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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(44): 1872-1876, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130603

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A táplálkozás iránti figyelmet igénylo krónikus betegségek (így a coeliakia, az 1-es típusú diabetes és a gyulladásos bélbetegségek), valamint az evészavartünetek kapcsolata egyelore kevéssé szélesköruen tanulmányozott terület serdülok körében. Az eddigi kutatási eredmények kiemelik a testkép- és evészavartünetek iránti magasabb kockázatot ezekben a betegségekben. Rizikótényezo lehet az evési szokások megváltozása, a táplálkozásra irányuló fokozott figyelem és az ételekkel, valamint az elfogyasztásuk következményeivel kapcsolatos aggodalom. A korai felismerést nehezíti, hogy az evészavartünetek sokáig rejtve maradhatnak, és átfedést mutathatnak a krónikus betegség egyes tüneteivel (például testsúlyváltozás, hasmenés, hányás, hasfájás). A fennálló evészavar-érintettség gyengítheti a krónikus betegség hatékony terápiáját, súlyosbíthatja a szövodményeket, és növelheti a mortalitási rizikót. A tünetek korai felismerése és az adekvát terápia csak multidiszciplináris szemléletben és teammunkával, a szomatikus gondozás és a pszichoterápia összehangolásával lehet eredményes. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1872-1876. Summary. Disordered eating is not a well-understood phenomenon in diet-related chronic illnesses (e.g., celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases) among adolescents. Previous research found a higher risk for eating disorders and negative body image among these patients. Following the prescribed or suggested dietary regime may lead to increased food awareness and become an eating disorder risk factor. Further risks may be the altered eating patterns, the fear from unknown food sources and its consequences. In many cases, eating disorder characteristics may be hidden and the symptoms of chronic illness (e.g., changes in weight, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and disordered eating can mimic each other. Disordered eating can worsen the effective therapy of physical illnesses and increase complications and mortality. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment can only be provided through multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1872-1876.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Behav Addict ; 9(3): 826-835, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976112

RESUMO

Background and aims: Since mid-March 2020, over 3 billion people have been confined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic eating behaviors are likely to be impacted by the pandemic through multiple pathways. This study examined the relationships between stress related to lockdown measures and binge eating and dietary restriction in a population of French students during the first week of confinement. Methods: A sample of undergraduate students (N = 5,738) completed an online questionnaire 7 days after lockdown measures were introduced. The survey comprised variables related to lockdown measures and the COVID-19-pandemic, mood, stress, body image, binge eating and dietary restriction during the past 7 days, as well as intent to binge eat and restrict in the following 15 days. Results: Stress related to the lockdown was associated with greater likelihood of binge eating and dietary restriction over the past week and intentions to binge eat and restrict over the next 15 days. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related media was associated with increased eating restriction over the past week. Binge eating and restriction (past and intentions) were associated with established risk factors, including female gender, low impulse regulation, high body dissatisfaction, and having a concurrent probable eating disorder. Discussion and conclusion: The higher the stress related to the first week of confinement, the higher the risk of problematic eating behaviors among students, particularly those characterized by eating-related concerns. Screening for risk factors and providing targeted interventions might help decrease problematic eating behaviors among those who are most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 334-339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787612

RESUMO

Eating disorder is highly prevalent among university students worldwide. However, in Malaysia, studies on eating disorder is scanty and were mostly conducted among medical students. A stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit participants in a university based in Kuala Lumpur. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1017/1132 students (response rate: 89.8%). The questionnaires administered was a combination of the Eating Attitude Test-26 and items related to perceived body weight, body mass index, trying to weight loss, tobacco use, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Descriptive analyses were performed to provide background information of at-risk students by gender. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of eating disorder. The results showed that 13.9% of the university students were at risk of eating disorder. Students who were trying to lose weight and had posttraumatic stress disorder predicted eating disorder. Hence, eating disorder among university students merits attention and requires implementations of public health policies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817684

