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1.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 695-705, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681870

RESUMO

Wound healing is affected by several factors. Preexisting diagnoses may significantly alter, delay, or inhibit normal wound healing. This is most commonly seen with chronic disorders, such as diabetes and renal failure, but also occurs secondary to aging and substance abuse. Less commonly, genetic or inflammatory disorders are the cause of delayed wound healing. In some cases, it is not the illness, but the treatment that can inhibit wound healing. This is seen in patients getting chemotherapy, radiation, steroids, methotrexate, and a host of other medications. Understanding these processes may help treat or avoid wound healing problems.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 721-769, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US faces remarkable food and nutrition challenges. A new federal effort to strengthen and coordinate nutrition research could rapidly generate the evidence base needed to address these multiple national challenges. However, the relevant characteristics of such an effort have been uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide an objective, informative summary of 1) the mounting diet-related health burdens facing our nation and corresponding economic, health equity, national security, and sustainability implications; 2) the current federal nutrition research landscape and existing mechanisms for its coordination; 3) the opportunities for and potential impact of new fundamental, clinical, public health, food and agricultural, and translational scientific discoveries; and 4) the various options for further strengthening and coordinating federal nutrition research, including corresponding advantages, disadvantages, and potential executive and legislative considerations. METHODS: We reviewed government and other published documents on federal nutrition research; held various discussions with expert groups, advocacy organizations, and scientific societies; and held in-person or phone meetings with >50 federal staff in executive and legislative roles, as well as with a variety of other stakeholders in academic, industry, and nongovernment organizations. RESULTS: Stark national nutrition challenges were identified. More Americans are sick than are healthy, largely from rising diet-related illnesses. These conditions create tremendous strains on productivity, health care costs, health disparities, government budgets, US economic competitiveness, and military readiness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has further laid bare these strains, including food insecurity, major diet-related comorbidities for poor outcomes from COVID-19 such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and insufficient surveillance on and coordination of our food system. More than 10 federal departments and agencies currently invest in critical nutrition research, yet with relatively flat investments over several decades. Coordination also remains suboptimal, documented by multiple governmental reports over 50 years. Greater harmonization and expansion of federal investment in nutrition science, not a silo-ing or rearrangement of existing investments, has tremendous potential to generate new discoveries to improve and sustain the health of all Americans. Two identified key strategies to achieve this were as follows: 1) a new authority for robust cross-governmental coordination of nutrition research and other nutrition-related policy and 2) strengthened authority, investment, and coordination for nutrition research within the NIH. These strategies were found to be complementary, together catalyzing important new science, partnerships, coordination, and returns on investment. Additional complementary actions to accelerate federal nutrition research were identified at the USDA. CONCLUSIONS: The need and opportunities for strengthened federal nutrition research are clear, with specific identified options to help create the new leadership, strategic planning, coordination, and investment the nation requires to address the multiple nutrition-related challenges and grasp the opportunities before us.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pesquisa/normas , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Militares , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Agriculture/economia , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economia
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-530053

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487876

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(1): 79-85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197751

RESUMO

Recognizing the skin manifestations of metabolic and endocrine disorders, many of which may have potentially lethal complications, is important for dermatologists and other clinicians. The skin can be a window into a patient's internal health, and cutaneous manifestations can facilitate early diagnosis and intervention of potentially life-altering systemic disorders with associated morbidity and mortality. This contribution provides an overview of the diverse rashes associated with potentially lethal, acquired metabolic and endocrine disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenals, and blood, as well as neuroendocrine and nutritional disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Exantema/etiologia , Exantema/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Pele/patologia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 245-248, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212572

