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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e169, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996442

RESUMO

AIMS: Many people who are homeless with severe mental illnesses are high users of healthcare services and social services, without reducing widen health inequalities in this vulnerable population. This study aimed to determine whether independent housing with mental health support teams with a recovery-oriented approach (Housing First (HF) program) for people who are homeless with severe mental disorders improves hospital and emergency department use. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial in four French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Participants were eligible if they were 18 years or older, being absolutely homeless or precariously housed, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) and were required to have a high level of needs (moderate-to-severe disability and past hospitalisations over the last 5 years or comorbid alcohol or substance use disorder). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to immediate access to independent housing and support from the Assertive Community Treatment team (social worker, nurse, doctor, psychiatrist and peer worker) (HF group) or treatment as usual (TAU group) namely pre-existing dedicated homeless-targeted programs and services. Participants and interviewers were unmasked to assignment. The primary outcomes were the number of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalisation admissions and inpatient days at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were recovery (Recovery Assessment Scale), quality of life (SQOL and SF36), mental health symptoms, addiction issues, stably housed days and cost savings from a societal perspective. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to the HF group (n = 353) or TAU group (n = 350). No differences were found in the number of hospital admissions (relative risk (95% CI), 0.96 (0.76-1.21)) or ED visits (0.89 (0.66-1.21)). Significantly less inpatient days were found for HF v. TAU (0.62 (0.48-0.80)). The HF group exhibited higher housing stability (difference in slope, 116 (103-128)) and higher scores for sub-dimensions of S-QOL scale (psychological well-being and autonomy). No differences were found for physical composite score SF36, mental health symptoms and rates of alcohol or substance dependence. Mean difference in costs was €-217 per patient over 24 months in favour of the HF group. HF was associated with cost savings in healthcare costs (RR 0.62(0.48-0.78)) and residential costs (0.07 (0.05-0.11)). CONCLUSION: An immediate access to independent housing and support from a mental health team resulted in decreased inpatient days, higher housing stability and cost savings in homeless persons with SCZ or BP disorders.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1102-1104, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970561

RESUMO

The isolation that comes from social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic can be particularly detrimental to the United States' population of people who use drugs. People with substance use disorders may be at risk for return to use, exacerbation of existing mental health disorders, and risky drug practices. In this commentary, we review the risk to people who use drugs and how emergency department providers can best support these individuals during the unprecedented time of social distancing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1337, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who are houseless (also referred to as homeless) perceive high stigma in healthcare settings, and face disproportionate disparities in morbidity and mortality versus people who are housed. Medical students and the training institutions they are a part of play important roles in advocating for the needs of this community. The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of how medical students and institutions can meet needs of the self-identified needs of the houseless community. METHODS: Between February and May 2018, medical students conducted mixed-methods surveys with semi-structured qualitative interview guides at two community-based organizations that serve people who are houseless in Portland, Oregon. Medical students approach guests at both locations to ascertain interest in participating in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis rooted in an inductive process. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants in this study. Most participants were male (73.7%), white (78.9%), and had been houseless for over a year at the time of interview (65.8%). Qualitative themes describe care experiences among people with mental health and substance use disorders, and roles for medical students and health-care institutions. Specifically, people who are houseless want medical students to 1) listen to and believe them, 2) work to destigmatize houselessness, 3) engage in diverse clinical experiences, and 4) advocate for change at the institutional level. Participants asked healthcare institutions to use their power to change laws that criminalize substance use and houselessness, and build healthcare systems that take better care of people with addiction and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, and the institutions they are a part of, should seek to reduce stigma against people who are houseless in medical systems. Additionally, institutions should change their approaches to healthcare delivery and advocacy to better support the health of people who are houseless.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Saúde da População , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mudança Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV and has been associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. Integrating substance use services into HIV care is a promising strategy to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: We report on substance use education, screening, and referral practices from two surveys of HIV care and treatment sites participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. HIV care and treatment sites participating in IeDEA are primarily public-sector health facilities and include both academic and community-based hospitals and health facilities. A total of 286 sites in 45 countries participated in the 2014-2015 survey and 237 sites in 44 countries participated in the 2017 survey. We compared changes over time for 147 sites that participated in both surveys. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, most sites (75%) reported providing substance use-related education on-site (i.e., at the HIV clinic or the same health facility). Approximately half reported on-site screening for substance use (52%) or referrals for substance use treatment (51%). In 2017, the proportion of sites providing on-site substance use-related education, screening, or referrals increased by 9%, 16%, and 8%, respectively. In 2017, on-site substance use screening and referral were most commonly reported at sites serving only adults (compared to only children/adolescents or adults and children/adolescents; screening: 86%, 37%, and 59%, respectively; referral: 76%, 47%, and 46%, respectively) and at sites in high-income countries (compared to upper middle income, lower middle income or low-income countries; screening: 89%, 76%, 68%, and 45%, respectively; referral: 82%, 71%, 57%, and 34%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although there have been increases in the proportion of sites reporting substance use education, screening, and referral services across IeDEA sites, gaps persist in the integration of substance use services into HIV care, particularly in relation to screening and referral practices, with reduced availability for children/adolescents and those receiving care within resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1170-1178, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug use during pregnancy can have negative effects on maternal and child health. However, there is a dearth of data regarding drug use among pregnant women in Kenya, where illicit drug use is on the rise. In this paper, we report factors influencing women's decisions to use drugs during pregnancy. METHODS: In 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 45 women who inject drugs and five key stakeholders involved in provision of services to people who use drugs in coastal Kenya. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to draw out themes related to key determinants of drug use during pregnancy. RESULTS: Four key themes emerged outlining determinants of drug use during pregnancy: (i) the use of drugs to cope with the stress of unexpected pregnancy, (ii) the continued drug use during pregnancy to manage withdrawal, (iii) the dual effect of pregnancy on drug use either as a facilitator or as a moderator of drug use, and (iv) the role of male intimate partner in influencing women's drug use during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Our paper reports women's drug use during pregnancy and the factors influencing this phenomenon. To safeguard the health and well-being of pregnant women and their unborn children, there is a need for education and awareness raising, implementing couple-based harm reduction approaches to leverage on positive male influences, improving availability of drug treatment, and provision of family planning interventions for women who use drugs.


