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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e97, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992376

RESUMO

AIMS: Prescription opioid misuse (POM) contributes to a larger opioid crisis in the US and Canada, with over 17 000 US POM-related overdose deaths in 2017. Our aims were to (1) identify specific profiles of respondents based on POM motives using the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and (2) compare profile respondents on sociodemographics, substance use and mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS: Analyses included 2017-18 NSDUH respondents with data on POM motives (n = 4810). POM was defined as prescription opioid use in a way not intended by the prescriber, including use without a prescription, in larger amounts or more frequently. Nine POM motives for the most recent episode were assessed, including 'to relieve physical pain' and 'to get high'. Latent classes, based on POM motives, were estimated. Classes were compared on sociodemographics, substance use and physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Eight latent classes were identified (in order of prevalence): pain relief only, relax-pain relief, sleep-pain relief, multi-motive, high, experimenter, emotional coping and dependent/hooked. Compared to the pain relief only group, the high and multi-motive classes had higher odds of all substance use outcomes, with the dependent/hooked class having higher odds on all but one outcome. Six of the eight classes had higher odds of past-year mental health treatment and suicidal ideation than the pain relief only class. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for pain, pain conditions, problematic substance use and psychopathology are recommended in those with any POM. While those in the dependent/hooked, multi-motive and emotional coping classes are most likely to have prescription opioid use disorder (OUD), screening for OUD symptoms in all individuals with POM is also warranted.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(2): 164-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with rhinitis medicamentosa (RM) have an increased odds of having an opioid use disorder (OUD) and which characteristics may predict this association. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case control study of patients 18 years and older who presented to the otolaryngology clinic at an academic medical center from January 2013 through December 2017. Cases, defined as patients who presented with excessive decongestant nasal spray usage based on history, were matched to control patients who presented with chronic rhinitis and did not report regular nasal decongestant usage. The charts were reviewed for patients that carried a problem of opioid abuse, identified using ICD-9 codes 304.XX or ICD-10 codes F11.XX. The primary outcome of this study was the odds of having an OUD. Secondary outcomes were assessed by summary statistics. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one cases of RM were matched to 1871 controls of chronic rhinitis. Seven cases (5.3%) and 24 (1.3%) controls had a diagnosis of OUD, consistent with an odds ratio of 3.98 for opioid abuse in patients with RM (95% CI: 1.47-9.71). Oxymetazoline was used by 85.5% (n = 112) of patients with RM. Thirty-six patients (27.1%) with RM underwent nasal surgery following a diagnosis of RM, of which twenty patients (55.6%) were prescribed opioids following the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: RM is associated with increased odds of having an OUD.


Assuntos
Descongestionantes Nasais/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Rinite/induzido quimicamente , Rinite/complicações , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descongestionantes Nasais/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 90-94, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881244

RESUMO

Potent opioids are increasingly responsible for morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Fentanyl and fentanyl derivatives are increasingly prevalent as adulterants or substitutes for opioid drugs of abuse in Europe and in North America. Trafficking and distribution of these chemicals evolve continuously and are poorly characterized at this time. Rescue and emergency personnel are increasingly concerned with the possibility of unintentional environmental exposures that might occur in the course of their operational duties. There is evidence that opioid agonists have been broadcast or applied directly in an offensive manner as incapacitating agents. Defending against toxicity from such agents requires a thoughtful plan for protection, decontamination, and treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/efeitos adversos , Tráfico de Drogas , Socorristas , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Resgate , Descontaminação , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Urol ; 203(1): 145-150, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: North American studies have revealed that about 3% to 7% of opioid naïve surgical patients transition to chronic opioid use after a single prescription. We examined the risk of chronic opioid use following radical prostatectomy using nationwide Swedish data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25,703 men in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden who underwent radical prostatectomy were linked to the Prescribed Drug Register. Opioid use was assessed at 3 times, including baseline (13 months to 1 month preoperatively), perioperatively (1 month before and after) and postoperatively (1 to 12 months). Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify predictors of new late use (1 or more opioid prescriptions in 3 consecutive months more than 2 months after surgery). RESULTS: Overall 16,368 men (64%) filled an opioid prescription during the 13 months before or after surgery. The use of strong opioids increased with time and the use of weak opioids decreased. Of the men 1.9% had opioid prescriptions during the baseline period, followed by a spike to 59% around the time surgery, which sharply decreased in month 2 postoperatively. However, thereafter the proportion of men with opioid prescriptions remained slightly higher at 2.2% compared to the baseline before radical prostatectomy. Of chronic late users 57% were previous users and 43% were new chronic users. Higher cancer risk category, greater comorbidity, unmarried status and low educational level were associated with the risk of new chronic opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly more than half of male Swedish patients filled an opioid prescription after radical prostatectomy and less than 1% became chronic opioid users. These rates are lower than in previous studies of postoperative opioid use from North America.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(12): 1570-1577, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787005

