Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.023
Filtrar
2.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(5): 280-290, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184152

RESUMO

Objetivo: Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido determinar el estado ponderal y los hábitos de alimentación y de consumo de alcohol y tabaco en estudiantes universitarios, determinar la asociación de estas variables con la autopercepción negativa de sus hábitos alimentarios, así como analizar el riesgo de desarrollar algún tipo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 422 estudiantes universitarios. Los parámetros analizados fueron: estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios, consumo alcohol/tabaco y conductas de TCA. Se aplicó regresión logística para identificar factores asociados a una percepción negativa de los hábitos alimentarios. Resultados: El 5% de la población presentaba peso insuficiente, el 16% sobrepeso y el 4% obesidad. El 55% no realizaba las cinco comidas/día. Los alimentos recomendados de ingesta diaria se consumían por debajo de las recomendaciones, mientras que embutidos/carnes grasas, bollería industrial, carnes magras y pescados se consumían en exceso. Percibieron sus hábitos alimentarios como buenos/muy buenos el 63%. El consumo de alcohol/tabaco predominaba los fines de semana. Las chicas mostraron mayor preocupación por su imagen (80,6% vs. 33%) y miedo a engordar (52,5% vs. 23,9%). Casi el 30% presentó una percepción distorsionada de su imagen corporal. Encontramos un riesgo del 12,8% de anorexia nerviosa atípica y del 4,7% de bulimia nerviosa atípica. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes universitarios presentan un estilo de vida poco saludable, principalmente debido a hábitos alimentarios alejados de las recomendaciones. Más del 17% presentan riesgo de desarrollar TCA atípico. Esta información puede resultar de interés para desarrollar acciones preventivas


Objective: The objectives of this paper were to determine weight status, eating, and alcohol drinking and smoking habits of university students, to determine the association between these variables with negative self-perception of their eating habits and to assess the risk of developing eating disorders. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 422 university students. The parameters analyzed were: nutritional status, eating habits, alcohol/ tobacco consumption, and risk of eating disorder. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with a negative perception of eating habits. Results: Out of the whole population that was analyzed, 5% were underweight, 16% overweight and 4% obese. Fifty-five percent of the sample analyzed did not consume five meals a day. The recommended foods for daily consumption were consumed below recommendations, while sausages/fatty meats, industrial pastries, lean meats, and fish were over-consumed. Overall, the population perceived their eating habits as good/very good (63%). Alcohol and tobacco consumption predominated at weekends. The girls were more image-conscious (80.6% vs. 66%) and fearful of gaining weight (52.5% vs. 23.9%). Almost 30% had a distorted perception of body image. There was a 12.8% risk of atypical anorexia nervosa and 4.7% of atypical bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: College students led unhealthy lifestyles, mainly due to eating habits that do not conform to the establish recommendations. More than 17% are at risk of developing an atypical eating disorder. This information may be of interest in developing preventive actions


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Saúde do Estudante , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Logísticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Anorexia/epidemiologia
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1171-1178, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184642

RESUMO

Introducción: los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se caracterizan por una preocupación exagerada por el peso y la imagen corporal. Los deportistas de equipo son excluidos tradicionalmente de los grupos de riesgo de TCA. No obstante, esta exención puede ser cuestionada por la creciente asociación deporte-delgadez y la evidencia de estudios previos sobre una gran preocupación por la imagen corporal en estos jugadores. Objetivos: detectar sintomatología de TCA e identificar factores que elevan el riesgo de padecerlos en hombres de entre 18 y 35 años jugadores de deportes de equipo. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo-analítico con 49 jugadores semiprofesionales de baloncesto, fútbol y rugby. Todos los sujetos firmaron un consentimiento informado previo a su participación en el estudio. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante una hoja de valoración general y cuatro herramientas validadas: Cuestionario de Hábitos Alimentarios del Deportista (CHAD), Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT-40), Inventario de Desórdenes Alimentarios (EDI-2) y Cuestionario sobre la Forma Corporal (BSQ). El análisis de datos se llevó a cabo mediante Kolmogorov- Smirnov, t de Student, ANOVA y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: el 14% de los sujetos presentó sintomatología de TCA. Se observó una correlación positiva entre las puntuaciones de los cuestionarios, el IMC y el volumen de entrenamiento semanal. Los jugadores de fútbol y rugby obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones que los jugadores de baloncesto. Conclusión: los jugadores de deportes de equipo podrían constituir un grupo de riesgo de TCA, especialmente los de fútbol y rugby. El riesgo aumenta cuanto mayor es el IMC y/o el volumen de entrenamiento