RESUMO

Hypervitaminosis D was diagnosed in a giant anteater (Myromecophaga tridactyla) and a large hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus) being fed a commercial insectivore diet. Clinical findings included weight loss, reduced appetite, vomiting, and suspected abdominal discomfort. Hypercalcemia (3.68 and 2.04 mmol/L total and ionized calcium, respectively) was detected in the anteater, and plasma 25(OH)D levels were measured and found to be 808.7 and 379.4 nmol/L for the anteater and armadillo, respectively. Dietary change resulted in a reduction of 25(OH)D levels in both animals and resolution of hypercalcemia in the giant anteater. Dietary analysis of the commercial insectivore food revealed levels of vitamin D3 higher than the data-sheet values. This case report demonstrates that hypervitaminosis D in Xenarthra can be associated with significant clinical signs.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Cingulados , Transtornos Nutricionais/veterinária , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , Tatus , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hipercalcemia/veterinária , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia
10.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2018101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications. RESULTS: Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/tendências , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Medicina/normas , Adolescente , Agendamento de Consultas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2018184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with inadequate milk consumption among adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data from the National School Health Survey (2012), a Brazilian survey carried out using a self-administered questionnaire in a representative sample of 9th-grade students from public and private schools. The frequency of milk intake and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and physical activity were estimated. A descriptive and inferential analysis of factors associated with inadequate milk consumption (no consumption at least one of the seven days of the week) was performed. A multiple logistic model was adjusted to control confounders. RESULTS: The sample included 108,828 adolescents and inadequate milk consumption ocurred in 58.9%. The final model included nine variables independently associated with inadequate milk intake: breakfast frequency less than 4 days per week (odds ratio [OR]=2.40; p<0.001), unprocessed or minimally processed foods intake less than 5 days per week (OR=1.93; p<0.001), living in the northeast region (OR=1.39; p<0.001), less maternal schooling (OR=1.35; p<0.001), physical inactivity (OR=1.33; p<0.001), attending public school (OR=1.26; p<0.001), not being white (OR=1.14; p<0.001), being older than 14 years old (OR=1.13; p<0.001) and having a habit of eating meals while watching TV or studying (OR=1.04; p=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate milk consumption is prevalent among Brazilian adolescents. The identification of associated factors suggests the need to develop nutritional guidance strategies for the prevention of diseases that result from low calcium intake.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Leite/provisão & distribução , Transtornos Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Economia/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etnologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD011400, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamins and minerals are essential for growth and maintenance of a healthy body, and have a role in the functioning of almost every organ. Multiple interventions have been designed to improve micronutrient deficiency, and food fortification is one of them. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of food fortification with multiple micronutrients on health outcomes in the general population, including men, women and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases up to 29 August 2018, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register and Cochrane Public Health Specialised Register; MEDLINE; Embase, and 20 other databases, including clinical trial registries. There were no date or language restrictions. We checked reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews for additional papers to be considered for inclusion. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that assessed the impact of food fortification with multiple micronutrients (MMNs). Primary outcomes included anaemia, micronutrient deficiencies, anthropometric measures, morbidity, all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality. Secondary outcomes included potential adverse outcomes, serum concentration of specific micronutrients, serum haemoglobin levels and neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes. We included food fortification studies from both high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened, extracted and quality-appraised the data from eligible studies. We carried out statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 software. We used random-effects meta-analysis for combining data, as the characteristics of study participants and interventions differed significantly. We set out the main findings of the review in 'Summary of findings' tables, using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 