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with severe comorbidity and impairment. Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a subtype of BDD which has rarely been assessed outside of undergraduate student samples. Further, there are limited data comparing MD to other psychiatric disorders, including BDD. Thus, the aim of the current study is to explore differences in symptom severity and conformity to masculine norms in men diagnosed with BDD or MD. Men from the greater Boston, Massachusetts area completed a one-time assessment, which included clinician-based structured interviews and self-report questionnaires assessing MD symptom severity, BDD symptom severity, and conformity to traditional masculine norms. The sample was N = 30 men (MD: n = 15; BDD: n = 15). Statistically significant medium to large effects emerged with the MD group experiencing greater MD and BDD symptom severity, and positive attitudes towards the use of violence to solve problems. Although not reaching statistical significance, additional medium-to-large effects also emerged with the MD group reporting greater emotional restriction/suppression, heterosexual self-presentation, and desired sexual promiscuity compared to the BDD group. Findings suggest that men diagnosed with MD may experience greater MD/BDD symptom severity and endorsement of some components of 'traditional' masculine norms, compared to men diagnosed with BDD. Results may suggest that addressing some forms of rigid masculine norms (e.g., use of violence) in therapy could be useful in treating MD; however, additional research comparing clinical samples of men with MD and BDD are needed to guide the nosology, assessment, and treatment of MD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/fisiopatologia , Boston , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(21): 1247-1258, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661127

RESUMO

Identification, evaluation and management of disordered eating (DE) is complex. DE exists along the spectrum from optimised nutrition through to clinical eating disorders (EDs). Individual athletes can move back and forth along the spectrum of eating behaviour at any point in time over their career and within different stages of a training cycle. Athletes are more likely to present with DE than a clinical ED. Overall, there is a higher prevalence of DE and EDs in athletes compared with non-athletes. Additionally, athletes participating in aesthetic, gravitational and weight-class sports are at higher risk of DE and EDs than those in sports without these characteristics. The evaluation and management of DE requires a cohesive team of professional practitioners consisting of, at minimum, a doctor, a sports dietitian and a psychologist, termed within this statement as the core multidisciplinary team. The Australian Institute of Sport and the National Eating Disorders Collaboration have collaborated to provide this position statement, containing guidelines for athletes, coaches, support staff, clinicians and sporting organisations. The guidelines support the prevention and early identification of DE, and promote timely intervention to optimise nutrition for performance in a safe, supported, purposeful and individualised manner. This position statement is a call to action to all involved in sport to be aware of poor self-image and poor body image among athletes. The practical recommendations should guide the clinical management of DE in high performance sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Família , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Apoio Social
7.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(10): 2060-2074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728942

RESUMO

Eating pathology and depressive symptoms increase during adolescence, yet predictive pathways remain predominantly unexplored, despite their implications for prevention. The present study aimed to identify shared risk factors for eating pathology and depressive symptoms by evaluating an adapted Dual-Pathway Model of disordered eating, which postulated that higher BMI would predict disordered eating and depressive symptoms via pathways between body dissatisfaction, later BMI, depressive symptoms, and visible indicators of puberty (breast development for girls, height for boys). The participants were 8915 children (49% girls) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based cohort study of British children, who were assessed at different intervals between the age of 7 to 14 years. Path analyses revealed that, for girls, childhood BMI exerted indirect effects on disordered eating via body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and more advanced breast development, with indirect pathways identified to depressive symptoms via earlier depressive symptoms and more advanced breast development. For boys, childhood BMI had indirect effects on disordered eating via later BMI and body dissatisfaction, while only earlier depressive symptoms were found to have an independent and direct effect on adolescent depressive symptoms. This study reveals shared and independent risk factors for eating pathology and depressive symptoms in adolescence and suggests targets for preventative interventions, including higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms, in addition to advanced breast development, for girls.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667951