Assuntos
Gestantes/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increase in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has underscored the need for NAS surveillance programs, but many rely on passive surveillance using unverified diagnosis codes. Few studies have evaluated the validity of these codes, and no study has assessed the recently proposed Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) case definition. The Florida Birth Defects Registry investigated the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes related to NAS (P96.1 and P04.49) and assessed the sensitivity of the CSTE case definition. METHODS: We identified a sample of infants born during 2016 coded with P96.1 and/or P04.49. Record review was completed for 128 cases coded with P96.1, 68 with P04.49, and 7 with both codes. Lacking consensus regarding a gold standard definition of NAS, we used clinical data to classify each case using the Florida and CSTE definitions. The code-specific accuracy was measured by using the positive predictive value (PPV). The clinical characteristics indicative of NAS were compared for case classification based on both definitions. RESULTS: By using the Florida definition, the overall PPV was 68% but varied by code: 95.3% for P96.1 and 13.2% for P04.49. The overall (47.8%) and code-specific PPVs were lower by using the CSTE definition. Comparison of clinical characteristics demonstrated that 60.7% of cases classified as no NAS by using the CSTE definition had robust clinical signs of NAS. In our sample, the CSTE case definition underestimated NAS prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Only the P96.1 International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification code displayed high accuracy. Discordance in NAS case definitions and surveillance methodologies may result in erroneous comparisons and conclusions that negatively impact NAS-related surveillance and research.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/classificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
8.
Therapie ; 75(4): 343-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660776

RESUMO

Addictovigilance is a safety monitoring targeted at substances with potential for abuse and dependence. This vigilance was involved during the period of COVID-19 epidemic due to the significant changes in access to drugs and psychological disruption caused by the pandemic and lockdown. This article aims to present the different steps implemented by the French Addictovigilance network in collaboration with the French Health authorities from March to May 2020, including monitoring of potential harmful events, and scientific communication. The first events were identified through the continuity of the networking between the French addictovigilance centres and their partners: community pharmacies, general practitioners, specialized structures and emergency wards. As soon as the lockdown began, first cases of overdoses (lethal or not) were reported with opioids, mainly with methadone, and other opioids (heroin, oxycodone, tramadol or antitussive codeine). Lockdown-related noteworthy events consisted in clinical cases or other relevant information for which lockdown clearly played an important role: among the many substances identified at least once, pregabalin, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and nitrous oxide were the most significant in terms of prevalence, seriousness or particularly specific to the lockdown context. Despite significant decrease in the activity and travel limited to vital needs, community pharmacies continued to identify falsified prescriptions in this period, highlighting an increase in suspicious requests for pregabalin, codeine and tramadol. In parallel, the French addictovigilance network continued its communications efforts in the period, issuing a newsletter on tramadol, a press release on methadone and naloxone, and participating in the COVID-19 frequently asked questions (FAQs) of the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutic website (https://sfpt-fr.org/covid19). COVID-19 epidemic has been an important challenge for addictovigilance, and has proved that this monitoring is highly essential for alerting health professionals and health authorities to points of vigilance in the field of psychoactive substances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Clínicos Gerais/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
9.
J Music Ther ; 57(3): 353-378, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651585