127 studies as relevant through title/abstract screening, and included 43 studies (48 papers) with 19,585 participants (17,878 children) in the review. All the included studies except three compared MMN fortification with placebo/no intervention. Two studies compared MMN fortification versus iodised salt and one study compared MMN fortification versus calcium fortification alone. Thirty-six studies targeted children; 20 studies were conducted in LMICs. Food vehicles used included staple foods, such as rice and flour; dairy products, including milk and yogurt; non-dairy beverages; biscuits; spreads; and salt. Fourteen of the studies were fully commercially funded, 13 had partial-commercial funding, 14 had non-commercial funding and two studies did not specify the source of funding. We rated all the evidence as of low to very low quality due to study limitations, imprecision, high heterogeneity and small sample size. When compared with placebo/no intervention, MMN fortification may reduce anaemia by 32% (risk ratio (RR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.84; 11 studies, 3746 participants; low-quality evidence), iron deficiency anaemia by 72% (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.39; 6 studies, 2189 participants; low-quality evidence), iron deficiency by 56% (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.60; 11 studies, 3289 participants; low-quality evidence); vitamin A deficiency by 58% (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.62; 6 studies, 1482 participants; low-quality evidence), vitamin B2 deficiency by 64% (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68; 1 study, 296 participants; low-quality evidence), vitamin B6 deficiency by 91% (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.38; 2 studies, 301 participants; low-quality evidence), vitamin B12 deficiency by 58% (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.71; 3 studies, 728 participants; low-quality evidence), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) (mean difference (MD) 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17; 8 studies, 2889 participants; low-quality evidence) and weight-for-height/length z-score (WHZ/WLZ) (MD 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.18; 6 studies, 1758 participants; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of MMN fortification on zinc deficiency (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.08; 5 studies, 1490 participants; low-quality evidence) and height/length-for-age z-score (HAZ/LAZ) (MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.18; 8 studies, 2889 participants; low-quality evidence). Most of the studies in this comparison were conducted in children. Subgroup analyses of funding sources (commercial versus non-commercial) and duration of intervention did not demonstrate any difference in effects, although this was a relatively small number of studies and the possible association between commercial funding and increased effect estimates has been demonstrated in the wider health literature. We could not conduct subgroup analysis by food vehicle and funding; since there were too few studies in each subgroup to draw any meaningful conclusions. When we compared MMNs versus iodised salt, we are uncertain about the effect of MMN fortification on anaemia (R 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.01; 1 study, 88 participants; very low-quality evidence), iron deficiency anaemia (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.83; 2 studies, 245 participants; very low-quality evidence), iron deficiency (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.17; 1 study, 88 participants; very low-quality evidence) and vitamin A deficiency (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.55; 2 studies, 363 participants; very low-quality evidence). Both of the studies were conducted in children. Only one study conducted in children compared MMN fortification versus calcium fortification. None of the primary outcomes were reported in the study. None of the included studies reported on morbidity, adverse events, all-cause or cause-specific mortality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from this review suggests that MMN fortification when compared to placebo/no intervention may reduce anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies (iron, vitamin A, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6). We are uncertain of the effect of MMN fortification on anthropometric measures (HAZ/LAZ, WAZ and WHZ/WLZ). There are no data to suggest possible adverse effects of MMN fortification, and we could not draw reliable conclusions from various subgroup analyses due to a limited number of studies in each subgroup. We remain cautious about the level of commercial funding in this field, and the possibility that this may be associated with higher effect estimates, although subgroup analysis in this review did not demonstrate any impact of commercial funding. These findings are subject to study limitations, imprecision, high heterogeneity and small sample sizes, and we rated most of the evidence low to very low quality. and hence no concrete conclusions could be drawn from the findings of this review.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Iodo , Minerais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1685, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842826

