estructural del sistema nervioso central. Se aplicaron exámenes de laboratorio, preguntas para tamizaje de TNC, escala instrumental de actividades de la vida diaria (EIAVD) e internacional de demencia por VIH (EIDV), Adenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revisado (ACE-R). ACE-R fue elegida como prueba de referencia de desempeño neurocognitivo. Se utilizó inventario de Beck para pesquisa de trastorno depresivo. Análisis estadístico con sistema SPSS. Resultados y discusión: se reclutaron 20 pacientes, se diagnosticó TNC en 9/20 (45%). Los médicos tratantes plantearon TNC en 2/9 pacientes. El análisis multivariado encontró asociación entre desempleo (p=0,012) y menor escolarización (p=0,035) en pacientes con TNC. Etiología de TNC en 9/9 fue multifactorial. Refirieron TNC en el tamizaje 8/9 pacientes. EIDV fue adecuada para detección de TNC severo, pero no para leve. EIAVD tampoco logró detectar algunos casos de TNC. Conclusiones: casi la mitad de pacientes presentaron TNC de causa multifactorial con asociación a desempleo y menor escolarización. Los médicos tratantes no plantearon este diagnóstico, lo que marca la importancia de la evaluación neuropsicológica sistemática en pacientes VIH.


Introduction: the incidence of mild and moderate neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in HIV patients continues to increase in spite of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Only a few studies in the region focused on HIV associated NCDs. Objective: to describe the characteristics of NCDs patients, identify posible etiologies and decide whether to start the search. Method: transversal study with a prospective collection of data. HIV positive patients between 18 and 60 years old with no structural defects of the central nervous system (CNS) were consecutively recruited. Laboratory tests were applied as well as screening for CNS, the Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scale, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and the Adenbrooke's Cognitive Examination revised exam (ACE-R). The latter was chosen as the reference test for neurocognitive performance. The Beck Depression inventory (BDI) was used to identify drepression. Statistical analysis was conducted with the SPSS system. Results and discussion: 20 patients were recruited, NCD was diagnosed in 9 out of 20 patients (45%). Treating physicians spoke about NCD in 2 of the 9 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed an association between unemployment (p=0.012) and a lower schooling rate (p=0.035) in patients with NCDs. Etiology of NCD was multifactorial in all 9 patients. 8 out of 9 patients were referred as NCDs in the screening. IHDS was appropriate to identify severe NCDs, although it failed in mild cases. Also, IADLs failed to identify a few cases of NCDs. Conclusions: almost half of the patients presented multifactorial NCDs, associated to unemployment and a lower rate of schooling. Treating physicians did not consider this diagnosis, what reflects the importance of a systematic neuropsychological assessment in HIV patients.


Introdução: a incidência de formas leves e moderadas de transtornos neurocognitivos (TNC) em pacientes com VIH (vírus de imunodeficiência humana) continua crescendo apesar do uso da terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Poucos trabalhos estudaram TNC em pacientes VIH positivos na regiao. Objetivos: descrever as características dos pacientes com TNC, identificar possíveis etiologias e se são pesquisados no paciente. Método: estudo transversal com coleta de dados prospectiva. Foram incluídos de forma consecutiva pacientes com idades entre 18 e 60 anos VIH positivos sem patologia estrutural do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Foram realizados exames de laboratório, um questionário para triagem dos TNC, e foram aplicadas as escalas Instrumental de Atividades da Vida Diária (EIAVD), Internacional de Demência por VIH (EIDV) e Adenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revisado (ACE-R). Esta última foi escolhida como prova de referencia de desempenho neurocognitivo. O inventário de Beck foi utilizado para pesquisa de transtorno depressivo. A análise estatística foi realizada com o pacote SPSS. Resultados e discussão: foram incluídos 20 pacientes sendo que os TNC foram diagnosticados em 9/20 (45%). Os médicos que atenderam esses pacientes diagnosticaram TNC em 2/9 pacientes. A análise multivariada mostrou uma associação entre desemprego (p=0,012) e menor escolarização (p=0,035) em pacientes com TNC. A etiologia dos TNC em 9/9 foi multifatorial. A triagem mostrou TNC em 8/9 pacientes. O teste EIDV foi adequado para a detecção dos TNC severos porém não para leves, e também não pode detectar alguns casos de TNC. Conclusões: quase a metade dos pacientes apresentou TNC de causa multifatorial associados a desemprego e menor escolarização. Os médicos que atenderam os pacientes não diagnosticaram esses transtornos o que mostra a importância da avaliação neuropsicológica sistemática em pacientes VIH.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência , HIV , Transtornos Neurocognitivos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370244