Introduction: eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by an extreme concern about body weight and body image. Male team sports players are usually excluded from the population at risk of developing EDs. This exemption can be questioned based on previous studies identifying a great body concern in male team athletes along with a increase of the sport-thinness relation. Objective: to detect EDs symptoms and to assess risk factors of its development in male team sports players. Methodology: a descriptive-analytical study was carried out with 49 male adult semiprofessional team sports players (football, basketball and rugby) between 18 and 35 years old. All subjects authorized their participation through informed consent. Data was collected through a general assessment sheet along with four validates tools: the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Athletes (CHAD), the Test of Food Attitudes (EAT-40), the Inventory of Eating (EDI-2), and the Questionnaire on the Body Shape (BSQ). All data were analyzed with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's t, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: it was observed that 14% of the subjects presented symptoms of EDs. Positive correlation was observed between score of the questionnaires, weekly training load and body mass index. Also football players score and rugbiers score were higher than basketball players score. Conclusion: male sports team players could also be a group of risk for EDs development. EDs risk greats when BMI and weekly training load high


Assuntos
Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Esportes/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Análise de Dados
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529180

RESUMO

Eating disorders are of high clinical and societal relevance. They are among the most common chronic mental illnesses in adulthood, but show a high incidence rate and peak of disease onset even in adolescence. Eating disorders are associated with far-reaching costs, such as acute or chronic comorbidities and educational or professional attainment.Thus, from a public mental health perspective, it is essential to explore symptoms and risk factors of eating disorders and to monitor prevalence rates across time to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of prevention measures.In the present study, the recent prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents living in Germany is reported based on the Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017, N = 6599, 51.7% boys) and compared to the prevalence rates 10 years ago (KiGGS Baseline, 2003-2006, N = 6633, 51.5% boys). Moreover, we investigate a selection of risk factors for eating disorder symptoms.In KiGGS Wave 2, 19.8% of the children and adolescents showed eating disorder symptoms, a drop of 2.8 percentage points in the prevalence rate as compared to the KiGGS Baseline. The drop in the prevalence rate pertains to 11- to 13-year-old boys while the risk for 14- to 17-year-old adolescents and particularly among girls remained comparably high. Children and adolescents with emotional problems, low family cohesion, low self-efficacy, or who perceive themselves as too thick or thin, show an increased risk for eating disorder symptoms.Previous approaches and possible supplements for the prevention of eating disorders are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370175

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyse body image concerns and symptoms of eating disorders in elite Icelandic athletes according to their sex, and sport practiced. The participants were 755 athletes (24.8 ± 3.5 years in age) who compete at the highest possible level in Iceland. Representing 20 different sports, they were divided into five sports groups. Three questionnaires were used: the Body Shape Questionnaire to assess body image concerns; the Bulimia Test-Revised to assess the main symptoms of bulimia; and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire to identify disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. A chi-squared test was used to analyse differences in prevalence of body image concern and eating disorders, a t-test for the differences between men and women, and a one-way ANOVA to compare the different sports. The main findings were that 17.9% of the athletes presented severe or moderate body image dissatisfaction, and 18.2% (25.3% of the women) were above the clinical cutoff for body image concern. Women's scores were higher than men's (whole sample and ball games) in all variables except restraint. These results seem to point to the existence of a real problem that athlete, coaches, doctors, and institutions need to take into account.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434268

RESUMO

The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences among youth with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) by age, weight status, and symptom duration. A secondary goal was to report the frequencies of ARFID using DSM-5 clinical presentations (i.e., fear of aversive consequences, lack of interest in food, sensory sensitivities). Participants (N = 102), ages 8-18 years, were recruited through an eating disorder service within a pediatric hospital. They were evaluated using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Patients were assigned to groups according to age, weight status, and symptom duration. Frequencies of clinical presentations, including combinations of DSM-5 categories, were also examined. Our findings suggest that adolescents presented with higher rates of Depression (p = 0.04). Youth with chronic ARFID symptoms presented with significantly lower weight (p = 0.03), and those with acute symptoms rated significantly higher suicidal ideation and/or self- harm (p = 0.02). Half of patients met criteria for more than one ARFID symptom presentation. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth with ARFID differ in clinical presentation depending on age, weight status, and symptom duration, and highlights safety concerns for those with acute symptoms of ARFID. High rates of overlapping symptom presentations might suggest a dimensional approach in the conceptualization of ARFID.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373283

