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2.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108153, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032862

RESUMO

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will exacerbate the negative health outcomes associated with the concurrent opioid overdose crisis in North America. COVID-19 brings unique challenges for practitioners who provide opioid use disorder (OUD) care. The majority of overdose deaths in the Canadian province of British Columbia occur in housing environments. Some supportive housing environments in Vancouver, British Columbia, have on-site primary care and substance use disorder treatment clinics. Some of these housing environments also include supervised consumption services. These housing environments needed to make adjustments to their care to adhere to COVID-19 physical distancing measures. Such adjustments included a pandemic withdrawal management program to provide patients with a pharmaceutical grade alternative to the toxic illicit drug supply, which allow patients to avoid the heightened overdose risk while using illicit drugs alone or potentially exposing themselves to COVID-19 while using drugs in a group setting. Other modifications to the OUD care continuum included modified supervised injection spaces to adhere to physical distancing, the use of personal protective equipment for overdose response, virtual platforms for clinical encounters, writing longer prescriptions, and providing take-home doses to promote opioid agonist treatment retention. These strategies aim to mitigate indoor overdose risk while also addressing COVID-19 risks.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/provisão & distribução , Colúmbia Britânica , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Habitação , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Risco , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
J Opioid Manag ; 16(4): 283-289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Opioid use is a continuing problem for the United States. Individuals who use opioids have a high risk of misuse, especially with prescription opioids. Substances that are often used in combination with opioids include methamphetamines, sedatives, and benzodiazepines, as well as tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, but not in a medical setting. We sought to determine (a) the relationship between various drugs (eg, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and opioid use, as well as (b) the relationship between polysubstance use and opioid use. DESIGN: We created a screening instrument that requested the patients seeking medical care at Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) and Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in West Alabama self-report their substance usage. SETTING: This study took place in outpatient primary care settings (FQHCs and VA hospitals) in west Alabama. PARTICIPANTS: De-identified electronic health records for 346 adults were obtained from consenting medical facilities. Missing data were found in 33 of the records obtained. The final usable sample for this study was 311. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The screening tool was comprised of five sections: demographics, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug use, and mental health. The primary outcome measure of this study was the number of days of opioid use in the past 30 days. RESULTS: Thirteen individuals (4.18 percent) reported opioid use in the last 30 days. While polysubstance or dual sub-stance use was not in the majority of the participant responses, the significant substances that were used in conjunction with opioids were methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who are polysubstance users have a higher likelihood of opioid use. Interventions that target opioid use would serve the population stronger by including screenings and potential treatments for polysubstance use additionally.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Alucinógenos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: British Columbia's (BC) Take-Home Naloxone (THN) program provides naloxone to bystanders for use in cases of suspected opioid overdose. This study seeks to provide trends and analysis from the provincial BC THN program since inception in 2012 to the end of 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BC THN shipment and distribution records from 2012-2018 were retrieved. Frequency distributions were used to describe characteristics of individuals accessing the program. To evaluate correlates of distribution after the addition of hundreds of pharmacy distribution sites, an analytic sample was limited to records from 2018, and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site. RESULTS: Since program inception to the end of 2018, there were 398,167 naloxone kits shipped to distribution sites, 149,999 kits reported distributed, and 40,903 kits reported used to reverse an overdose in BC. There was a significant increasing trend in the number of naloxone kits used to reverse an overdose over time (p<0.01), and more than 90% of kits that were reported used were distributed to persons at risk of an overdose. Individuals not personally at risk of overdose had higher odds of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site, compared to other community sites (including harm reduction supply distribution sites, peer led organizations, drop-in centers, and supportive housing sites) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.69; 95% CI: 2.50-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents thousands of opioid overdose reversals facilitated through the BC THN program. While those at highest risk of overdose may preferentially access naloxone through community sites, naloxone distribution through pharmacies has allowed the BC THN program to expand dramatically, increasing naloxone availability through longer opening hours on evenings and weekends. and in rural and remote regions. A diversity of naloxone distribution sites and strategies is crucial to prevent rising opioid overdose deaths.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Farmácias/tendências
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse and overdose remains a leading US public health concern, and many youth are first exposed to opioids via medical use. In this study, we examine school-level prevalence and correlates of medical use and misuse of prescription opioids among US 12th-grade students. METHODS: A sample of 228 507 US 12th-graders in 1079 public and private schools from 2002 to 2017 from the Monitoring the Future study was used to identify school-level prevalence and correlates associated with medical use and misuse of prescription opioids. RESULTS: The past-year prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 7.6% and ranged from 0% to 73% across US high schools. Lifetime medical use of prescription opioids was 16.9% and ranged from 0% to 85% across US high schools. The odds of prescription opioid misuse were higher at schools with higher proportions of male students, more white students, higher rates of marijuana use, and more medical use of prescription opioids. Students attending schools with the highest rates of medical use of prescription opioids had 57% increased odds of past-year prescription opioid misuse