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between pre- and postoperative opioid use among patients undergoing common elective orthopaedic procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre- and postoperative opioid use were studied among patients from a national insurance database undergoing seven common orthopaedic procedures using univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: A total of 98 769 patients were included; 35 701 patients were opioid-naïve, 11 621 used opioids continuously for six months before surgery, and 4558 used opioids continuously for at least six months but did not obtain any prescriptions in the three months before surgery. Among opioid-naïve patients, between 0.76% and 4.53% used opioids chronically postoperatively. Among chronic preoperative users, between 42% and 62% ceased chronic opioids postoperatively. A three-month opioid-free period preoperatively led to a rate of cessation of chronic opioid use between 82% and 93%, as compared with between 31% and 50% with continuous preoperative use (p < 0.001 for significant changes in opioid use before and after surgery in each procedure). Between 5.6 and 20.0 preoperative chronic users ceased chronic use for every new chronic opioid user. Risk factors for chronic postoperative use included chronic preoperative opioid use (odds ratio (OR) 4.84 to 39.75; p < 0.0001) and depression (OR 1.14 to 1.55; p < 0.05 except total hip arthroplasty). With a three-month opioid-free period before surgery, chronic preoperative opioids elevated the risk of chronic opioid use only mildly, if at all (OR 0.47 to 1.75; p < 0.05 for total shoulder arthroplasty, rotator cuff repair, and carpal tunnel release). CONCLUSION: Chronic preoperative opioid use increases the risk of chronic postoperative use, but an opioid-free period before surgery decreases this risk compared with continuous preoperative use Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1570-1577.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17739, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764772

RESUMO

To examine trends and contributing factors of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated emergency department (ED) visits in Nevada.The 2009 to 2017 Nevada State ED database (n = 7,950,554 ED visits) were used. Use of opioid, heroin, and cannabis, respectively, was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th & 10th Revisions. Three multivariable models, one for each of the 3 dependent variables, were conducted. Independent variables included year, insurance status, race/ethnicity, use of other substance, and mental health conditions.The number of individuals with opioid, heroin, cannabis-associated ED visits increased 3%, 10%, and 23% annually from 2009 to 2015, particularly among 21 to 29 age group, females, and African Americans. Use of other substance (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.84, 3.99; reference - no use of other substance), mental health conditions (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 2.43, 2.53; reference - without mental health conditions), Medicaid (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.38, 1.44; reference - non-Medicaid), Medicare (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.49; reference - non-Medicare) and uninsured patients (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.49, 1.56; reference - insured) were predictors of all three substance-associated ED visits.With a steady increase in trends of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated ED visits in recent years, the main contributing factors include patient sociodemographic factors, mental health conditions, and use of other substances.


Assuntos
Emergências/epidemiologia , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevada/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2437-2443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the clinical development of new pain and reformulated pain medications given the ongoing opioid crisis and the public health burden of inadequately controlled pain. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new drugs starting clinical testing between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. We searched two comprehensive commercial databases of global research and development activity. The primary outcomes were trends in new and reformulated pain drugs starting clinical testing, proportion of new pain drugs targeting a novel biological pathway, and rates and reasons for discontinuation of development. RESULTS: The proportion of new pain drugs entering phase 1 testing (relative to all new drug trials) declined from 2.5% between 2000 and 2002 to 1.7% between 2013 and 2015. No significant changes in the proportion of new pain drugs entering phase 2 or phase 3 trials were observed. Most new pain drugs failed to reach late-stage clinical development, with 52% of pain drugs successfully advancing from phase 1 to phase 2 and 11% advancing from phase 2 to phase 3 trials. The number of reformulated products starting clinical testing increased over the study period and was greater than that for new analgesics in 2012 and every year thereafter. CONCLUSION: Pain drug development activity has largely shifted from new therapeutics to reformulated ones. New policies, such as increased funding for basic pain research, may help address the urgent need for new therapies for pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Lancet ; 394(10208): 1560-1579, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657732