RESUMO

In recent decades, orthorexia nervosa (ON) has increased presence in society. It is related with beliefs and attitudes towards eating and is characterized by an obsessive behavior toward heathy eating. The prevalence of ON has been reported by numerous researchers, with rates varying considerably according to the tool used to evaluate the same parameter. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of ON in a single population using two different questionnaires. The test for the diagnosis of orthorexia (ORTO-11-ES) assessment tool for orthorexia nervosa and the Düsseldorfer Ortorexie Skala (DOS-ES), constitute brief self-report assessment tools which measure the risk of suffering ON. A sample of 492 students from the University of Castilla la Mancha (Spain) participated in this study, of whom 43.1% were male and 56.9% were female. The findings show that, according to the DOS-ES, only 10.5% of students displayed ON whereas, with the ORTO-11-ES, the prevalence of ON increased to 25.2%. The tendency towards orthorexic behavior is more closely associated with the female gender. The Body Mass Index (BMI) had no influence on the tendency for ON. This study provides valuable information on the usefulness of both questionnaires and the possible limitations associated with the use of these tools in the general population.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Espanha/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101319, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446165

RESUMO

Weight status misperception is related to disordered eating outcomes, but little research has explored the differential impacts of misperception directionality, nor factors that explain these relationships. Self-Discrepancy Theory applied to body image gives a framework to how weight status over-perception may prompt a drive for thinness, which in turn may be important in the development of disordered eating cognitions and behaviors. AIMS: To that end, the current study tested whether drive for thinness may account for the association between direction of weight status misperception and disordered eating behaviors. METHODS: Young adults (N = 522) completed measures identifying weight status perception (accurate, under-, and over-perception), drive for thinness, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (appearance satisfaction, restrained, uncontrolled, and emotional eating). Indirect effect models with drive for thinness entered as the intervening variable were estimated for each outcome. RESULTS: Drive for thinness accounted for the associations between weight status misperception and all outcomes. In general, compared to either accurate or under-perception, over-perception of weight status was associated with more disordered eating attitudes and behaviors via higher drive for thinness. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with Self-Discrepancy Theory, drive for thinness emerged as a possible mechanism of the association between weight status misperception and disordered eating outcomes. Findings suggest potential utility in targeting drive for thinness, as opposed to accuracy of weight status perception, for prevention of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, including those that may contribute to weight gain.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Magreza/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 42: 14-20, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Symptoms experienced by breast cancer patients often cluster together in groups known as "symptom clusters". The aim was to determine the symptom clusters in women with non-metastatic breast cancer treated by radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) scores were taken from breast cancer patients receiving RT before, at completion of RT, and after RT. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to identify symptom clusters among the nine ESAS items at all three time points. RESULTS: This study included 1224 patients. The PCA and EFA identified the same two symptom clusters before the start of RT: 1) pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, appetite, and dyspnea; 2) depression, anxiety, and wellbeing. The HCA further split the symptoms into three clusters. Wellbeing, depression, and anxiety consistently clustered together. Among the ESAS scores collected at the end of and after RT, each statistical method identified different symptom clusters. For the symptom clusters experienced at the end of RT, the following symptoms were always in the same cluster: wellbeing, depression, and anxiety; nausea and appetite; drowsiness and dyspnea. Following RT, depression and anxiety consistently clustered together, with nausea and appetite in a second cluster. CONCLUSION: Among the symptom clusters derived before, at the end of RT, and after RT, the following symptoms consistently presented together: depression and anxiety, nausea and appetite, pain and tiredness, and drowsiness, dyspnea, and tiredness. Understanding symptom clusters in this population can improve management of symptoms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
10.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(11): 1249-1258, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328797