RESUMO

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), characterized by the extravasation of blood into the subarachnoid space caused by an intracranial aneurysm rupture, may lead to neurocognitive impairments and permanent disability and usually carries poor outcome. Dental or gingiva-derived stem cells have been shown to contribute to immune modulation and neuroregeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) secrete certain factor(s) that can ameliorate the neural damage and other manifestations in a rat aSAH model. Twenty-four hours after the induction of aSAH, microthrombosis, cortical vasoconstriction, and the decrease in microcirculation and tissue oxygen pressure were detected. Intrathecal administration of DPSC-derived conditioned media (DPSC-CM) ameliorated aSAH-induced vasoconstriction, neuroinflammation, and improved the oxygenation in the injured brain. Rotarod test revealed that the aSAH-induced cognitive and motor impairments were significantly improved by this DPSC-CM administration. Cytokine array indicated the major constituent of DPSC-CM was predominantly insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Immunohistochemistry staining of injured brain tissue revealed the robust increase in Iba1-positive cells that were also ameliorated by DPSC-CM administration. Antibody-mediated neutralization of IGF-1 moderately deteriorated the rescuing effect of DPSC-CM on microcirculation, Iba1-positive cells in the injured brain area, and the cognitive/motor impairments. Taken together, the DPSC-derived secretory factors showed prominent therapeutic potential for aSAH. This therapeutic efficacy may include improvement of microcirculation, alleviation of neuroinflammation, and microglial activation; partially through IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transtornos Psicomotores/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Injeções Espinhais , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/genética , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética , Transtornos Psicomotores/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicomotores/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Células-Tronco/química , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/metabolismo , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Trombose/genética , Trombose/metabolismo , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(4): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379379