RESUMO

We summarise the evidence for medicinal uses of opioids, harms related to the extramedical use of, and dependence on, these drugs, and a wide range of interventions used to address these harms. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study estimated that in 2017, 40·5 million people were dependent on opioids (95% uncertainty interval 34·3-47·9 million) and 109 500 people (105 800-113 600) died from opioid overdose. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) can be highly effective in reducing illicit opioid use and improving multiple health and social outcomes-eg, by reducing overall mortality and key causes of death, including overdose, suicide, HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other injuries. Mathematical modelling suggests that scaling up the use of OAT and retaining people in treatment, including in prison, could avert a median of 7·7% of deaths in Kentucky, 10·7% in Kiev, and 25·9% in Tehran over 20 years (compared with no OAT), with the greater effects in Tehran and Kiev being due to reductions in HIV mortality, given the higher prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in those settings. Other interventions have varied evidence for effectiveness and patient acceptability, and typically affect a narrower set of outcomes than OAT does. Other effective interventions focus on preventing harm related to opioids. Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of a range of interventions to improve the health and wellbeing of people who are dependent on opioids, coverage is low, even in high-income countries. Treatment quality might be less than desirable, and considerable harm might be caused to individuals, society, and the economy by the criminalisation of extramedical opioid use and dependence. Alternative policy frameworks are recommended that adopt an approach based on human rights and public health, do not make drug use a criminal behaviour, and seek to reduce drug-related harm at the population level.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109970, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629200

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the reason for relatively low detection rates for opioids and fentanyl in particular in post-mortem cases in the State of Hamburg. We re-analysed 822 blood samples from two different time periods, 2011/12 and 2016. These samples had been previously analysed in accordance with post-mortem routine by a case selected strategy. All samples were re-analysed with an LC-MS/MS method specific for prescription opioids. The main point in the evaluation was to determine whether the previous analysis strategy had led to underreporting of drug-related deaths (DRD), especially with regard to fentanyl. Another aim was to evaluate changes in prescribing prevalence of opiates and opioids. We compared pharmacy claims data in Hamburg with Germany. The analyses showed that the number of DRD remained unaffected by the new analytical strategy. Detection rates in DRD, however, increased for fentanyl 3.4-fold from 1.2% to 4.1%, buprenorphine from 5.9% to 7.6%, oxycodone from 0% to 1.8%, tilidine from 1.8% to 2.4%. The most frequently detected opioids in DRD cases were methadone (39.4%) and heroin (20%). Prescription rates between 2011-2017 decreased in Hamburg for nearly all opioids, morphine by - 43.5%, buprenorphine - 43%, codeine - 57%, fentanyl - 25%, tilidine -17%, tramadol - 31%, and hydromorphone -6%. Oxycodone, tapentadol, and piritramide prescription rates increased. For Germany, a decrease in the prescription rates for fentanyl was also found during this period (-12.9 %), although not as pronounced as in Hamburg. Prescription rates for methadone were three to greater than five times higher in Hamburg as compared to the German average due to the higher number of substituted persons per inhabitant. Conclusion: Despite the global problem of opioid abuse, there are significant regional differences in the nature and extent of opioid abuse. It is necessary to collect data at the national level to develop appropriate prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/análise , Fentanila/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Cromatografia Líquida , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/envenenamento , Toxicologia Forense , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 833-838, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581170

