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1.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193593

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la efectividad de una intervención comunitaria de formación profesional para jóvenes en riesgo de exclusión social, en la salud autopercibida, la autoestima y el consumo de sustancias (alcohol, tabaco y cannabis). Evaluar la satisfacción de los participantes. MÉTODOS: Diseño: estudio de intervención pre-post. Emplazamiento: tres barrios de renta baja de Barcelona durante 2013-2017. Participantes: 185 participantes, de 21 años de media y predominio masculino (65,5%). Intervención: programa de 4 meses de formación profesional de diferentes disciplinas e itinerarios orientados a la inserción laboral. Mediciones principales: análisis bivariado (McNemar) para datos apareados, comparando la salud autopercibida, autoestima y consumos pre-post intervención. Modelos de regresión de Poisson para las variables resultado, ajustando por variables explicativas. Además, se evaluó la satisfacción con el programa a través de un cuestionario y una discusión grupal. RESULTADOS: la salud autopercibida era elevada antes de la intervención (87,7% hombres y 82,1% mujeres) y se mantuvo tras ella (90,6% y 83,9% respectivamente). Los niveles elevados de autoestima previos a la intervención (92,8% en hombres y 92,9% mujeres) aumentaron tras ella (95,5% y 100% respectivamente), de forma significativa en las mujeres (p < 0,05). El consumo de sustancias no varió tras la intervención. La satisfacción con el programa fue elevada. CONCLUSIÓN: la intervención parece haber mejorado la autoestima en las mujeres, un colectivo con elevado desempleo y normalmente infrarrepresentado en los programas formativos. Esta intervención no incidió en el consumo de sustancias. Los programas de inserción laboral para jóvenes pueden promover factores beneficiosos para la salud mental


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community occupational training intervention for young people at risk of social exclusion on self-perceived health, self-esteem and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis). To assess participant's satisfaction. METHODS: Design: Quasi-experimental before-after study. Setting: Three low-income neighbourhoods in Barcelona during 2013-2017. Participants: 185 participants with an average age of 21 years and mainly males (65.5%). Intervention: Four-month programme on specific occupational skills and itineraries oriented towards occupational integration. Most important measurements: Bivariate analysis (McNemar test) for paired data to compare self-rated health and self-esteem pre-intervention and post-intervention. Poisson regression models for result variables, adjusting for explanatory variables. In addition, satisfaction with the programme was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and group discussion. RESULTS: Pre-intervention self-rating was good (87.7% men and 82.1% women) and remained good post-intervention (90.6% and 83.9% respectively). Pre-intervention self-esteem was good (92.8% in men and 92.9% in women) and increased after the intervention (95.5% and 100% respectively). This was statistically significant in women (P<0.05). Substance use was unaltered after the intervention. Satisfaction with the programme was high. CONCLUSION: The intervention appears to have improved self-esteem among young women, who are an important group among the unemployed, as they are usually underrepresented in training and professional programmes. Programmes that foster young people moving into working life may also promote factors beneficial to mental health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Participação da Comunidade , Capacitação Profissional , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Autoimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia
2.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006815
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47845

RESUMO

Saúde e economia passam por maus bocados, enquanto indústria do tabaco dá prejuízo bilionário ao Estado, mas investe em estratégia para dificultar controle


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Pandemias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3475-3480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876252

RESUMO

The study aims to identify marital violence precipitating/intensifying elements during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a narrative review of the literature, and the search was carried out in May 2020. We employed the PubCovid-19 platform, which is indexed in the United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and the Excerpta Medica (EMBASE) database. English descriptors "Domestic violence", "COVID-19", and "Intimate Partner Violence" were used in the search, and nine papers were selected for full-text reading. Three empirical categories were elaborated from the exploration of the selected material: Economic instability, Alcohol and other drugs use/abuse, and Weaker women's support network. Support networks for women in situations of marital violence should be expanded in this pandemic context, with emphasis on the use of digital technologies as possible tools for screening pandemic-related violence cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To characterize recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed men who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana. METHODS Limiting Antigen (LAg)-Avidity testing was performed to detect recent HIV infection within a cohort of newly-diagnosed men who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana. Logistic regression was used to determine characteristics associated with recent infection. A partial transmission network was inferred using HIV-1 pol sequences. Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distances were measured between all pairs of sequences, and the network was constructed by inferring putative transmission links (genetic distances ≤ 1.5%). We assessed whether recent infection was associated with clustering within the inferred network. RESULTS Recent infection was detected in 11% (22/194) of newly-diagnosed participants. Out of the participants with sequence data, 60% (9/15) with recent infection clustered compared with 31% (43/139) with chronic infection. Two recent infections belonged to the same cluster. In adjusted analyses, recent infection was associated with years of residence in Tijuana (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.01-1.09), cocaine use (past month) (OR = 8.50; 95%CI 1.99-28.17), and ever experiencing sexual abuse (OR = 2.85; 95%CI 1.03-7.85). DISCUSSION A total of 11% of men newly diagnosed with HIV who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana were recently infected. The general lack of clustering between participants with recent infection suggests continued onward HIV transmission rather than an outbreak within a particular cluster.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Pessoas Transgênero , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 118: 108103, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972644