RESUMO

AIM: To provide a review of the clinically relevant evidence pertaining to the use of trazodone in major depressive disorder. METHODS: Medline and Cochrane Library searches were searched using the keywords 'trazodone' AND 'depression', to identify the most relevant literature pertinent to the pharmacological properties of trazodone and its use in clinical practice. Articles that were selected included basic pharmacology papers, clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, and reviews. Related references were cross checked. European and United States prescribing information was reviewed as well. An effort was made to give weight to the information that was most relevant for daily clinical practice. RESULTS: Trazodone is an antidepressant with a mechanism of action that remains innovative and with a favorable profile for the treatment of depression. The appropriate antidepressant doses are usually 150-300 mg/day and are often higher than the doses that are used when trazodone is prescribed to augment the antidepressant effect of another medication, for instance when trazodone is prescribed to address insomnia in a patient treated with an SSRI. Trazodone is usually well tolerated and has a low risk of anticholinergic side effects, weight gain and sexual side effects. DISCUSSION: Trazodone is an established medication that is efficacious for the treatment of a broad array of depressive symptoms, including symptoms that are less likely to respond to other antidepressants (e.g. SSRI), such as insomnia. As an antidepressant, trazodone has proven as efficacious as the tricyclic and second-generation antidepressants and is tolerated relatively well. Trazodone may be helpful for patients with major depression and comorbid insomnia, anxiety or psychomotor agitation. CONCLUSIONS: Trazodone is efficacious antidepressants with a relatively low risks of side effects such as weight gain, sexual or anticholinergic effects (such as constipation, urinary retention, dry mouth). In addition to being able to control a wide range of depressive symptoms, trazodone may improve sleep and be particularly helpful for patients whose symptoms of depression include insomnia.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Trazodona , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/metabolismo , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Bulimia/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Interações de Medicamentos , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Trazodona/efeitos adversos , Trazodona/metabolismo , Trazodona/farmacologia , Trazodona/uso terapêutico
13.
J Neurooncol ; 144(3): 573-582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diffuse glioma often experience neurocognitive impairment already prior to surgery. Pertinent information on whether damage to a specific brain region due to tumor activity results in neurocognitive impairment or not, is relevant in clinical decision-making, and at the same time renders unique information on brain lesion location and functioning relationships. To examine the impact of tumor location on preoperative neurocognitive functioning (NCF), we performed MRI based lesion-symptom mapping. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (mean age 40 years) with a radiologically suspected glioma were recruited preoperatively. For each of the six cognitive domains tested, we used tumor localization maps and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analyses to identify cortical and subcortical regions associated with NCF impairment. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, preoperative NCF was significantly impaired in all cognitive domains. Most frequently affected were attention (30% of patients) and working memory (20% of patients). Deficits in attention were significantly associated with regions in the left frontal and parietal cortex, including the precentral and parietal-opercular cortex, and in left-sided subcortical fiber tracts, including the arcuate fasciculus and corticospinal tract. Surprisingly, no regions could be related to working memory capacity. For the other neurocognitive domains, impairments were mainly associated with regions in the left hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to treatment, patients with diffuse glioma in the left hemisphere run the highest risk to have NCF deficits. Identification of a left frontoparietal network involved in NCF not only may optimize surgical procedures but may also be integrated in counseling and cognitive rehabilitation for these patients.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/psicologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
AACN Adv Crit Care ; 30(3): 222-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462518

RESUMO

Patients hospitalized with neurologic and medical issues in the neuroscience critical care unit have widely varying and complex disease states that can change rapidly. The large amount of data that must be reviewed regularly by medical staff members presents a challenge to the provision of high-quality care to these patients. In an effort to lessen the burden, the authors' team implemented an electronic multidisciplinary rounding tool, which facilitates team communication by allowing accurate and concise review of patient information. The rounding tool is part of an ongoing quality improvement project and has been in use for 4 years. Nurses have reported that the tool provides a comprehensive summary of the patient's hospital stay that facilitates handoff during shift changes. A survey of nursing staff members demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the tool during both multidisciplinary rounds and handoffs.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Visitas com Preceptor/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
15.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): e89-e93, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425226

RESUMO

In a preoperative anesthesia setting with integrated neuropsychology for individuals >64 years of age, we completed a pilot study examining the association between neurocognitive disorders with frequency of missed colonoscopies and quality of bowel preparation (prep). Gastroenterologists completed the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) for each patient. Of 47 older adults seen in our service, 68% met criteria for neurocognitive disorders. All individuals failing to attend the colonoscopy procedure had met criteria for major neurocognitive disorder. Poor bowel prep was also identified in 100% of individuals with major neurocognitive disorder and 28% of individuals with mild neurocognitive disorder. Our pilot data suggest that, in high-risk individuals, the presence of neurocognitive disorders is risk factors for missed appointments and inadequate bowel prep. These pilot data provide reference statistics for future intervention protocols.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 47-51, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299839