RESUMO

The purpose of this correspondence is to express our disappointment with the coverage of the BMC Public Health supplement: Vol 19 (4) titled "Health and Nutritional Issues Among Low Income Population in Malaysia", which neglected to include the fundamental health and nutrition issues that are adversely affecting the lives and livelihood of the indigenous peoples. The Supplement comprised 21 papers. Two of these papers included indigenous peoples as study subjects. These two papers addressed peripheral, albeit important health issues, namely visual impairment and quality of life, and not the persistent and rising health concerns impacting this population. We will provide evidence from research and reports to justify our critique that the Supplement missed the opportunity to spotlight on the serious extent of the health and nutritional deprivations of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia. As researchers of the indigenous peoples, we ought to lend our voice to the "silenced minority" by highlighting their plight in the media including scientific journals.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842257

RESUMO

Diet assessment tools provide valuable nutrition information in research and clinical settings. With growing evidence supporting dietary modification to delay development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an AMD-specific diet assessment tool could encourage eye-care practitioners to refer patients in need of further dietary behavioural support to a dietitian and/or support network. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate clinical use of a novel, short dietary questionnaire (SDQ-AMD) to screen for inadequate food intake in AMD patients by comparing it against a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Recruitment sources included Sydney-based private eye clinics and research databases (N = 155; 57% female; 78 ± 8 years). Scoring criteria based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines and dietary recommendations for AMD in literature were developed and applied to dietary data from the FFQ and SDQ-AMD. Bland-Altman plot of difference suggests agreement between the FFQ and SDQ-AMD as most mean difference scores were within the 95% CI (6.91, -9.94), and no significant bias between the scores as the mean score increased ((regression equation: y = 0.11x - 2.60) (95% CI: -0.058, 0.275, p-value = 0.20)). Scores were also significantly correlated (0.57, p ≤ 0.0001). The SDQ-AMD shows potential as a diet screening tool for clinical use, however, additional studies are warranted to validate the SDQ-AMD.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Degeneração Macular/dietoterapia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Austrália , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(6): 1241-1247, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191140

RESUMO

Introduction: neurologically impaired children frequently experience nutritional disorders and bone health complications. Our aim was firstly to analyze a method to interpret bone mineral density (BMD) accurately in neurologically impaired children. Secondly, to determine its relationship with the nutritional status and micronutrient levels in order to identify which factors are associated with low BMD. Methods: a observational multicenter study was conducted in children with moderate-to-severe neurological impairment. Data collected included: medical records, anthropometric measures, hematologic and biochemical evaluation. BMD was measured with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and z-scores were calculated adjusting for sex and chronological age. Secondly, BMD z-scores were calculated applying height age (age at which the child's height would be in 2nd percentile) instead of chronological age. Results: fifty-two children were included (aged 4-16 years). Seventeen patients (32.7%) received feeding by gastrostomy tube. Height and BMI z-score were below 2SD in 64% and 31% of patients respectively, with normal mid upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness measurements. Low vitamin-D levels were found in 42% of cases. 50% of patients evidenced low BMD when calculated for chronological age, whereas only 34.5% showed BMD z-score <-2 when calculated for height age. No correlation was observed between BMD and vitamin-D levels, weight and height z-scores or age when BMD was calculated applying height age. Conclusions: the prevalence of low BMD is high in neurologically impaired children, and it is probably multifactorial. In these children, we suggest adjusting BMD for height age, in order not to over diagnose low BMD


Introducción: los niños con afectación neurológica con frecuencia presentan trastornos nutricionales y complicaciones óseas. Nuestro objetivo fue, en primer lugar, analizar un método para interpretar la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de forma adecuada en estos pacientes. En segundo lugar, determinar la relación de la DMO con el estado nutricional y los niveles de micronutrientes, para determinar qué factores se asocian con baja DMO. Métodos: estudio observacional multicéntrico, se incluyeron niños con afectación neurológica moderada-severa. Se recogieron datos clínicos, medidas antropométricas y una evaluación hematológica y bioquímica. La DMO fue evaluada mediante densitometría, y se calcularon los z-scores según la edad y sexo. En segundo lugar, se recalcularon los z-scores de DMO para la edad talla (edad en la cual la talla del niño se encontraría en el percentil 2) en vez de la edad cronológica. Resultados: se incluyeron 52 niños (4-16 años). Diecisiete pacientes (32,7%) recibían alimentación por gastrostomía. Los z-scores de peso y talla estaban por debajo de 2 desviaciones estándar (DE) en el 64% y 31% de los pacientes respectivamente, con normalidad de las mediciones de perímetro braquial y pliegues tricipital y subescapular. Los niveles de vitamina D estaban bajos en el 42% de los casos. La mitad de los pacientes tenían baja DMO cuando se calculó para la edad cronológica, mientras que solo el 34,5% presentaron DMO por debajo de 2 DE cuando se calculó para la edad talla. No observamos correlación entre z-scores de DMO calculados para la edad talla y los niveles de vitamina D, la edad o los z-scores de peso y talla. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de baja DMO es alta en niños con discapacidad neurológica, y probablemente es multifactorial. En estos niños, sugerimos ajustar DMO para la edad talla, para evitar sobrediagnosticar baja DMO


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Estado Nutricional
17.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(5): 391-396, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671389

RESUMO

High serum levels of vitamin B12 or cobalamin, also called hypervitaminemia B12, is a frequently underestimated biological abnormality. According to the literature, some of the entities related to this finding are solid neoplasia (primary or metastatic) and acute or chronic hematological diseases. Other causes include liver disorders, monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance, renal failure and, less frequently, excess of vitamin B12 intake, inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, and transient hematological disorders (neutrophilia and secondary eosinophilia). This article reports on causes of hypervitaminosis B12, our experience and a review of the literature.