RESUMO

In response to the novel coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, many people experiencing homelessness and substance use disorders entered respite and recuperation facilities for care and to isolate and prevent subsequent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, because drug use was officially prohibited in these facilities, we observed people who use substances leaving isolation temporarily or prematurely. The initial Covid-19 surge magnified the need for harm reduction access for those who use substances to ensure their safety and well-being and that of their local communities. In this commentary, we argue that expanding harm reduction access is crucial for subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection and also for patients who use substances and are hospitalized for other reasons.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
8.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 293-300, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877064

RESUMO

How to manage adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with substance use disorders? Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently occurs with anxiety disorders, mood disorders and above all addictive comorbidities. Its evaluation must be systematic during an addictology consultation. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a complex clinical picture combining cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions that frequently underlies addictive disorder. Substance misuse frequently begins as an over-the-counter medication. The multidimensional diagnostic approach makes it possible to detect these complex interactions. The motivational therapeutic approach involving the comorbidity issue is crucial to support the patient in his change towards a control of his addictions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Comorbidade , Humanos
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(10): 851-864, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of digital psychological interventions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. We aimed to systematically investigate the available evidence for digital psychological interventions in reducing mental health problems in LMICs. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane databases for articles published in English from database inception to March 9, 2020. We included randomised controlled trials investigating digital psychological interventions in individuals with mental health problems in LMICs. We extracted data on demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, details of the intervention, including the setting, digital delivery method, control group conditions, number of sessions, therapeutic orientation (eg, cognitive therapy or behaviour therapy), presence or absence of guidance, and length of follow-up, and statistical information to calculate effect sizes. If a study reported insufficient data to calculate effect sizes, the corresponding authors were contacted to provide data that could be aggregated. We did random-effects meta-analyses, and calculated the standardised mean difference in scores of digital psychological interventions versus control conditions (Hedges'g). Quality of evidence was assessed by use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The primary outcome was post-intervention mental health problems, as measured by self-reporting instruments or clinical interviews. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019137755. FINDINGS: We identified 22 eligible studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The included studies involved a total of 4104 participants (2351 who received a digital psychological intervention and 1753 who were in the control group), and mainly focused on young adults (mean age of the study population was 20-35 years) with depression or substance misuse. The results showed that digital psychological interventions are moderately effective when compared with control interventions (Hedges'g 0·60 [95% CI 0·45-0·75]; Hedges'g with treatment as usual subgroup for comparison 0·54 [0·35-0·73]). Heterogeneity between studies was substantial (I2=74% [95% CI 60-83]). There was no evidence of publication bias, and the quality of evidence according to the GRADE criteria was generally high. INTERPRETATION: Digital psychological interventions, which have been mostly studied in individuals with depression and substance misuse, are superior to control conditions, including usual care, and are moderately effective in LMICs. However, the considerable heterogeneity observed in our analysis highlights the need for more studies to be done, with standardised implementation of digital psychological intervention programmes to improve their reproducibility and efficiency. Digital psychological interventions should be considered for regions where usual care for mental health problems is minimal or absent. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the Persian, Chinese, Hindi, Portuguese, Bahasa, Turkish, Romanian, Spanish and Thai translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22344, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disease with a high incidence and easy to relapse. It not only affects the work and life of patients, but also brings a heavy economic burden. University is the peak of depression, and the prevalence of depression among college students is much higher than that of ordinary people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate depression symptoms, life satisfaction, self-confidence, substance use, social adjustment, and dropout rates of the use of psychological intervention for college students. METHODS: We will identify relevant trials from systematic searches in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library. We will also search Clinical Trials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished data. Additional relevant studies will be searched through search engines (such as Google), and references included in the literature will be tracked. All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be included. There are no date restrictions. Use Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of bias tool to conduct risk of bias analysis. Use the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the quality of evidence. All statistical analysis will be performed using Stata (V.15.0.) and Review Manager (V.5.2.0). RESULTS: A total of 6238 records were obtained by searching the database and 27 records were obtained by other sources. After removing duplicate records, there are 4225 records remaining. We excluded 3945 records through abstract and title, leaving 280 full-text articles. CONCLUSION: This will be the first study to compare the effects of different psychological treatments on depression in college students. We hope that this study will guide clinical decision-making of psychotherapy to better treat depression in college students. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: INPLASY202070134.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Psicoterapia/tendências , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1102-1104, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970561