compared with schools with no medical use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.83); this association was found to weaken in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse among US high schools. The association between greater school-level medical use of prescription opioids and higher prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, although declining, indicates a key risk factor to target for prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confiança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22070, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of recent studies have investigated the optimal dosage and timing of dexamethasone in total hip arthroplasty (THA) but have inconsistent findings. Therefore, we designed the randomized controlled research to look for the optimal intravenous dexamethasone dose for the treatment of early postoperative pain after the THA. METHODS: The Declaration of Helsinki principles was followed and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for randomized controlled trials was adhered in this study. The First Medical Center in People's Liberation Army General Hospital approved the study (2020-089). After written informed consent was obtained, patients aged between 18 and 80 years with Physical Status I to III of American Society of Anesthesiologists, scheduled for primary unilateral THA, were included in this present work. Randomization is the use of a computer-formed list via a secretary, at a ratio of 1:1:1. The major end points were pain scores at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after surgery, with visual analog scale (VAS) utilized at rest, and at 45 degrees passive hip flexion. The secondary outcomes involved the total consumption of morphine, opioid-related side effects, hip range of motion, inflammation markers, and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: We assumed that the patients who received 3 doses of dexamethasone intravenously possessed the best postoperative results compared to those who received 1 or 2 doses of the dexamethasone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5864).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sports Health ; 12(6): 528-533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid prescribing patterns play an important role in the opioid epidemic in the United States. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends and geographic variation in opioid prescribing patterns after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS: Regional differences in opioid prescribing patterns after ACL reconstruction are present. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: The Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims database was used to analyze all patients with perioperative private insurance coverage who underwent ACL reconstruction from January 1, 2010, to November 31, 2017. Total number and morphine milligram equivalents per day (MMED) of opioid prescriptions were examined, and regional and statewide variation was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 90,068 ACL reconstruction patients who underwent surgery between 2010 and 2017 were included in the study. Overall, 67% received an opioid prescription within 30 days of surgery and 17% received an opioid prescription ≥90 MMED. The West (20%) had the highest proportion of patients with an opioid prescription ≥90 MMED and the Northeast had the lowest (12%), P < 0.001. The number of opioid prescriptions as well as proportion of opioid prescriptions ≥90 MMED varied significantly by state, P < 0.001. There was a significant increase in number of opioid prescriptions from 2010 to 2017 (62% in 2010 and 83% in 2017; P < 0.001). A significant change in the proportion of patients being prescribed ≥90 MMED was also present (P = 0.04; 15% in 2010, 17% in 2011, 17% 2012, 17% in 2013, 15% in 2014, 20% in 2015, 18% in 2016, and 15% in 2017). CONCLUSION: This study shows a trend of increasing opioid prescriptions and geographic variations in the amount and MMED of opioid prescriptions for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. These data highlight several areas of improvement that state officials and national entities can use to help curb the opioid epidemic and underscore the importance of national guidelines for opioid prescribing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge of prescribing patterns after specific procedures may help provide more direct insight and guidance to surgeons and patients regarding postoperative pain management.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/efeitos adversos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1237-1248, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term opioid use has negative health care consequences. Opioid-naïve adults are at risk for prolonged and persistent opioid use after surgery. While these outcomes have been examined in some adolescent and teenage populations, little is known about the risk of prolonged and persistent postoperative opioid use after common surgeries compared to children who do not undergo surgery and factors associated with these issues among pediatric surgical patients of all ages. METHODS: Using a national administrative claims database, we identified 175,878 surgical visits by opioid-naïve children aged ≤18 years who underwent ≥1 of the 20 most common surgeries from each of 4 age groups between December 31, 2002, and December 30, 2017, and who filled a perioperative opioid prescription 30 days before to 14 days after surgery. Prolonged opioid use after surgery (filling ≥1 opioid prescription 90-180 days after surgery) was compared to a reference sample of 1,354,909 nonsurgical patients randomly assigned a false "surgery" date. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of surgical procedures and 22 other variables of interest with prolonged opioid use and persistent postoperative opioid use (filling ≥60 days' supply of opioids 90-365 days after surgery) for each age group. RESULTS: Prolonged opioid use after surgery occurred in 0.77%, 0.76%, 1.00%, and 3.80% of surgical patients ages 0-<2, 2-<6, 6-<12, and 12-18, respectively. It was significantly more common in surgical patients than in nonsurgical patients (ages 0-<2: odds ratio [OR] = 4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.7-5.6]; ages 2-<6: OR = 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]; ages 6-<12: OR = 2.1 [95% CI, 1.9-2.4]; and ages 12-18: OR = 1.8 [95% CI, 1.7-1.9]). In the multivariable models for ages 0-<12 years, few surgical procedures and none of the other variables of interest were associated with prolonged opioid use. In the models for ages 12-18 years, 10 surgical procedures and 5 other variables of interest were associated with prolonged opioid use. Persistent postoperative opioid use occurred in <0.1% of patients in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Some patient characteristics and surgeries are positively and negatively associated with prolonged opioid use in opioid-naïve children of all ages, but persistent opioid use is rare. Specific pediatric subpopulations (eg, older patients with a history of mood/personality disorder or chronic pain) may be at markedly higher risk.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Mo Med ; 117(4): 362-369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848274