Assuntos
Transtornos Nutricionais/sangue , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/complicações , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/complicações , Vitamina B 12/efeitos adversos
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4499-4508, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778500

RESUMO

Recent crisis and conflicts in African countries, the Middle East and the Americas have led to forced population migration and rekindled concern about food security. This article aims to map in the scientific literature the implications of forced migration on food and nutrition of refugees. Scoping Review, and database search: databases: PubMed Central, LILACS, SciElo, Science Direct and MEDLINE. Languages used in the survey were: English, Portuguese and Spanish, with publication year from 2013 to 2018. 173 articles were obtained and after removing of duplicates and full reading, 26 articles were selected and submitted to critical reading by two reviewers, resulting in 18 articles selected. From the analysis of the resulting articles, the following categories emerged: Food Inequity; Cultural Adaptation and Nutrition; Emerging Diseases and Strategies for the Promotion of Nutritional Health. Food insecurity is a marked consequence of forced international migration, and constitutes an emerging global public health problem, since concomitant with increasing population displacements also widens the range of chronic and nutritional diseases.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Refugiados , Criança , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/etiologia
19.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(3): e1453, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: : Bariatric surgery promotes significant weight loss and improvement of associated comorbidities; however, nutrients deficiencies and weight regain may occur in the middle-late postoperative period. AIM: To investigate nutritional status in 10 years follow-up. METHODS: : Longitudinal retrospective study in which anthropometric, biochemical indicators and nutritional intake were assessed before and after one, two, three, four, five and ten years of Roux-en Y gastric bypass through analysis of medical records. RESULTS: : After ten years there was a reduction of 29.2% of initial weight; however, 87.1% of patients had significant weight regain. Moreover, there was an increase of incidence of iron (9.2% to 18.5%), vitamin B12 (4.2% to 11.1%) and magnesium deficiency (14.1% to 14.8%). Folic acid concentrations increased and the percentage of individuals with glucose (40.4% to 3.7%), triglycerides (38% to 7.4%), HDL cholesterol (31 % to 7.4%) and uric acid (70.5% to 11.1%) abnormalities reduced. Also, there is a reduction of food intake at first year postoperative. After 10 years, there was an increase in energy, protein and lipid intake, also a reduction in folid acid intake. CONCLUSIONS: : Roux-en Y gastric bypass is an effective procedure to promote weight loss and improve comorbidities associated with obesity. However, comparison between postoperative period of five and 10 years showed a high prevalence of minerals deficiency and a significant weight regain, evidencing the need for nutritional follow-up in the postoperative period.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica/reabilitação , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidade/cirurgia , Fenótipo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Nutricionais/sangue , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Perda de Peso
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652531

RESUMO

The scientific literature has demonstrated that glutamine is one of the main beneficial amino acids. It plays an important role in gut microbiota and immunity. This paper provides a critical overview of experimental studies (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical) investigating the efficacy of glutamine and its effect on gut microbiota. As a result of this review, we have summarized that glutamine could affect gut microbiota via different mechanisms including the reduction in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, with the activation of NF-κB and PI3K-Akt pathways, reducing the intestinal colonization (Eimeria lesions) and bacterial overgrowth or bacterial translocation, increasing the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and immunoglobulin A+ (IgA+) cells in the intestinal lumen, and decreasing asparagine levels. The potential applications of glutamine on gut microbiota include, but are not limited to, the management of obesity, bacterial translocation and community, cytokines profiles, and the management of side effects during post-chemotherapy and constipation periods. Further studies and reviews are needed regarding the effects of glutamine supplementation on other conditions in humans.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glutamina/metabolismo , Transtornos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/metabolismo
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