RESUMO

The isolation that comes from social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic can be particularly detrimental to the United States' population of people who use drugs. People with substance use disorders may be at risk for return to use, exacerbation of existing mental health disorders, and risky drug practices. In this commentary, we review the risk to people who use drugs and how emergency department providers can best support these individuals during the unprecedented time of social distancing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1327, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adversity experienced during childhood manifests deleteriously across the lifespan. This study provides updated frequency estimates of ACEs using the most comprehensive and geographically diverse sample to date. METHODS: ACEs data were collected via BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Data from a total of 211,376 adults across 34 states were analyzed. The ACEs survey is comprised of 8 domains: physical/emotional/sexual abuse, household mental illness, household substance use, household domestic violence, incarcerated household member, and parental separation/divorce. Frequencies were calculated for each domain and summed to derive mean ACE scores. Findings were weighted and stratified by demographic variables. Group differences were assessed by post-estimation F-tests. RESULTS: Most individuals experienced at least one ACE (57.8%) with 21.5% experiencing 3+ ACEs. F-tests showed females had significantly higher ACEs than males (1.64 to 1.46). Multiracial individuals had a significantly higher ACEs (2.39) than all other races/ethnicities, while White individuals had significantly lower mean ACE scores (1.53) than Black (1.66) or Hispanic (1.63) individuals. The 25-to-34 age group had a significantly higher mean ACE score than any other group (1.98). Generally, those with higher income/educational attainment had lower mean ACE scores than those with lower income/educational attainment. Sexual minority individuals had higher ACEs than straight individuals, with significantly higher ACEs in bisexual individuals (3.01). CONCLUSION: Findings highlight that childhood adversity is common across sociodemographic, yet higher in certain categories. Identifying at-risk populations for higher ACEs is essential to improving the health outcomes and attainment across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Divórcio , Características da Família , Transtornos Mentais , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(10): 893-910, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949521

RESUMO

Mental illness and substance use disorders in the workplace have been increasingly recognised as a problem in most countries; however, evidence is scarce on which solutions provide the highest return on investment. We searched academic and grey literature databases and additional sources for studies that included a workplace intervention for mental health or substance abuse, or both, and that did an economic analysis. We analysed the papers we found to identify the highest yielding and most cost-effective interventions by disorder. On the basis of 56 studies, we found moderate strength of evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is cost-saving (and in some cases cost-effective) to address depression. We observed strong evidence that regular and active involvement of occupational health professionals is cost-saving and cost-effective in reducing sick leave related to mental health and in encouraging return to work. We identified moderate evidence that coverage for pharmacotherapy and brief counselling for smoking cessation are both cost-saving and cost-effective. Addressing mental health and substance misuse in the workplace improves workers' wellbeing and productivity, and benefits employers' bottom line (ie, profit). Future economic analyses would benefit from the consideration of subgroup analyses, examination of longer follow-ups, inclusion of statistical and sensitivity analyses and discussion around uncertainty, and consideration of potential for bias.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/economia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21360, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871863

RESUMO

HIV prevalence is higher among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), owing to their unsafe sexual behavior. Further, MSM indulge in behaviors such as consumption of alcohol/oral drugs and/or injecting during/before sex that poses the risk of unsafe behaviors, thereby increasing their vulnerability to HIV. The study aims to analyze the factors associated with HIV infection among the multi-risk MSM using any substances with those MSM who do not use substances.Community-based cross-sectional survey design using probability-based sampling between October 2014 and November 2015.For the nation-wide Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS), 23,081 MSM were recruited from 4067 hotspots in 108 districts across India. Information on demographics, sexual behaviors, substance use, sexual partners, and awareness on HIV and its management was collected from the consented respondents using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) by trained personnel. Blood samples were tested for HIV. Statistical analyses were done, to study the associations between substance use and its influence on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV infection.One in 3 MSM (33.88%) in India were substance users, thus exhibiting "multi-risk" (MR) behaviors. Significantly higher HIV prevalence (3.8%, P < .05) was reported among MR-MSM, despite 97.2% of them being aware of HIV. Higher HIV prevalence among MSM exhibiting homosexual behavior for ≤1 year is of specific concern, as this accounts to recent infections and indicates the increased vulnerability of the infection among the new entrants.Substance-use resulting in high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with higher HIV prevalence among MR-MSM. Integrated targeted interventions focusing on safe sex and safe-IDU practices among MR-MSM are required to end the disease transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928988