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with both substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience hypervigilance, increased fear, and difficulties regulating emotions. This dual diagnosis increases treatment complexity. Recently, a short-term music therapy intervention for arousal and attention regulation (the SMAART intervention) was designed based on neurobiological findings. Twelve patients with SUD and PTSD (50% females) in outpatient treatment participated in six weekly one-hour sessions of the SMAART intervention. Six patients completed the study. PTSD symptom severity was evaluated with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale Interview for DSM-5 (PSSI-5) pre- and post-intervention, and sustained attention was evaluated with the Bourdon-Wiersma (BW) test. A significant difference in measurements for the PSSI-5 overall symptom severity was found pre- and post-intervention. Furthermore, participants showed significant improvement on subscales of hyperarousal, mood and cognition, and attention. The BW test completion time decreased significantly. Two participants dropped out before the end of the intervention due to craving. Concerning future research, it is recommended to define the role of the music more explicitly and to change the design to a randomized controlled trial. A risk for future larger studies is a high dropout rate (50%). Several limitations of the study are discussed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Musicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Emoções , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 23(2): 61-75, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boarding of patients in hospital emergency departments (EDs) occurs routinely across the U.S. ED patients with behavioral health conditions are more likely to be boarded than other patients. However, the existing literature on ED boarding of psychiatric patients remains largely descriptive and has not empirically related mental health system capacity to psychiatric boarding. Nor does it show how the mental health system could better address the needs of populations at the highest risk of ED boarding. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We examined extent and determinants of "boarding" of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in hospital emergency departments (ED) and tested whether greater mental health system capacity may mitigate the degree of ED boarding. METHODS: We linked Oregon's ED Information Exchange, hospital discharge, and Medicaid data to analyze encounters in Oregon hospital EDs from October 2014 through September 2015 by 7,103 persons aged 15 to 64 with SMI (N = 34,207). We additionally utilized Medicaid claims for years 2010-2015 to identify Medicaid beneficiaries with SMI. Boarding was defined as an ED stay over six hours. We estimated a recursive simultaneous-equation model to test the pathway that mental health system capacity affects ED boarding via psychiatric visits. RESULTS: Psychiatric visits were more likely to be boarded than non-psychiatric visits (30.2% vs. 7.4%). Severe psychiatric visits were 1.4 times more likely to be boarded than non-severe psychiatric visits. Thirty-four percent of psychiatric visits by children were boarded compared to 29.6% for adults. Statistical analysis found that psychiatric visit, substance abuse, younger age, black race and urban residence corresponded with an elevated risk of boarding. Discharge destinations such as psychiatric facility and acute care hospitals also corresponded with a higher probability of ED boarding. Greater supply of mental health resources in a county, both inpatient and intensive community-based, corresponded with a reduced risk of ED boarding via fewer psychiatric ED visits. DISCUSSION: Psychiatric visit, severity of psychiatric diagnosis, substance abuse, and discharge destinations are among important predictors of psychiatric ED boarding by persons with SMI. A greater capacity of inpatient and intensive community mental health systems may lead to a reduction in psychiatric ED visits by persons with SMI and thereby decrease the extent of psychiatric ED boarding. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Continued investment in mental health system resources may reduce psychiatric ED visits and mitigate the psychiatric ED boarding problem.