RESUMO

Several studies have recently suggested that an abnormal processing of respiratory interoceptive and nociceptive (painful) stimuli may contribute to eating disorder (ED) pathophysiology. Mood and anxiety disorders (MA) are also characterized by abnormal respiratory symptoms, and show substantial comorbidity with ED. However, no studies have examined both respiratory and pain processing simultaneously within ED and MA. The present study systematically evaluated responses to perturbations of respiratory and nociceptive signals across the levels of physiology, behavior, and symptom report in a transdiagnostic ED sample (n = 51) that was individually matched to MA individuals (n = 51) and healthy comparisons (HC; n = 51). Participants underwent an inspiratory breath-holding challenge as a probe of respiratory interoception and a cold pressor challenge as a probe of pain processing. We expected both clinical groups to report greater stress and fear in response to respiratory and nociceptive perturbation than HCs, in the absence of differential physiological and behavioral responses. During breath-holding, both the ED and MA groups reported significantly more stress, feelings of suffocation, and suffocation fear than HC, with the ED group reporting the most severe symptoms. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity was related to suffocation fear only in the ED group. The heightened affective responses in the current study occurred in the absence of group differences in behavioral (breath hold duration, cold pressor duration) and physiological (end-tidal carbon dioxide, end-tidal oxygen, heart rate, skin conductance) responses. Against our expectations, there were no group differences in the response to cold pain stimulation. A matched-subgroup analysis focusing on individuals with anorexia nervosa (n = 30) produced similar results. These findings underscore the presence of abnormal respiratory interoception in MA and suggest that hyperreactivity to respiratory signals may be a potentially overlooked clinical feature of ED.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Dor Nociceptiva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Asfixia/fisiopatologia , Asfixia/terapia , Comorbidade , Medo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Dor Nociceptiva/complicações , Dor Nociceptiva/epidemiologia , Dor/complicações , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia
9.
Curr Diab Rep ; 20(8): 32, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537669

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the characteristics of patients with eating disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the principles of their treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The combination of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder is sometimes known as "diabulimia". The hallmark of the condition is that the patient deliberately takes an inadequate amount of insulin in order control their body weight (insulin restriction). Other disordered eating behaviours, such as dietary restriction, self-induced vomiting and binge eating, may also be present but typical anorexia nervosa is rare. There is an increased prevalence of eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, which is estimated at 7%. The combination of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder leads to elevated levels of HbA1c and an increased risk of both acute and chronic complications. Screening is recommended but rarely carried out. Management requires an understanding of the inter-relationships between eating behaviour, mood, blood glucose and insulin administration. Treatment aims to introduce a regular eating pattern and support the patient to increase their insulin dose gradually. Eating disorders also occur in those with type 2 diabetes, where binge eating disorder is the most common diagnosis. Eating disorders are common in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with an increased prevalence of complications in type 1. Treatment requires an understanding of both diabetes and eating behaviour.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insulina
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 643-656, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of Body Project groups delivered virtually (vBP) by peer educators for prevention of eating disorders. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial vBP groups (N = 149) were compared with a placebo (expressive writing, EW: N = 148) over 24-month follow-up and to a waitlist control condition (N = 146) over 6-month follow-up among females (15-20 years old) with body image concerns. The primary outcome was incidence of eating disorder onset over 2-year follow-up measured by blinded diagnostic interviews. Waitlist participants were offered the vBP after 6 months. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders onset over 24 months follow up were 3 in vBP (2.0%) and 13 in EW (8.8%), a significant difference; Hazard Ratio (Experiment B) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.075, 0.92], p = .037. Incidence of eating disorder onset in vBP participants was 77% less than in EW participants. The vBP participants generally showed significantly greater reduction in eating disorder symptoms, clinical impairment, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the waitlist participants at postintervention and 6-month follow-up, and in eating disorder symptoms, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the EW participants at postintervention, and 6-, 12-, 18-, or 24-months follow-up. EW participants reported significantly greater reduction in clinical impairment and body dissatisfaction at postintervention compared with the waitlist participants. CONCLUSIONS: The present reduction in the incidence of eating disorders is notable given that the intervention was implemented virtually, rather than in-person. The vBP might be a viable option for future evaluation of scalable prevention of eating disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517115