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) is still prevalent even in the ART (Anti-Retroviral Therapy) era. It may have some association with CD4 counts and Anti-Retroviral Therapy. The prevalence of HAND in HIV-patients, was, therefore studied in the context of ART and CD4 counts. Methods: Modified Mini Mental State Examination scores of 200 (65% males) HIV-positive patients and 200 controls were analyzed in the context of ART and CD4 counts. Results: Maximum number of participants were educated between 8th-12th class (89.5%), aged between 25-50 years (81.5%) and a higher proportion of males had a CD4 count <500 (69.2%) (p=0.007). Using 3MS, 21% patients (mean 76.24±1.51) and none of the controls were found to be neurocognitively impaired. Mean scores of patients with CD4 counts<500(82.54±5.58) were lesser in comparison to those of patients with CD4 counts>500 (p<0.001). Those with an ART duration of <48 months had a lower score in comparison to those with an ART duration of >72 months (p=0.005).Most decrease from maximum value was seen in similarities (48.3 %), second recall (36.1 %), repetition (33.4 %), copying two pentagons (28.3 %), read and obey (24.0 %), mental reversal (22.7 %) and first recall (21.3%) parameters of Modified Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusions: HAND was less prevalent in the present study in comparison to past literature. CD4 counts and ART duration had an inverse association with the degree of cognitive impairment. The parameters of Modified Mini Mental State Examination showing maximum impairment may be compiled to form a short screening questionnaire.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/sangue , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent malnutrition and food aspiration in children with chronic neuromuscular problems, enteral nutrition provided by gastrostomy is recommended. Long-term follow-up data about surgical and medical complications of PEG are available, but few papers have addressed all of the issues in the same series. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients under 18 years who had a gastrostomy tube placed at our institution between 2003 and 2017. The aim is to evaluate outcomes after gastrostomy placement, focusing both on surgical complications (early and late), and its effect on their nutritional status, on the prevention of pulmonary infections, and their parents' opinion. RESULTS: Eighty-four gastrostomies were placed in total (35 F; 49 M). Seventy-seven patients had a severe neurocognitive impairment (GMFCS 5). The principal indication for gastrostomy was severe dysphagia (53.3%). No gastrostomy-related death was observed. Early surgical complications were observed in five of 84 (5,9%) patients; late complications were observed in 15 of 84 (17.8%) patients. Twenty-two patients were diagnosed with subsequent gastroesophageal reflux; five patients developed dumping syndrome (6%). Complete medical follow-up data were available for 45 patients. A progressive improvement of nutritional status was observed in 29 patients, and 11 maintained the same percentile; the occurrence of respiratory infections and need for hospitalization decreased. In 90% of cases, parents were fully satisfied with the g-tube. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the positive nutritional outcomes of gastrostomy-tube with an associated small risk of surgical complications and a reduction in the number of respiratory infections, with most parents scoring their experience as positive.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Gastrostomia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/cirurgia , Feminino , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrostomia/métodos , Gastrostomia/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 370-377, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331843

RESUMO

PUPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in childhood, accounting for 16-25% of cases (1). New treatment approaches have led to improved survival rates; however toxicities are still a major concern. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were selected from the records of patients who were treated with craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 62 patients were diagnosed with medulloblastoma at the national institute of oncology Rabat, 27 patients were still alive at the time of the study, of which n=16 patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients at the time of the study was 9.6 years. All children were treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy, according to standard protocols. Median follow-up between treatment and evaluation was 4 years. All the children were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - fourth Edition (WISC-IV) three to five years after completion of radiotherapy. The test was administered by two well-trained psychologists in a distraction-free environment. The scoring was then reviewed by a psychologist from Brooklyn College. RESULTS: The mean standard score Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) (M=63, SD=12.6) was found to be in the extremely low range and in the 1st percentile rank (PR), compared to the general population. All the measured primary index scales were below typical performance: verbal comprehension (M=67.7, SD=13.1), perceptual reasoning (M=63.5, SD=13.8) and processing speed (M=62.7, SD=15.5) were all found to be in the extremely low range, while xorking memory (M=75.5, SD=10.8) was found to be in the borderline range compared to the general population. To identify factors influencing the results, we performed both univariate and multivariate analyses. Age at the time of radiotherapy, initial clinical stage, total cranial radiotherapy dose, socioeconomic status, and the time of evaluation were identified as significantly impacting cognitive scores in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, only age at the time of radiotherapy and initial clinical stage remained factors significantly impacting cognitive outcomes with P=0.001 and P<0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study is evidence that tremendous efforts are still to be made in low-income countries to correctly measure neurocognitive dysfunction in medulloblastoma survivors and to prepare those patients to a typical life after the completion of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Substância Cinzenta/lesões , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipocampo/lesões , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Escalas de Wechsler , Substância Branca/lesões , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 432-438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331844