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems in persons with cerebral palsy (CP) across the lifespan. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted using five different databases (AMED, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed). The selection process was completed by two independent researchers and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the STROBE and AXIS guidelines. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems with stratified group analyses by type of assessment and Gross Motor Function Classification System level. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies were included. Substantial variations in selected outcome measures and variables were observed, and data on adults were limited. Pooled prevalence estimates determined by meta-analyses were as high as 44.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.6-52.7) for drooling, 50.4% (95% CI 36.0-64.8) for swallowing problems, and 53.5% (95% CI 40.7-65.9) for feeding problems. Group analyses for type of assessments were non-significant; however, more severely impaired functioning in CP was associated with concomitant problems of increased drooling, swallowing, and feeding. INTERPRETATION: Drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems are very common in people with CP. Consequently, they experience increased risks of malnutrition and dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and poor quality of life. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems are very common in persons with cerebral palsy (CP). The prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems is 44.0%, 50.4%, and 53.5% respectively. There are limited data on the prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems in adults. Higher Gross Motor Function Classification System levels are associated with higher prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems. There is increased risk for malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and poor quality of life in CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Sialorreia/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Humanos , Longevidade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Sialorreia/complicações
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1415-1426, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in a nationally representative sample of US adults, the prevalence of help-seeking in individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) eating disorders (EDs) and to examine sex and ethnic/racial differences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (N=36,309) included respondents who met the criteria for specific lifetime DSM-5 EDs and answered questions regarding help-seeking for their ED symptoms (anorexia nervosa [AN]: n=275; bulimia nervosa [BN]: n=91; and binge-eating disorder [BED]: n=256). RESULTS: The prevalence (standard error) estimates of ever seeking any help for AN, BN, and BED were 34.5% (2.80%), 62.6% (5.36%), and 49.0% (3.74%), respectively. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, men and ethnic/racial minorities (non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics) were statistically significantly less likely to ever seek help for BED than were women or non-Hispanic whites, respectively. Hispanics also were significantly less likely to seek help for AN relative to non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSION: This was the first study in a nationally representative sample of US adults to examine rates of help-seeking, including by sex and ethnic/racial differences, across DSM-5-defined EDs. These findings emphasize the need to develop strategies to encourage help-seeking among individuals with EDs, particularly among men and ethnic/racial minorities.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doença Crônica , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(8): 2217-2222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343602

RESUMO

Gibson, C, Hindle, C, McLay-Cooke, R, Slater, J, Brown, R, Smith, B, Baker, D, Healey, P, and Black, K. Body image among elite rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 33(8): 2217-2222, 2019-There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders (EDs) and body image of elite male athletes. However, research studies suggest that there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing EDs. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of EDs, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their preseason training period. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the preseason among elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A "body image score" was calculated from questionnaire subscales including "drive for thinness," "bulimia," and "body dissatisfaction," with total scores above 20 indicative of poor body image. Body image scores varied from 8 to 39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviors were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n = 4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n = 1/26), and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n = 20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (p = 0.034). At the start of the preseason training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors is of concern, and needs to be minimized due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required to reduce disordered eating patterns.