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between body appreciation, body functionality and disordered eating in a large adolescent sample of different levels and types of sports practice. METHOD: The sample consisted of 1412 adolescents (59.8% were girls). The ages ranged from 15 to 18 years old, with a mean age of 16.9 (SD = 0.5) for girls and 17.0 (SD = 0.4) for boys. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing the nature of sports participation, body appreciation, body functionality, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, internalisation of sociocultural beauty ideals and disordered eating. A two-way ANOVA was employed to test the differences in body image concerns, body appreciation, perceived physical fitness and disordered eating behaviours in gender groups and groups of different sport types and levels. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict disordered eating behaviours of different study variables. RESULTS: Participants of leisure and competitive sports reported greater body appreciation, self-esteem and lower body dissatisfaction compared to non-participants. No differences in body appreciation and disordered eating were observed in adolescents involved in weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports. Body appreciation and body functionality were associated with lower disordered eating in adolescent girls not participating in sports, leisure exercisers and participants of competitive sport as well as in boys participating in competitive sports, controlling for body mass index. Adolescent boys demonstrated greater body appreciation compared to girls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the knowledge of the protective role of positive body image preventing dysfunctional eating in adolescent girls of various sports practice and in competitive sports involved boys. Disordered eating prevention and clinical treatment programs for adolescents of different physical activity might benefit from including education about body appreciation and functionality.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Esportes , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 327-333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525767

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Eating disorders (EDs) in male athletes are potentially debilitating disorders with significant medical, psychological, and athletic performance consequences. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Searches were performed across PubMed, EBSCOhost, and PSYCinfo from 1990 to 2019. Keywords searched were eating disorder, male, athlete, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, muscularity, muscle dysmorphia, and sports. Search results included articles written in the English language and encompassed reviews, empirical studies, and theoretical articles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. RESULTS: EDs among male athletes may lead to serious negative outcomes, including increased susceptibility to injury, inconsistent performance, problematic recovery, muscle deficiencies, impairment of optimal athletic functioning, and medical, social, and emotional problems. Male athletes with EDs may be more difficult to identify and diagnose for a variety of reasons related to differential presentation of symptoms, secretiveness or shame around behaviors, and sex-related stigma. CONCLUSION: Professionals working closely with athletes are uniquely positioned to identify and screen those who may require further evaluation and treatment.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(7): 1158-1165, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may be negatively impacting mental health. The impact on eating and exercise behaviors is, however, currently unknown. This study aimed to identify changes in eating and exercise behaviors in an Australian sample among individuals with an eating disorder, and the general population, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. METHOD: A total of 5,469 participants, 180 of whom self-reported an eating disorder history, completed questions relating to changes in eating and exercise behaviors since the emergence of the pandemic, as part of the COLLATE (COvid-19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy) project; a national survey launched in Australia on April 1, 2020. RESULTS: In the eating disorders group, increased restricting, binge eating, purging, and exercise behaviors were found. In the general population, both increased restricting and binge eating behaviors were reported; however, respondents reported less exercise relative to before the pandemic. DISCUSSION: The findings have important implications for providing greater monitoring and support for eating disorder patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the mental and physical health impacts of changed eating and exercise behaviors in the general population need to be acknowledged and monitored for potential long-term consequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autorrelato
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(10): 669-676, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485780

RESUMO

The university stage is a critical developmental period for young adults, where lifestyles can determine future health. A cross-sectional study including 481 college students was conducted, with the following objectives: 1) to examine the prevalence of risk of developing eating disorders in college students, 2) to assess differences in obesity and physical fitness in those with and without risk of eating disorders, and 3) to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness or fat mass were associated with the risk of eating disorders. We measured fat mass percentage (by densitometry), risk of feeding or eating disorders (by SCOFF questionnaire), cardiorespiratory fitness levels and a muscular fitness index. The prevalence of risk of eating disorders in women (32.4%) was higher than in men (17.4%) (p<0.001). In both sexes, higher obesity indicator mean values were observed among those who were at risk of eating disorders. Men participants without risk had higher cardiorespiratory fitness means than their at-risk peers [39.4 (8.3) vs. 32.4 (5.5), p<0.001)], and women showed differences only in the dynamometry/weight variable. In college students, it is necessary to promote healthy habits, including good levels of physical fitness, and to prevent excess body fat to effectively prevent eating disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física , Adiposidade , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 1-4, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439147