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (3 to 5% of all non-small cell lung cancers) carries a particularly high risk of central nervous system dissemination (60% to 90%). As the use of ALK inhibitors improves treatment outcomes over chemotherapy, the determent of central nervous system metastases has become an increasingly relevant therapeutic dilemma considering young age and possible extended overall survival. The goal of brain metastases management is to optimize both overall survival and quality of life, with the high priority of neurocognitive function preservation. Unfortunately in the first year on crizotinib, the pioneering ALK inhibitors, approximately one third of these patients fail in the central nervous system, which is explained by an inadequate central nervous system drug penetration through the blood-brain barrier. Central nervous system-directed radiotherapy represents the most important strategy to control intracranial disease burden and extend the survival benefit with crizotinib. The role of whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases diminishes, as this technique is associated with the risk of neurocognitive decline. Stereotactic radiotherapy represents an alternative technique that delivers ablative doses of ionizing radiation to the limited volume of oligometastatic brain disease, offering sparing of the adjacent brain parenchyma and reduced neurotoxicity. The next generation ALK inhibitors were designed to cross the blood-brain barrier more efficiently than crizotinib and achieve higher concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, offering prominent ability to control central nervous system spread. In the phase III ALEX trial the intracranial control was significantly better with alectinib as compared to crizotinib and it translated into survival benefit. Other next generation ALK inhibitors (i.e. ceritinib, brigatinib, lorlatinib) also demonstrated promising activity in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Meníngeas/secundário , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/análise , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Irradiação Craniana/métodos , Crizotinibe/farmacocinética , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/análise , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/antagonistas & inibidores , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/métodos
20.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 8278095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275061

RESUMO

The imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs is associated with the HIV dissemination tissue damage pathology neurodegenerative disorders, including HAND. Genetic variations in the TIMP gene may modulate the neurocognitive disorder in HIV patients. Hence, we evaluated the genetic variants of TIMP-2 (-418G/C, 303G/A) gene with the risk of HAND. Genotyping of TIMP-2 polymorphism was performed in 50 patients with HAND, 100 no HAND, and 154 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP. TIMP-2 -418GC and 303AA genotypes represented a predominant risk for HAND severity (OR = 1.55, P = 0.30; OR = 4.58, P = 0.24). The variant -418CC genotype, -418A allele, had exhibited a significant risk for the acquisition of HAND (OR = 12.55, P = 0.026; OR = 2.66, P = 0.004). TIMP-2 303GA, 303AA genotype, and 303A allele evinced a higher risk for HAND severity (OR = 1.82, P = 0.14; OR = 1.70, P = 0.63; and OR = 1.68, P = 0.12). In HIV patients, TIMP-2 -418CC genotype and -418C allele significantly occurred in comparison to healthy controls (OR = 10.10, P = 0.006; OR = 2.02, P = 0.009). In the intermediate and early HIV disease stage, TIMP-2 -418CC genotype was significantly increased compared with healthy controls (11.1% vs. 1.3%, OR = 14.63, P = 0.01; 16.9% vs. 1.3%, OR = 14.51, P = 0.002). In patients with HAND among tobacco and alcohol users, TIMP-2 -418CC genotype displayed a risk for HAND severity (OR = 3.96, P = 0.26; OR = 4.83, P = 0.19). On multivariate logistic regression, TIMP-2 303AA genotype, advanced stage, and gender had a risk for HAND severity (OR = 28.98, P = 0.02; OR = 2.35, P = 0.070; and OR = 2.36, P = 0.04). In conclusion, TIMP-2 -418G/C polymorphism independently, along with alcohol and tobacco, may have an impact on the acquisition of HAND and its severity. TIMP-2 303G/A polymorphism bare a risk for HAND severity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/enzimologia
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