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood (e.g., via injection drug use, needle stick injuries) (1). In the last 10 years, increases in HCV infection in the general U.S. population (1) and among pregnant women (2) are attributed to a surge in injection drug use associated with the opioid crisis. Opioid use disorders among pregnant women have increased (3), and approximately 68% of pregnant women with HCV infection have opioid use disorder (4). National trends in HCV infection among pregnant women by opioid use disorder status have not been reported to date. CDC analyzed hospital discharge data from the 2000-2015 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) to determine whether HCV infection trends differ by opioid use disorder status at delivery. During this period, the national rate of HCV infection among women giving birth increased >400%, from 0.8 to 4.1 per 1,000 deliveries. Among women with opioid use disorder, rates of HCV infection increased 148%, from 87.4 to 216.9 per 1,000 deliveries, and among those without opioid use disorder, rates increased 271%, although the rates in this group were much lower, increasing from 0.7 to 2.6 per 1,000 deliveries. These findings align with prior ecological data linking hepatitis C increases with the opioid crisis (2). Treatment of opioid use disorder should include screening and referral for related conditions such as HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(10): 849-858, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The opioid crisis has had devastating effects on individuals and communities, and it has rapidly increased in severity. However, we still lack nationally representative information on the diversity of comorbidity patterns among prescription opioid use disorder (P-OUD), other substance use disorders (SUDs), and psychopathology using the newest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This impedes planning for multiple aspects of intervention, including society-wide allocation of treatment resources, program design at individual treatment centers, and personalized care to individual patients. METHOD: To address this critical gap in information, we evaluated clinical profiles of American adults via latent class analysis in a large, recently collected epidemiological dataset that uses structured diagnostic assessment for DSM-5 psychopathology (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III; N = 36,309). Variables considered for profiles included lifetime diagnosis for multiple SUDs, various externalizing and internalizing conditions, and demographic variables. We then associated clinical profiles with demographic variables and functional impairment. RESULTS: Comorbid psychopathology and other SUDs were common in latent classes with elevated and very high rates of P-OUD. To illustrate, alcohol use disorder rates were greater than 45%, and posttraumatic stress disorder rates were greater than 28% in classes with higher P-OUD rates. Higher P-OUD rates were associated with White/non-Hispanic and American Indian/Alaska Native populations. Relationships between P-OUD rates and functional impairment were inconsistent. CONCLUSION: Many current treatment delivery systems are not designed to accommodate the heterogeneous profiles associated with high P-OUD rates. We provide specific suggestions for improvements to the mental health service system, individual clinical care programs, and future research approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(10): 893-903, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of misuse of prescription opioids across adulthood and the associations of such misuse with symptoms of psychopathology and use of other substances were examined for an at-risk community sample of men. METHOD: For a longitudinal study of boys (N = 206) followed to adulthood, misuse of prescription opioids was assessed on 13 occasions from ages 20-21 years to 37-38 years. Prediction of misuse was examined from prospectively assessed risk factors in 3 models: (a) parental substance use during the men's adolescence; (b) the men's own risk behaviors in adolescence-delinquent behavior, depressive symptoms, and use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and opioids; and (c) within- and between-individual effects of the men's risk behaviors during adulthood. RESULTS: Opioid misuse was reported by 29% of men. After accounting for effects of age and considered individually, parent marijuana use and all of the adolescent and adult risk factors (except adolescent depressive symptoms) were significant between-individual predictors of opioid misuse. Furthermore, within-individual prediction was significant for adult delinquency and alcohol use after accounting for increases in opioid misuse with age. When risk factors were tested simultaneously, men's adult delinquency and use of marijuana and tobacco remained significant between-individual predictors, whereas no parental or adolescent risk factors remained significant in these models. CONCLUSION: Both adolescent and adult risk factors were examined that predicted adult opioid misuse. Preventing adolescent problem behavior and using such histories to inform screening for misuse risk in adulthood may reduce the burden of the opioid crisis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Homens , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Urology ; 134: 103-108, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of persistent opioid use following ureteroscopy (URS). Over 100 Americans die every day from opioid overdose. Recent studies suggest that many opioid addictions surface after surgery. METHODS: Using claims data, we identified adults who underwent outpatient URS for treatment of upper tract stones between January 2008 and December 2016 and filled an opioid prescription attributable to URS. We then measured the rate of new persistent opioid use-defined as continued use of opioids 91-180 days after URS among those who were previously opioid-naive. Finally, we fit multivariable models to assess whether new persistent opioid use was associated with the amount of opioid prescribed at the time of URS. RESULTS: In total, 27,740 patients underwent outpatient URS, 51.2% of whom were opioid-naïve. Nearly 1 in 16 (6.2%) opioid-naïve patients developed new persistent opioid use after URS. Six months following surgery, beneficiaries with new persistent opioid use continued to fill prescriptions with daily doses of 4.2 oral morphine equivalents. Adjusting for measured sociodemographic and clinical differences, patients in the highest tercile of opioids prescribed at the time of URS had 69% higher odds of new persistent opioid use compared to those in the lowest tercile (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.41-2.03). CONCLUSION: Nearly 1 in 16 opioid-naive patients develop new persistent opioid use after URS. New persistent opioid use is associated with the amount of opioid prescribed at the time of URS. Given these findings, urologists should re-evaluate their post-URS opioid prescribing patterns.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Dor Pós-Operatória , Padrões de Prática Médica , Ureteroscopia , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Urologistas/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(36): 777-783, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513558