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Public Health ; 174: 56-64, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs) can lead to numerous health problems. Adolescents who engage in UWCB are more likely to abuse substances than other adolescents. However, few studies have examined the relationship between UWCB and substance use, despite the fact that their co-occurrence can result in greater morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the association between UWCB and substance use patterns among Korean adolescents using nationally representative data. STUDY DESIGN: This study involved an analysis of statistical data collected from 27,284 adolescent participants (13-18 years old) in the 2017 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. METHODS: The Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to demonstrate the association between substance use patterns (energy drink intake, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, and drug use) and UWCB (one-food diets, fasting, diet pill use, and purging). All statistical analyses were performed to reflect complex sampling weights. RESULTS: More female than male adolescents reported to be engaged in any of the following UWCBs: one-food diets (female: 9.6%, male: 4.8%), fasting (female: 11.6%, male: 7.4%), diet pill use (female: 2.9%, male: 1.5%), and purging (female: 4.1%, male: 2.2%). The prevalence of all UWCBs tended to increase as energy drink intake (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), and electronic cigarette use (P < 0.001) increased. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals who work with adolescents need to be aware of the importance of screening for UWCB, including one-food diets, fasting, diet pill use, and purging, especially as a co-occurrence with substance use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 90(3): 302-308, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders (ED) have a high prevalence during adolescence, associated with high morbidity and mortality. In our country, there are no data that characterize adolescent inpatients with ED. OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze hospitalizations of children and adolescents due to ED admitted in a Pediatric Mental Health Service (PMHS). PATIENTS AND METHOD: Data were collected from the clinical record of patients with ED hospitalized in the PMHS of the Hospital Roberto del Río during 2005-2015. The following admission variables were studied: cause for hospitalization, ED type, nu tritional status, systemic involvement, and psychosocial variables (psychiatric comorbidities, family functioning, abuse, and suicide ideation/attempt). The t-Student test was used for quantitative varia bles and the chi-square or Fisher Test for qualitative variables for the comparison between groups. RESULTS: 93 patients were included, with an average age of 14.6 years, 84% of them were women. The most frequent diagnosis was anorexia nervosa (AN) (71%) and the most frequent cause for hospita lization was the failure of outpatient treatment, followed by suicide ideation/attempt. At admission, 40% of the patients had malnutrition, 96% psychiatric comorbidity, and 88% family dysfunction. CONCLUSION: AN was the most frequent ED among inpatients and the failure of outpatient treatment was the main cause for hospitalization. The latter could be explained, in part, by the high prevalence of family dysfunction and psychiatric comorbidity of patients and their families which would com plicate outpatient treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Saúde da Família , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101299, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender and racial/ethnic disparities in disordered eating among youth exist, although whether having multiple marginalized identities disproportionately increases risk is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the risk of disordered eating associated with intersecting gender and racial/ethnic identities of U.S. adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed data from 11,514 U.S. high school students identifying as White, Black/African American, or Hispanic/Latino who participated in the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of purging, fasting, diet pill use, and any disordered eating were estimated using log-binomial models. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was estimated to evaluate the degree to which the combined effect of marginalized gender and racial/ethnic identity was larger than the sum of their individual effects. RESULTS: Disordered eating was prevalent (girls: 20.4% Black/African American, 29.2% Hispanic/Latina, 21.4% White; boys: 13.4% Black/African American, 12.4% Hispanic/Latino; 8.1% Whites). Girls of all racial/ethnic identities and racial/ethnic minority boys had elevated risks of purging, fasting, and any disordered eating compared to White boys (RR range = 1.57-7.43); Hispanic/Latina and White girls also had elevated risk of diet pill use (RR range = 1.98-3.20). Among Hispanic/Latina girls, positive interaction between gender and race/ethnicity produced excess risk of any disordered eating and purging (RERI: any = 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.02, 0.87); purging = 1.74 (95% CI = 0.06, 3.42). CONCLUSIONS: Findings illustrate the advantages of adopting an intersectional approach to disordered eating research. Future research should investigate the mechanisms of these disparities.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101301, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153025