Assuntos
Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying causal risk factors for self-harm is essential to inform preventive interventions. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors associated with self-harm, but these associations can be subject to confounding. By implementing genetically informed methods to better account for confounding, this study aimed to better identify plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using summary statistics from 24 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) comprising 16,067 to 322,154 individuals, polygenic scores (PSs) were generated to index 24 possible individual risk factors for self-harm (i.e., mental health vulnerabilities, substance use, cognitive traits, personality traits, and physical traits) among a subset of UK Biobank participants (N = 125,925, 56.2% female) who completed an online mental health questionnaire in the period from 13 July 2016 to 27 July 2017. In total, 5,520 (4.4%) of these participants reported having self-harmed in their lifetime. In binomial regression models, PSs indexing 6 risk factors (major depressive disorder [MDD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder, and lifetime cannabis use) predicted self-harm, with effect sizes ranging from odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, q = 0.008) for lifetime cannabis use to OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, q = 1.33 × 10-35) for MDD. No systematic differences emerged between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm. To further probe causal relationships, two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted, with MDD, ADHD, and schizophrenia emerging as the most plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. The genetic liabilities for MDD and schizophrenia were associated with self-harm independently of diagnosis and medication. Main limitations include the lack of representativeness of the UK Biobank sample, that self-harm was self-reported, and the limited power of some of the included GWASs, potentially leading to possible type II error. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to confirming the role of MDD, we demonstrate that ADHD and schizophrenia likely play a role in the aetiology of self-harm using multivariate genetic designs for causal inference. Among the many individual risk factors we simultaneously considered, our findings suggest that systematic detection and treatment of core psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic and impulsivity symptoms, may be beneficial among people at risk for self-harm.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(6): 267-274, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484744

RESUMO

Ending the HIV epidemic will require dedicated efforts to engage the highest need persons living with HIV (PLWH) in treatment. We assessed patient perceptions of a clinic in Seattle, Washington, that is designed for PLWH who do not engage in conventional HIV care. The Max Clinic provides walk-in access to care, incentives for blood draws and achieving viral suppression, and intensive case management. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 25 patients purposively recruited to obtain diverse viewpoints. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis used a constant comparative approach to identify major themes related to the components of the program. For many participants, engagement in the Max Clinic was the first time they had success with HIV treatment. Relationships with clinic staff and the ability to receive care on a walk-in basis had the strongest influences on engagement. Participants felt that Max Clinic staff attended to their social circumstances in ways that were distinct from prior care experiences. Walk-in visits removed perceived stigma associated with failure to keep appointments and provided immediate attention to acute concerns. Financial incentives initially motivated participants to attend clinic and take medications, but were less important for supporting ongoing engagement in care. Food incentives motivated patients to seek care and helped them focus on health issues. In summary, patients identified walk-in access to care, monetary and food incentives, and relationships with clinic staff, particularly case managers, as the key elements of an HIV clinic model for high-need PLWH.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Administração de Caso , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Washington/epidemiologia
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 817-823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is causing insurmountable psychosocial impact on the whole mankind. Marginalized community, particularly those with substance use disorders (SUD), are particularly vulnerable to contract the infection and also likely to suffer from greater psychosocial burden. This article analyses the intricate bi-directional relationship between COVID-19 and addiction. METHODS: Pubmed and Google Scholar are searched with the following key terms- "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV2", "Pandemic", "Addiction", "Opioid", "Alcohol", "Smoking", "Addiction Psychiatry", "Deaddiction", "Substance use disorders", "Behavioral addiction". Few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and addiction have also been added as per context. RESULTS: People with SUD are at greater risk of worse COVID-19 outcome. There is surge of addictive behaviors (both new and relapse) including behavioral addiction in this period. Withdrawal emergencies and death are also being increasingly reported. Addicted people are especially facing difficulties in accessing the healthcare services which are making them prone to procure drugs by illegal means. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 and addiction are the two pandemics which are on the verge of collision causing major public health threat. While every effort must be taken to make the public aware of deleterious effects of SUD on COVID-19 prognosis, the resumption of deaddiction services and easier accessibility of prescription drugs are needs of the hour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess risk related to drug use in men admitted to a psychiatric hospital and to identify associations with sociodemographic, socioeconomic variables, and risk conditions. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with the application of a screening test in 209 participants hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive substances. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and adjustment of a binary logistic regression model for moderate or high risk of drug use. The odds ratio measured the strength of association. RESULTS: high use in life was observed, with alcohol and tobacco experimentation in adolescence. A high prevalence of related risk was observed for alcohol, tobacco, smoked and inhaled cocaine, and marijuana. Moderate and elevated risks were found for tobacco (22.5% and 62.5%, respectively), alcohol (13.5% and 73%), marijuana (16% and 32.5%), smoked cocaine (3% and 41%) and inhaled cocaine (9% and 19.5%). CONCLUSION: the results showed high use in life, with an age of early experimentation. Tobacco and alcohol are the main drugs used by hospitalized men.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a large amount of medical literature has explored the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUDs), less attention has been dedicated to the typologies of SUD and their relationships with ADHD-specific symptomatology and general psychopathology in dual disorder patients. METHODS: We selected 72 patients (aged 18-65) with a concomitant SUD out of 120 adults with ADHD (A-ADHD). Assessment instruments included the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0), Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Observer (CAARS-O:S): Short Version, the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Brief Psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the Reactivity Intensity Polarity Stability Questionnaire (RIPoSt-40), the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). A factorial analysis was performed to group our patients by clusters in different typologies of substance use and correlations between SUDs, as made evident by their typological and diagnostic features; in addition, specific ADHD symptoms, severity of general psychopathology and patients' functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Two patterns of substance use were identified: the first (type 1) characterized by stimulants/alcohol and the second (type 2) by the use of cannabinoids (THC). Type 1 users were significantly younger and had more legal problems. The two patterns were similar in terms of ADHD-specific symptomatology and its severity at treatment entry. No differences were found regarding the other scales assessed, except for lower scores at MEQ in type 1 users. CONCLUSIONS: At treatment entry, the presence of different comorbid SUD clusters do not affect ADHD-specific symptomatology or severity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 386, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent among homeless persons, yet barriers continue to impede HCV testing and treatment in this population. We studied the experiences of homeless individuals related to accessing HCV care to inform the design of a shelter-based HCV prevention and treatment program. METHODS: Homeless shelter clients (10 women and 10 men) of a large shelter in San Francisco participated in gender segregated focus groups. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview format, which assessed individual, program/system, and societal-level barriers and facilitators to universal HCV testing and linkage to HCV care. Focus group interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: We identified key barriers to HCV testing and treatment at the individual level (limited knowledge and misconceptions about HCV infection, mistrust of health care providers, co-morbid conditions of substance use, psychiatric and chronic medical conditions), system level (limited advocacy for HCV services by shelter staff), and social level (stigma of homelessness). Individual, system, and social facilitators to HCV care described by participants included internal motivation, financial incentives, prior experiences with rapid HCV testing, and availability of affordable direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Interrelated individual- and social-level factors were the predominant barriers affecting homeless persons' decisions to engage in HCV prevention and treatment. Integrated models of care for homeless persons at risk for or living with HCV address many of these factors, and should include interventions to improve patient knowledge of HCV and the availability of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 46: 41-48.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451196