RESUMO

Recently, Missouri has followed an overall upward trend in opioid overdose deaths. In 2018, Missouri was the state with the largest absolute and percentage increase in opioid-related overdose fatality rates per capita over the previous year (18.3% and 3.1/100,000). This increase occurred despite an overall decrease in U.S. opioid-related death rates in the same period. This report identifies illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) (and analogues) as the drug most responsible for this rise in opioid deaths in Missouri, with stimulant overdoses (primarily from methamphetamine) in second place. Within Missouri, we find the areas where opioid deaths are highest: St. Louis and the city's fringe areas, following the national trend for high rates in fringe areas. Based on reports from CDC Wonder data, county medical examiners, law enforcement agencies, and drug addiction prevention agencies, we conclude that IMF and related synthetic opioids arriving from China are primarily responsible for fatal narcotic overdoses in Missouri. Despite the COVID-19 disruption of fentanyl manufacturing and distribution centers in and around Wuhan, China early in the pandemic, preliminary 2020 data from medical examiners' offices show an upswing in opioid deaths, an indicator that Chinese fentanyl producers have restored the supply chain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Tráfico de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Epidemia de Opioides/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , China , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia , Medicamentos Sintéticos
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1553-1560, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816538

RESUMO

Objectives. To evaluate the impact of frequent cannabis use on injection cessation and injection relapse among people who inject drugs (PWID).Methods. Three prospective cohorts of PWID from Vancouver, Canada, provided the data for these analyses. We used extended Cox regression analysis with time-updated covariates to analyze the association between cannabis use and injection cessation and injection relapse.Results. Between 2005 and 2018, at-least-daily cannabis use was associated with swifter rates of injection cessation (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.30). A subanalysis revealed that this association was only significant for opioid injection cessation (AHR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.41). At-least-daily cannabis use was not significantly associated with injection relapse (AHR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.95, 1.23).Conclusions. We observed that at-least-daily cannabis use was associated with a 16% increase in the hazard rate of injection cessation, and this effect was restricted to the cessation of injection opioids. This finding is encouraging given the uncertainty surrounding the impact of cannabis policies on PWID during the ongoing opioid overdose crisis in many settings in the United States and Canada.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Fumar Maconha , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003247, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are hospitalized for serious infections requiring prolonged intravenous antibiotics may face barriers to discharge, which could prolong hospital length of stay (LOS) and increase financial burden. We investigated differences in LOS, discharge disposition, and charges between hospitalizations for serious infections in patients with and without OUD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the 2016 National Inpatient Sample-a nationally representative database of all discharges from US acute care hospitals. The population of interest was all hospitalizations for infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, or osteomyelitis. The exposure was OUD, and the primary outcome was LOS until discharge, assessed by using a competing risks analysis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of discharge disposition and adjusted differences in hospital charges were also reported. Of 95,470 estimated hospitalizations for serious infections (infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis), the mean age was 49 years and 35% were female. 