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to document the association between parent's report and their child's report of the child's sexual orientation and associations between this agreement/disagreement and the child's psychiatric morbidity. METHODS: Data were drawn from 11,565 parent-child dyads who completed the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (2016-2018; children ages 9-10 years). Whether the child was "gay or bisexual" was asked separately of parent and child. We created four categories: (1) Concordant No; (2) Discordant: Parent Yes/Maybe, Child No/Unclear; (3) Discordant: Parent No, Child Yes/Maybe; (4) Concordant Yes/Maybe. Parents reported their child's lifetime psychiatric morbidity (i.e., depression, anxiety, ADHD, ODD, OCD, PTSD, eating disorder, and conduct disorder). RESULTS: Of parent-child dyads, 960 (7.9%) disagreed about the child's sexual orientation; the Concordant No dyads reported the lowest psychiatric morbidity compared with the other three dyad groups. Child psychiatric morbidity among the Discordant: Parent Yes/Maybe dyads compared with the Concordant No dyads was elevated across all disorders except PTSD (e.g., depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.51-3.21], anxiety [aOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.38-1.92], and eating disorder [aOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.39-4.68]). CONCLUSIONS: The sexual orientation disparity in psychiatric morbidity begins in childhood. Parent-child agreement/disagreement of children's sexual orientation represents a potential marker of this early vulnerability.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Bissexualidade , Cognição/fisiologia , Homossexualidade , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, 30.9% of children under five years with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) died in 2018. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality among children under five years hospitalized with SAM in Limpopo province, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including children under five years admitted with SAM from 2014 to 2018 in public hospitals of Limpopo province. We extracted socio-demographic and clinical data from hospital records. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with mortality. FINDINGS: We included 956 children, 50.2% (480/956) male and 49.8% (476/956) female. The median age was 13 months (inter quartile range: 9-19 months). The overall SAM mortality over the study period was 25.9% (248/956). The most common complications were diarrhea, 63.8% (610/956), and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 42.4% (405/956). Factors associated with mortality included herbal medication use (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.4-3.5, p = 0.001), poor appetite (aOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.2, p = 0.003), Mid-upper circumference (MUAC) <11.5 cm (aOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.9-4.7, p<0.001), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p<0.001), anemia (aOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3, p = 0.021), hypoglycemia (aOR: 12.4, 95% CI: 7.1-21.8, p<0.001) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.3, p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: Herbal medication use, poor appetite, LRTIs, anemia, hypoglycemia, and HIV infection were associated with mortality among children with SAM. These factors should guide management of children with SAM.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/mortalidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
17.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(4): 376-386, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309984

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) are more common among younger women compared to older women and in women compared to men. As such, most ED research focuses on late adolescent and young adult females resulting in limited prospective research on gender differences in eating disorder psychopathology across the life span. The present study addresses this gap by examining gender differences in ED diagnoses, eating pathology, and the impact of putative risk factors on eating pathology in women (n = 624) and men (n = 276) over a 30-year period from late adolescence (M (SD) = 20[2] years) to later midlife (M (SD) = 50[2] years). Four assessment waves were conducted, beginning with baseline participation during college and subsequent 10-, 20-, and 30-year follow-up. Retention at 30-year follow-up was 72% (n = 440) for women and 67% (n = 181) for men. Prevalence of DSM-5 ED diagnoses decreased over the 30-year span for women and remained stable for men, with no significant gender difference in point prevalence by age 50. Drive for thinness decreased for women through age 50 and increased for men, while bulimic symptoms decreased as both genders aged. Multilevel models demonstrated that the impact of dieting as a risk factor on drive for thinness decreased prospectively as men aged and remained stable as women aged. Results imply that current risk models require refinement to account for developmental trajectories in which dramatic gender differences observed in late adolescence diminish over time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Metabolism ; 107: 154229, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289345