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate incarceration patterns among young adults in New York City jails from mid-2011 through 2017, with an aim that identification of frequently incarcerated young "hot spotters" may inform early interventions. METHODS: We examined electronic health records for 3114 individuals with no known prior jail admission and admitted within 4.5 years after turning age 18 years. We used group-based trajectory analysis to identify hot spotters and compared their characteristics with those of other trajectory groups. We repeated the analysis for three older adult groups for additional comparison. RESULTS: Five percent of the young individuals became hot spotters (mean = 7.7 incarcerations). They were more likely to be homeless (27.1% vs. 7.2%-16.4% in other trajectory groups), have substance use disorders (95.2% vs. 73.2%-89.8%), and mental health needs (65.7% vs. 28.5%-53.3%), and be incarcerated for theft-related charges (52.7% vs. 32.0%-49.6%) and misdemeanors (34.8 vs. 25.5%-29.4%). They differed in charge profile and homelessness compared with older hot spotters. CONCLUSIONS: Some young adults are at risk of frequent incarceration. Tailored health- and behavior-related interventions may preclude cyclical incarceration and address barriers to well-being and stability.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 381, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians may be less inclined to consider a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in people without HIV infection or transplant-related immunosuppression. This may lead to a delay in diagnosis particularly if disseminated cryptococcal disease mimics cerebral septic emboli in injection drug use (IDU) leading to a search for endocarditis or other infectious sources. Though, IDU has been described as a potential risk for disseminated cryptococcal disease. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present two cases of cryptococcal meningitis in IDU without HIV or other obvious immune deficits. Both patients presented with at least 2 weeks of headache and blurred vision. They developed central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, one of which mimicked septic cerebral emboli, but both resulted with poor neurologic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: IDU likely induces an underappreciated immune deficit and is a risk factor for developing cryptococcal meningitis. This diagnosis, which can mimic cerebral septic emboli through involvement of a CNS vasculitis, should be considered in the setting of IDU.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Embolia Intracraniana/microbiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/imunologia , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/etiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/imunologia , Meningite Criptocócica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
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