46% had Medicare (government-based insurance coverage for people age 65+ years), and 70% were non-Hispanic white. After adjustment for potential confounders, OUD was associated with a lower probability of discharge at any given LOS (aHR 0.61; 95% CI 0.59-0.63; p < 0.001). OUD was also associated with lower odds of discharge to home (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33-0.43; p < 0.001) and higher odds of discharge to a post-acute care facility (aOR 1.85; 95% CI 1.57-2.17; p < 0.001) or patient-directed discharge (also referred to as "discharge against medical advice") (aOR 3.47; 95% CI 2.80-4.29; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average total hospital charges, though daily hospital charges were significantly lower for patients with OUD. Limitations include the potential for unmeasured confounders and the use of billing codes to identify cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that among hospitalizations for some serious infections, those involving patients with OUD were associated with longer LOS, higher odds of discharge to post-acute care facilities or patient-directed discharge, and similar total hospital charges, despite lower daily charges. These findings highlight opportunities to improve care for patients with OUD hospitalized with serious infections, and to reduce the growing associated costs.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Infecções/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Infecções/economia , Infecções/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/tendências , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520952006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of opioid use disorder continues to rise in the United States, with a simultaneous increase in the diagnosis of both opioid use disorder during pregnancy and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Despite these increases in pregnancy-related care, little is known about hospital policy and policy implementation related to opioid use disorder in pregnancy. In addition, it is unknown whether policies might differ in rural or urban hospitals. To better examine these issues, Minnesota hospitals were surveyed regarding the existence and implementation of policies related to opioid use disorder in pregnancy and whether any policy implementation challenges had been identified. METHODS: From August to December 2017, the research team contacted all Minnesota hospitals that offered obstetric services (n = 82) to survey challenges to implementing policies for opioid use disorder during pregnancy, among other questions. Fifty-nine hospitals had respondents (primarily obstetric department supervisors) who provided information about policy implementation challenges for a 72% response rate. Qualitative responses were analyzed using qualitative description and according to hospital location: metropolitan (urban), micropolitan (rural), or non-core (rural). RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of respondents said that they had pregnancies affected by opioid use disorder at their hospital within the last year. Four major challenges to policy implementation were identified in qualitative responses: (1) provider consensus, (2) patient response to policy, (3) lack of resources, and (4) low frequency of occurrence. All four challenges were more frequently identified by respondents at rural hospitals compared to urban hospitals. CONCLUSION: This study identified challenges in standardizing hospital care for pregnancies affected by opioid use disorder, and these challenges were identified more frequently in rural locations. These non-urban hospitals may require increased state and federal support and funding.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e148, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746958

RESUMO

AIM: Drug use disorders are an important issue worldwide. Systematic attempts to estimate the global incidence of drug use disorders are rare. We aimed to determine the incidence of drug use disorders and their trends. METHODS: We obtained the annual incident cases and age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of drug use disorders from 1990 to 2017 using the Global Health Data Exchange query tool. The estimated annual percentage changes of the ASR were used to quantify and evaluate the trends in the incidence rate. Gaussian process regression and the Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to assess the relationship between the ASR and socio-demographic index (SDI). RESULTS: The number of drug use disorders' cases increased by 33.5% from 1990 to 2017 globally, whereas the ASR exhibited a stable trend. The ASR was higher in men than in women. Most cases (53.1%) of drug use disorders involved opioid. A positive association (ρ=0.35, p < 0.001) was found between ASR and SDI. Teenagers aged 15-19 years had the highest incidence rate. CONCLUSIONS: The incident cases of drug use disorders were increasing, but the incidence rate did not change significantly from 1990 to 2017. Current preventive measures and policies for drug use disorders might have little effect. The present results suggest that future strategies should focus on men, teenagers and high-risk regions in order to improve the current status of drug use disorders.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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