RESUMO

Chronic energy deficiency can impair the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and lead to hypothalamic anovulation in underweight women. This review presents the syndromes related to underweight status that are associated with infertility, summarizes the underlying mechanisms, and reviews the available treatment options. Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), constitute the most common cause of infertility in underweight women, who, in addition, experience miscarriages, and sexual dysfunction. The relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S; former terminology: athlete's triad) involves menstrual dysfunction due to low energy availability, which results in anovulation. Moreover, lipodystrophies, malnutrition, starvation, systematic illnesses (malignancies, endocrinopathies, infectious diseases, advanced chronic diseases, neurologic illnesses), and the utilization of drugs can cause excessive weight loss. They may result in fertility problems due to the loss of adipose tissue and the subsequent hormonal disturbances. Each of these conditions requires multidisciplinary management. Nutritional counseling should target the restoration of energy balance by increasing intake and reducing output. Medical treatment, recommended only for patients who did not respond to standard treatment, may include antipsychotics, antidepressants, or leptin administration. Finally, psychiatric treatment is considered an integral part of the standard treatment.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Reprodução , Magreza/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia
19.
BMJ ; 369: m853, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between parental mental illness and the risk of injuries among offspring. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Swedish population based registers. PARTICIPANTS: 1 542 000 children born in 1996-2011 linked to 893 334 mothers and 873 935 fathers. EXPOSURES: Maternal or paternal mental illness (non-affective psychosis, affective psychosis, alcohol or drug misuse, mood disorders, anxiety and stress related disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders) identified through linkage to inpatient or outpatient healthcare registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of injuries (transport injury, fall, burn, drowning and suffocation, poisoning, violence) at ages 0-1, 2-5, 6-9, 10-12, and 13-17 years, comparing children of parents with mental illness and children of parents without mental illness, calculated as the rate difference and rate ratio adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Children with parental mental illness contributed to 201 670.5 person years of follow-up, while children without parental mental illness contributed to 2 434 161.5 person years. Children of parents with mental illness had higher rates of injuries than children of parents without mental illness (for any injury at age 0-1, these children had an additional 2088 injuries per 100 000 person years; number of injuries for children with and without parental mental illness was 10 235 and 72 723, respectively). At age 0-1, the rate differences ranged from 18 additional transport injuries to 1716 additional fall injuries per 100 000 person years among children with parental mental illness compared with children without parental mental illness. A higher adjusted rate ratio for injuries was observed from birth through adolescence and the risk was highest during the first year of life (adjusted rate ratio at age 0-1 for the overall association between any parental mental illness that has been recorded in the registers and injuries 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 1.33). Adjusted rate ratios at age 0-1 ranged from 1.28 (1.24 to 1.32) for fall injuries to 3.54 (2.28 to 5.48) for violence related injuries. Common and serious maternal and paternal mental illness was associated with increased risk of injuries in children, and estimates were slightly higher for common mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Parental mental illness is associated with increased risk of injuries among offspring, particularly during the first years of the child's life. Efforts to increase access to parental support for parents with mental illness, and to recognise and treat perinatal mental morbidity in parents in secondary care might prevent child injury.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Pai/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eat Behav ; 37: 101378, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies of eating-disorder behaviors (EDBs) in Iran have been conducted and no study has examined the occurrence of these behaviors (EDBs) among young Iranian men. This cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of EDBs, as assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), among young men and women in Iran. METHOD: Male (n = 253) and female (n = 384) college students completed the EDE-Q. Mean scores on the EDE-Q subscales and the occurrence and regular occurrence of EDBs, namely, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse, extreme dietary restriction and excessive exercise, were compared between male and female participants. RESULTS: Female students had higher scores on the EDE-Q Shape Concern subscale than males, whereas scores on the other subscales did not differ by gender. Male students were more likely to report self-induced vomiting (any occurrence: 10.4% vs. 3.2%) and excessive exercise (28.0% vs. 20.0%) than female students. The occurrence of other EDBs did not differ by gender and binge eating was the most common EDB in both men (regular occurrence = 24.7%) and women (27.5%). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that EDBs are relatively common among college students in Iran and that most EDBs are equally common among male and female students. Prevention and health promotion programs designed to reduce the occurrence and adverse impact of EDBs may be increasingly important in Iran.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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