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adolescents with problematic substance use (SU) are at risk for far-reaching adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Synthesize the evidence regarding the effects of brief behavioral interventions for adolescents (12-20 years) with problematic SU. DATA SOURCES: We conducted literature searches in Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo through October 31, 2019. STUDY SELECTION: We screened 33 272 records and citations for interventions in adolescents with at least problematic SU, retrieved 1831 articles, and selected 22 randomized controlled trials of brief interventions meeting eligibility criteria for meta-analysis. DATA EXTRACTION: We followed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guidelines. We categorized brief interventions into components, including motivational interviewing (MI), psychoeducation, and treatment as usual. Outcomes included SU (abstinence, days used per month) for alcohol and cannabis, and substance-related problem scales. Strength of evidence (SoE) was assessed. RESULTS: Both pairwise and network meta-analyses were conducted by using random effects models. Compared to treatment as usual, the use of MI reduces heavy alcohol use days by 0.7 days per month (95% credible interval [CrI]: -1.6 to 0.02; low SoE), alcohol use days by 1.1 days per month (95% CrI -2.2 to -0.3; moderate SoE), and overall substance-related problems by a standardized net mean difference of 0.5 (95% CrI -1.0 to 0; low SoE). The use of MI did not reduce cannabis use days, with a net mean difference of -0.05 days per month (95% CrI: -0.26 to 0.14; moderate SoE). LIMITATIONS: There was lack of consistently reported outcomes and limited available comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The use of MI reduces heavy alcohol use, alcohol use days, and SU-related problems in adolescents but does not reduce cannabis use days.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Psicoterapia Breve , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Humanos
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legal performance-enhancing substance(s) (PES) (eg, creatine) are widely used among adolescent boys and young men; however, little is known about their temporal associations with substance use behaviors. METHODS: We analyzed prospective cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Waves I to IV (1994-2008). Logistic regressions were used to first assess adolescent substance use (Wave I) and use of legal PES (Wave III) and second to assess use of legal PES (Wave III) and subsequent substance use-associated risk behaviors (Wave IV), adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the sample of 12 133 young adults aged 18 to 26 years, 16.1% of young men and 1.2% of young women reported using legal PES in the past year. Adolescent alcohol use was prospectively associated with legal PES use in young men (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.70). Among young men, legal PES use was prospectively associated with higher odds of problematic alcohol use and drinking-related risk behaviors, including binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.71), injurious and risky behaviors (aOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.43-2.21), legal problems (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08-2.13), cutting down on activities and socialization (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.36-2.78), and emotional or physical health problems (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.04-1.99). Among young women, legal PES use was prospectively associated with higher odds of emotional or physical health problems (aOR 3.00; 95% CI 1.20-7.44). CONCLUSIONS: Use of legal PES should be considered a gateway to future problematic alcohol use and drinking-related risk behaviors, particularly among young men.


Assuntos
Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Aminoácidos/efeitos adversos , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Intervalos de Confiança , Creatina/efeitos adversos , Desidroepiandrosterona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1337, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who are houseless (also referred to as homeless) perceive high stigma in healthcare settings, and face disproportionate disparities in morbidity and mortality versus people who are housed. Medical students and the training institutions they are a part of play important roles in advocating for the needs of this community. The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of how medical students and institutions can meet needs of the self-identified needs of the houseless community. METHODS: Between February and May 2018, medical students conducted mixed-methods surveys with semi-structured qualitative interview guides at two community-based organizations that serve people who are houseless in Portland, Oregon. Medical students approach guests at both locations to ascertain interest in participating in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis rooted in an inductive process. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants in this study. Most participants were male (73.7%), white (78.9%), and had been houseless for over a year at the time of interview (65.8%). Qualitative themes describe care experiences among people with mental health and substance use disorders, and roles for medical students and health-care institutions. Specifically, people who are houseless want medical students to 1) listen to and believe them, 2) work to destigmatize houselessness, 3) engage in diverse clinical experiences, and 4) advocate for change at the institutional level. Participants asked healthcare institutions to use their power to change laws that criminalize substance use and houselessness, and build healthcare systems that take better care of people with addiction and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, and the institutions they are a part of, should seek to reduce stigma against people who are houseless in medical systems. Additionally, institutions should change their approaches to healthcare delivery and advocacy to better support the health of people who are houseless.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Saúde da População , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mudança Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
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