RESUMO

Since 1999, the rate of opioid use disorder (OUD) has more than quadrupled, from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5 (1), with similar increases in incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) observed for infants (from 2.8 per 1,000 live births to 14.4) among Medicaid-insured deliveries (2). CDC's response to the opioid crisis involves strategies to prevent opioid overdoses and related harms by building state capacity and supporting providers, health systems, and payers.* Recognizing systems gaps in provision of perinatal care and services, CDC partnered with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) to launch the Opioid Use Disorder, Maternal Outcomes, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Initiative Learning Community (OMNI LC). OMNI LC supports systems change and capacity building in 12 states.† Qualitative data from participating states were analyzed to identify strategies, barriers, and facilitators for capacity building in state-defined focus areas. Most states focused on strategies to expand access to and coordination of quality services (10 of 12) or increase provider awareness and training (nine of 12). Fewer states focused on data, monitoring, and evaluation (four of 12); financing and coverage (three of 12); or ethical, legal, and social considerations (two of 12). By building capacity to strengthen health systems, state-identified strategies across all focus areas might improve the health trajectory of mothers, infants, and families affected by the U.S. opioid crisis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(5): 569-575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a significant public health crisis and prescription opioids are often used to manage chronic pain, despite questionable long-term efficacy. Furthermore, co-substance (mis)use is also common among individuals with chronic pain who use opioids. Alcohol has been consistently used to manage chronic pain, partly due to its acute analgesic properties. Cannabis has also recently garnered attention in the context of pain management, though research examining its efficacy for pain has produced mixed results. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that concurrent substance co-use is positively associated with use and misuse of additional substances, particularly among individuals with chronic pain. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the main and interactive effects of alcohol use problems and cannabis use problems in relation to opioid misuse among adults with chronic pain who use opioids. METHODS: The current sample was comprised of 440 adults with chronic pain using prescription opioids. Substance use problems were assessed using the ASSIST, Current Opioid Misuse Measure, and the Severity of Dependence Scale. Moderated regressions using the PROCESS macro were utilized. RESULTS: Results indicated that alcohol use problems and cannabis use problems each uniquely related to opioid dependence severity and opioid misuse. The interaction of alcohol and cannabis use problems was uniquely related to only opioid misuse, whereby alcohol use was most strongly associated to opioid misuse among those with higher levels of cannabis use problems. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest there may be utility in assessing and treating alcohol and cannabis use problems among persons with chronic pain who are using opioids for pain management.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(10): 1928-1935, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401129

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of opioid use before and after shoulder stabilization surgery for instability due to recurrent dislocation and assess patient factors associated with prolonged opioid use postoperatively. METHODS: Patients undergoing primary shoulder stabilization procedures for shoulder instability due to recurrent dislocation were accessed from the Humana administrative claims database. Patients were categorized as those who filled 1 or more opioid prescriptions within 1 month, those who filled opioid prescriptions between 1 and 3 months, and those who never filled opioid prescriptions before surgery. Rates of opioid use were evaluated preoperatively and longitudinally tracked for each group. Multiple binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with opioid use at 3 months and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: Overall, 4802 patients (45.9% opioid naive) underwent shoulder stabilization surgery for shoulder instability during the study period. Rates of opioid use significantly declined after the first postoperative month; however, at 1 year, the rate of opioid use was significantly greater in patients who filled opioid prescriptions preoperatively (13.4% vs. 1.9%, P < .0001). Filling opioid prescriptions 1 to 3 months prior to surgery was the strongest risk factor for opioid use at 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who were prescribed opioids 1 to 3 months before surgery had the highest risk of prolonged opioid use following surgery. Obesity, tobacco use, and a preoperative diagnosis of fibromyalgia were independently associated with prolonged opioid use following surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Luxação do Ombro/cirurgia , Dor de Ombro/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Luxação do Ombro/complicações , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Dor de Ombro/etiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(11): 829-834, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe patient-, clinician-, system-, and community-level interventions for pain management developed and employed by 9 healthcare systems across the United States and report on lessons learned from the implementation of these interventions. SUMMARY: The high cost associated with pain coupled with the frequent use of opioid analgesics as primary treatment options has made novel pain management strategies a necessity. Interventions that target multiple levels within healthcare are needed to help combat the opioid epidemic and improve strategies to manage chronic pain. Patient-level interventions implemented ranged from traditional paper-based educational tools to videos, digital applications, and peer networks. Clinician-level interventions focused on providing education, ensuring proper follow-up care, and establishing multidisciplinary teams that included prescribers, pharmacists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. System- and community-level interventions included metric tracking and analytics, electronic health record tools, lockbox distribution for safe storage, medication return bins for removal of opioids, risk assessment tool utilization, and improved access to reversal agents. CONCLUSION: Strategies to better manage pain can be implemented within health systems at multiple levels and on many fronts; however, these changes are most effective when accepted and widely used by the population for which they are targeted.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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