RESUMO

This study provided a descriptive report of disordered eating behaviors and attitudes among older women and evaluated correlates (maladaptive perfectionism, appearance-related criticism). Participants were 97 women, ages 65-90, who completed questionnaires. Per the Eating Attitudes Test - 26, approximately 6% of participants met clinical cut-offs for a likely eating disorder. Maladaptive perfectionism was significantly correlated with an array of disordered eating attitudes as well as bulimic symptoms, but appearance-related criticism from significant others was not significantly correlated with disordered eating behaviors or attitudes. Results suggest that disordered eating behaviors and attitudes exist among older women with both similarities and differences in correlates compared to young women.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Perfeccionismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(4): 705-714, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A growing body of literature has established that food and alcohol disturbance (FAD: decreasing one's caloric intake in preparation for alcohol consumption) is a specific health risk that endangers health and wellbeing. Recent research on trends in FAD has revealed ethno-racial disparities. A sociological analysis is helpful to center race and examine the role of ethnic identity in reproducing health disparities. The current study is guided by theories of socialization into ideal body types by race. METHODS: Study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among college students. The sample includes White and Black American college students, ages 18-25, and uses ordinal logistic regression to test for the impact of race and ethnic identity on engagement in FAD using the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). RESULTS: FAD prevalence was lower among Black Americans than among White Americans in the sample. Results from ordered logistic regression models indicate that stronger ethnic ties reduce likelihood of FAD among Black Americans but have the opposite effect among White Americans. This modification effect provides evidence that ethnic identity belonging protects against FAD for Black Americans but acts as a risk factor for FAD among White Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Findings shed light on the documented racial disparities in FAD and weight control behavior more broadly. Ethnic identity modifies the relationship between race and FAD in our sample. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Restrição Calórica , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 120, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide are increasing in the US. Although psychiatric disorders are associated with suicide risk, there is a dearth of epidemiological research on the relationship between suicide attempts (SAs) and eating disorders (EDs). The study therefore aimed to examine prevalence and correlates of SAs in DSM-5 EDs-anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED)-in a nationally representative sample of US adults. In addition, prevalence and correlates of SAs were examined in the two subtypes of AN-restricting (AN-R) and binge/purge (AN-BP) types. METHODS: The study included 36,171 respondents in the Third National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) who completed structured diagnostic interviews (AUDADIS-5) and answered questions regarding SA histories and psychosocial impairment associated with EDs. We evaluated lifetime prevalence of SA, psychosocial impairment, clinical profiles, and psychiatric comorbidity in adults with EDs with and without SA histories, and temporal relationships between age onset of SA and EDs. RESULTS: Prevalence estimates of suicide attempts were 24.9% (for AN), 15.7% (for AN-R), 44.1% (for AN-BP), 31.4% (for BN), and 22.9% (for BED). Relative to respondents without specific EDs, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of SAs were significantly greater in all EDs: AN = 5.40 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 3.80-7.67), AN-R = 3.16 (95% CIs = 1.82-5.42), AN-BP = 12.09 (95% CIs = 6.29-23.24), BN = 6.33 (95% CIs = 3.39-11.81), and BED = 4.83 (95% CIs = 3.54-6.60). Among those with SA history, mean age at first SA and number of SAs were not significantly different across the specific EDs. SA was associated with significantly earlier ED onset in BN and BED, longer duration of AN but shorter duration of BN, greater psychosocial impairment in AN and BN, and with significantly increased risk for psychiatric disorder comorbidity across EDs. Onset of BED was significantly more likely to precede SA (71.2%) but onsets of AN (50.4%) and BN (47.6%) were not. CONCLUSIONS: US adults with lifetime DSM-5 EDs have significantly elevated risk of SA history. Even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with lifetime EDs had a roughly 5-to-6-fold risk of SAs relative to those without specific EDs; the AN binge/purge type had an especially elevated risk of SAs. SA history was associated with distinctively different clinical profiles including greater risk for psychosocial impairment and psychiatric comorbidity. These findings highlight the importance of improving screening for EDs and for suicide histories.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15337, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mental health problems in medical students has continuously increased and is higher than the prevalence of mental health problems in students with other majors, which could lead to undesirable consequences for the students and their future patients. In China, the current states of medical education and healthcare workplaces differ in certain areas from those in Western or other Asian countries. However, the mental health status of Chinese medical students has not been systematically analyzed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the prevalence of mental health problems in Chinese medical students. METHODS: All cross-sectional studies that investigated the prevalence of any mental health problem among Chinese medical students were retrieved from the following databases: EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, OVID, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We accepted each individual trial's inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants. The National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies was adopted to appraise the methodological quality of each study. RevMan (version 5.3) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Ten cross-sectional studies involving a total of 30,817 Chinese medical students were included. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and eating disorders were 29%, 21%, 11%, and 2%, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant differences in the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation between genders and no significant difference in the prevalence of depression between individuals of different ages (20 years and older or younger than 20 years). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Chinese medical students have relatively high prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation but a low prevalence of eating disorders. Mental health problems in Chinese medical students should be taken seriously, and timely screening of and proper intervention in these mental health problems are highly recommended.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Educação Médica/normas , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1402-1413, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) lead to multiple psychiatric and somatic complications and thus constitute a major public health concern. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to give an exhaustive view of the studies reporting the prevalence of the different EDs or total EDs and to study their evolution. METHODS: A literature search following PRISMA Guidelines and limited to studies in English or French published between 2000 and 2018 was performed and relevant studies were included in this systematic review on the prevalence of EDs. The literature search revealed 94 studies with accurate ED diagnosis and 27 with broad ED diagnosis. RESULTS: In 94 studies with accurate ED diagnosis, the weighted means (ranges) of lifetime ED were 8.4% (3.3-18.6%) for women and 2.2% (0.8-6.5%) for men. The weighted means (ranges) of 12-month ED prevalence were 2.2% (0.8-13.1%) for women and 0.7% (0.3-0.9%) for men. The weighted means (ranges) of point prevalence were 5.7% (0.9-13.5%) for women and 2.2% (0.2-7.3%) for men. According to continents, the weighted means (ranges) of point prevalence were 4.6% (2.0-13.5%) in America, 2.2% (0.2-13.1%) in Europe, and 3.5% (0.6-7.8%) in Asia.In addition to the former, 27 other studies reported the prevalence of EDs as broad categories resulting in weighted means (ranges) of total point prevalence of any EDs of 19.4% (6.5-36.0%) for women and 13.8% (3.6-27.1%) for men. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the complexity of integrating all ED prevalence data, the most recent studies confirm that EDs are highly prevalent worldwide, especially in women. Moreover, the weighted means of point ED prevalence increased over the study period from 3.5% for the 2000-2006 period to 7.8% for the 2013-2018 period. This highlights a real challenge for public health and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA