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1.
Codas ; 32(1): e20170097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the access to speech-language pathology (SLP) therapy and continuity of assistance in Primary Health Care (PHC) for victims of motorcycle accidents. METHODS: A quantitative and qualitative study was conducted at a large hospital in the city of Recife, Pernanbuco state, Brazil. Among the 99 victims recruited between June and July 2014, 30 had SLP complaints as a result of the accidents. After hospital discharge, all victims were contacted for investigation of the SLP rehabilitation process. Absolute and relative frequencies were used for the analysis in PHC, and data were displayed in tables for the therapy cases. RESULTS: Among the 30 individuals who reported having alterations of the stomatognathic system, eight were undergoing rehabilitation and 18 reported residing in an area covered by the Family Health Strategy (primary care modality). Seeking and obtaining continuity of treatment (medication and bandaging) in primary care were frequent; in contrast, home visits were less frequent. The main obstacles to access SLP therapy were distance to the service and waiting time to begin treatment. CONCLUSION: This study identified obstacles that hamper access to SLP therapy in PHC, such as the low frequency of home visits, contributing to the fragmentation of continuous and complete care for victims.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Transtornos de Deglutição/reabilitação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Linguagem/reabilitação , Motocicletas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180074, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze how students with Language Disorders receive remedial teaching in inclusive settings in Portugal. METHODS: We developed a questionnaire based on the literature review, and applied it to 123 elementary teachers in Portugal. We performed a descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the dependent variables using parametric tests. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed that most teachers know the concept of language disorders and consider it important to the development of language when supporting students with this problem. However, over half of the respondents answered that they have no training and enough information about the acquisition and development of language, and don´t consider having sufficient knowledge to contribute to the identification of students with language disorders. Results for inferential statistics showed statistically significant differences regarding gender; length of service and district, as well as a good internal consistency in relation to the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: Results highlight the need for training and information about acquisition and development of language, and more specifically in relation to language disorders. It also showed that elementary teachers may find difficulties in intervention with students with language disorders, and particularly, to adequate strategies to their needs, particularly when developing Individualized Educational Programs for their students in a team.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem , Ensino de Recuperação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(3): 129-140, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-3787

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: una escuela inclusiva brinda apoyos a niños con necesidades educativas especiales en el contexto de la educación regular. Una necesidad educativa especial que se observa frecuentemente en la población escolar corresponde al trastorno específico del lenguaje (TEL), el cual conlleva alteraciones en las habilidades lingüísticas y metalingüísticas que podrían impactar en el desempeño académico de los estudiantes que lo padecen. La información con que se cuenta sobre los procedimientos y estrategias que permiten andamiar el desarrollo lingüístico de los niños con TEL que asisten a escuelas inclusivas chilenas es escasa. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el efecto de la aplicación de un programa de estimulación del lenguaje oral realizado en el aula común de kínder por medio de un modelo colaborativo-inclusivo de intervención. Materiales y métodos: participaron 28 sujetos con TEL distribuidos en 4 aulas de kínder en un estudio de pre-post test de un solo grupo. El programa fue ejecutado de manera colaborativa entre fonoaudiólogos y docentes e incluyó 30 sesiones, en las que se trabajó léxico pasivo, conciencia fonológica, comprensión y producción de narraciones. Se evaluaron las habilidades estimuladas antes y después de aplicar el programa por medio de instrumentos con normas para la población chilena. Resultados:una vez finalizado el programa se observó un incremento significativo del desempeño de los estudiantes en léxico pasivo, conciencia fonológica, comprensión y producción de narraciones. Conclusiones:la aplicación de un programa de estimulación del lenguaje oral en el contexto del aula común resulta beneficioso para incrementar el desempeño lingüístico y metalingüístico de estudiantes con TEL


Background and objective: an inclusive school offer support to children with special educational needs in a context of regular education. A special education need can be frequently found in the school population is the Specific Language Impairment (SLI), this implies alterations at level to linguistic and metalinguistic skills that could impact the academic performance of the students who suffer from it. The available information about the procedures and strategies that allow to scaffold the linguistic development of children with SLI that registered on inclusive Chilean schools is scarce. The objective of the present investigation is to analyze the effect of an oral language stimulation program, applied in the Preschool common classroom throughout an inclusive-collaborative intervention model. Materials and methods: a pre-post test study of a single group of 28 SLI subjects has been carried out, this sample was distributed in 4 preschool classrooms. The program was executed collaboratively between speech therapists and educators and included 30 sessions, in which lexicon, phonological awareness, comprehension and narrative production were worked on. The stimulated skills were evaluated before and after applying the program through instruments with norms for the Chilean population. Results: once the program was completed, there was a significant increase in students' performance in the comprehension and expression of narratives, passive lexicon and phonological awareness. Conclusions: the collaborative work in the context of the common classroom is beneficial to increase the linguistic and metalinguistic performance of students with SLI


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Inclusão Educacional/tendências , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminatórias , Transtornos da Linguagem/classificação , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
4.
Pediatr Rev ; 40(8): 398-411, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371633

RESUMO

Pediatric clinicians are on the front line for prevention of language and speech disorders. This review uses prevailing theories and recent data to justify strategies for prevention, screening and detection, diagnosis, and treatment of language and speech disorders. Primary prevention rests on theories that language learning is an interaction between the child's learning capacities and the language environment. Language learning occurs in a social context with active child engagement. Theories support parent education and public programs that increase children's exposure to child-directed speech. Early detection of delays requires knowledge of language milestones and recognition of high-risk indicators for disorders. Male sex, bilingual environments, birth order, and chronic otitis media are not adequate explanations for significant delays in language or speech. Current guidelines recommend both general and autism-specific screening. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to primary language and speech disorders. Secondary and tertiary prevention requires early identification of children with language and speech disorders. Disorders may be found in association with chromosomal, genetic, neurologic, and other health conditions. Systematic reviews find that speech-language therapy, alone or in conjunction with other developmental services, is effective for many disorders. Speech-language interventions alter the environment and stimulate children's targeted responding to improve their skills.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem , Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos
5.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 9894571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428210

RESUMO

Communication in humans activates almost every part of the brain. Of course, the use of language predominates, but other cognitive functions such as attention, memory, emotion, and executive processes are also involved. However, in order to explain how our brain "understands," "speaks," and "writes," and in order to rehabilitate aphasic disorders, neuroscience has faced the challenge for years to reveal the responsible neural networks. Broca and Wernicke (and Lichtheim and many others), during the 19th century, when brain research was mainly observational and autopsy driven, offered fundamental knowledge about the brain and language, so the Wernicke-Geschwind model appeared and aphasiology during the 20th century was based on it. This model is still useful for a first approach into the classical categorization of aphasic syndromes, but it is outdated, because it does not adequately describe the neural networks relevant for language, and it offers a modular perspective, focusing mainly on cortical structures. During the last three decades, neuroscience conquered new imaging, recording, and manipulation techniques for brain research, and a new model of the functional neuroanatomy of language was developed, the dual stream model, consisting of two interacting networks ("streams"), one ventral, bilaterally organized, for language comprehension, and one dorsal, left hemisphere dominant, for production. This new model also has its limitations but helps us to understand, among others, why patients with different brain lesions can have similar language impairments. Furthermore, interesting aspects arise from studying language functions in aging brains (and also in young, developing brains) and in cognitively impaired patients and neuromodulation effects on reorganization of brain networks subserving language. In this selective review, we discuss methods for coupling new knowledge regarding the functional reorganization of the brain with sophisticated techniques capable of activating the available supportive networks in order to provide improved neurorehabilitation strategies for people suffering from neurogenic communication disorders.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Compreensão , Humanos , Linguagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
6.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 353-359, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185452

RESUMO

Introducción: La neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1) es un síndrome neurocutáneo frecuente que en muchos casos se asocia a dificultades cognitivas específicas que habitualmente no son tenidas en cuenta en el seguimiento médico de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Trazar el perfil cognitivo de pacientes con NF1 detectando trastornos en funciones superiores asociados al mismo. Identificar motivos de consulta de pacientes pediátricos con NF1 en relación con su desempeño escolar. Métodos: Trabajo descriptivo transversal. Se evaluó neuropsicológicamente a 24 pacientes con NF1 con edades comprendidas entre los 5 y los 16 años de edad. Resultados: Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes fueron: problemas atencionales (58,33%), aprendizaje (25%), coordinación motora (25%) y lenguaje (0,8%). Si bien el estudio reveló que el 96% de los pacientes tenía compromiso en al menos una de las áreas evaluadas, solo el 83,34% de los padres las refirieron. El 58,33% presentó trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), el 33,33% trastorno de aprendizaje no verbal (TANV), el 20,83% dificultades en aspectos expresivos del lenguaje, el 8,33% coeficiente intelectual (CI) limítrofe, el 4,16% retraso mental y el 4,16% no mostró dificultades. Conclusiones: Existe alta frecuencia de trastornos en funciones superiores en niños con NF1. Aunque muchos padres detectan dichos trastornos, se ha observado que otros son subestimados. Consideramos conveniente que todos los niños con NF1 cuenten con una evaluación neuropsicológica a fin de poder detectar dificultades existentes en cada caso y así poder elaborar una estrategia de rehabilitación cognitiva precoz y efectiva


Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. Objective: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results: The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 305-310, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185358

RESUMO

Background: Semantic inhibition is often found to be impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The sentence completion task (Hayling test) was used to investigate whether it would be useful for differentiating mild AD from moderate AD. Method: Latency responses and error scores in the automatic and inhibition parts of the test were registered in these two groups of patients and in a group of healthy older participants. The types of errors were also analysed. Group differences were analysed by ANOVA. In addition, relationships with other neuropsychological tests were reported. Results: Participants with moderate AD performed worse than controls in both the automatic and inhibition sections, whereas participants with mild AD exhibited impaired performance in the inhibition part, but not in the automatic part. Differences between the groups with mild and moderate AD appeared only in the error scores in the inhibition part, specifically type 3 errors. Error scores in the inhibition part correlated with performance in verbal fluency and working memory tests. Conclusions: The Hayling task may be a useful tool for investigating control of inhibition in different stages of AD because different patterns of responses were observed


Antecedentes: los déficits en inhibición semántica en personas con enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) son frecuentes. La tarea de completamiento de frases de Hayling se utilizó para determinar si ésta podría ser útil para diferenciar EA leve de EA moderado. Método: se compararon los tiempos de respuesta y el número de errores obtenidos en las partes automática e inhibición en los dos grupos de pacientes y en adultos mayores sanos. El tipo de errores fue también analizado. Las diferencias entre los grupos fueron analizadas mediante ANOVA. Además se obtuvieron las correlaciones con otros tests neuropsicológicos. Resultados: los pacientes con EA moderado mostraron peor ejecución en las dos partes: automática e inhibición, mientras que el grupo EA leve mostró déficits solo en inhibición. Los grupos leve y moderado se diferenciaron en el número de errores en inhibición, específicamente en errores tipo 3. El número de errores en inhibición correlacionó con fluencia verbal y memoria de trabajo. Conclusiones: la tarea Hayling podría ser útil para investigar control inhibitorio en diferentes etapas de la EA ya que se observaron diferentes patrones de respuesta


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Função Executiva , Semântica , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Análise de Variância , Demência/psicologia , Inibição (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 305-310, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semantic inhibition is often found to be impaired in Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The sentence completion task (Hayling test) was used to investigate whether it would be useful for differentiating mild AD from moderate AD. METHOD: Latency responses and error scores in the automatic and inhibition parts of the test were registered in these two groups of patients and in a group of healthy older participants. The types of errors were also analysed. Group differences were analysed by ANOVA. In addition, relationships with other neuropsychological tests were reported. RESULTS: Participants with moderate AD performed worse than controls in both the automatic and inhibition sections, whereas participants with mild AD exhibited impaired performance in the inhibition part, but not in the automatic part. Differences between the groups with mild and moderate AD appeared only in the error scores in the inhibition part, specifically type 3 errors. Error scores in the inhibition part correlated with performance in verbal fluency and working memory tests. CONCLUSIONS: The Hayling task may be a useful tool for investigating control of inhibition in different stages of AD because different patterns of responses were observed.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Função Executiva , Semântica , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Análise de Variância , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(2): 66-74, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185743

RESUMO

Antecedentes: el daño cerebral adquirido es un importante problema de salud pública y la principal causa de muerte y discapacidad, la cual abarca no solo aspectos motrices, sino también del lenguaje, habla, memoria y/o habilidades cognitivas que afectan de manera sustancial la vida de quienes la padecen. Objetivo: analizar y describir causas y efectos del daño cerebral adquirido traumático y no traumático. Material y métodos: estudio analítico transversal retrospectivo; se seleccionaron expedientes de pacientes (2011 a 2015) conformando un total de 736. Se calcularon medias, desviaciones estándar, porcentajes y frecuencias; con la finalidad de evaluar si existía diferencia significativa entre variables se calculó χ2 y dependencia estadística mediante análisis de probabilidad condicional. Resultados: el daño cerebral de origen traumático se presentó en 169 (22.9%) pacientes (138 hombres y 31 mujeres). Las causas principales fueron accidentes automovilísticos (27.8%) y caídas (24.8%); 567 (77%) pacientes (286 hombres, 281 mujeres) presentaron daño por etiología no traumática, principalmente por evento vascular isquémico (377 pacientes, 51.22%). Los diagnósticos establecidos con mayor frecuencia fueron los trastornos del lenguaje y de memoria. Conclusiones: la enfermedad vascular cerebral se está convirtiendo en un problema de salud, por lo que es necesario generar campañas preventivas e informativas sobre la adecuada atención y tratamiento con la finalidad de disminuir la incidencia y la gravedad de la discapacidad de los pacientes afectados


Background: acquired brain damage is a major public health problem and the main cause of death and disability, which encompasses not only motor aspects, but also language, speech, memory and/or cognitive abilities that substantially affect the lives of those suffering from them. Objective: to analyze and describe causes and effects of traumatic and non-traumatic acquired brain damage. Materials and methods: this is a retrospective cross-sectional analytical review. Patient files were selected (2011 to 2015), making a total of 736. Means, standard deviations, percentages and frequencies were calculated; with the purpose of evaluating if there was a significant difference between variables was calculated and statistical dependence through conditional probability analysis. Results: acquired brain injury of traumatic origin occurred in 169 (22.9%) patients (138 men and 31 women). The main causes were car accidents (27.8%) and falls (24.8%); 567 (77%) patients (286 men and 281 women) presented damage due to non-traumatic etiology, mainly due to ischemic vascular event (377 patients, 51.22%). The most commonly established diagnoses were language and memory disorders. Conclusions: cerebral vascular disease is becoming a health problem, so it is necessary to create preventive and informative campaigns about the adequate care and treatment in order to reduce the incidence and severity of the disability of affected patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica/reabilitação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Fonoterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia
11.
Distúrb. comun ; 31(2): 187-195, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007967

RESUMO

Introdução: a dislexia adquirida caracteriza-se pela perda da capacidade de compreender o significado de palavras escritas desenvolvida previamente. Esta afecção pode ter origem em acidentes vasculares, traumatismos e outras doenças cerebrais. Objetivo: investigar as características da dislexia adquirida, explorando as correlações neuroanatômicas nas encefalopatias que as produzem, por meio de uma revisão de literatura. Método: Para a realização do estudo, os autores seguiram os critérios sugeridos pela Cochrane Handbook. Primeiramente, formulou-se uma pergunta, seguida da localização e seleção criteriosa dos artigos. Em seguida, ocorreu a avaliação crítica de cada estudo, finalizando com a análise, interpretação e apresentação dos resultados encontrados. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Science Direct, Pubmed/Medline e Scopus, com a utilização dos descritores "brain diseases", "brain injuries", "traumatic brain injuries" e "stroke" com o operador booleano OR, associado aos descritores "alexia" e "acquired dyslexia" por meio do operador booleano AND. Revisão de Literatura: A primeira busca eletrônica contabilizou 137 artigos científicos, dos quais 11 foram eleitos por se tratar de estudos contendo a relação anatômica das lesões e/ou sinais clínicos e linguísticos da dislexia adquirida. Conclusão: A principal causa da dislexia adquirida foi o acidente vascular cerebral, sobretudo no lobo occipital, em ambos os hemisférios, repercutindo na percepção e, posteriormente, no reconhecimento visual da palavra. Faz-se necessário ampliar as pesquisas sobre a dislexia adquirida, a fim de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a mesma, instrumentalizando os clínicos para o processo de reabilitação.


Introduction: acquired dyslexia is characterized by the loss of the capacity to understand the meaning of written words previously developed. This condition can be caused by strokes, trauma and other brain diseases. Objective: to investigate the characteristics of acquired dyslexia, exploring the neuroanatomical correlations in the encephalopathies that produce them, through a literature review. Method: For the study, the authors followed the criteria suggested by the Cochrane Handbook. Firstly, a question was asked, followed by the location and careful selection of the articles. Then, the critical evaluation of each study occurred, ending with the analysis, interpretation and presentation of the results found. The databases Science Direct, Pubmed / Medline and Scopus, using the descriptors "brain diseases", "brain injuries", "traumatic brain injuries" and "stroke" with the Boolean operator OR, associated with the descriptors "alexia" and "acquired dyslexia" through the Boolean operator AND. Literature Review: The first electronic search counted 137 scientific articles, of which 11 were chosen because they were studies containing the anatomical relationship of lesions and/or clinical and linguistic signs of acquired dyslexia. Conclusion: The main cause of acquired dyslexia was stroke, especially in the occipital lobe, in both hemispheres, affecting the perception and subsequent visual recognition of the word. It is necessary to broaden the research on acquired dyslexia in order to deepen the knowledge about it, instrumentalizing the clinicians for the rehabilitation process.


Introducción: la dislexia adquirida se caracteriza por la pérdida de la capacidad en comprender el significado de palabras escritas desarrollada previamente. Esta afección puede originarse en accidentes vasculares, traumatismos y otras enfermedades cerebrales. Objetivo: investigar las características de la dislexia adquirida, explorando las correlaciones neuroanatómicas en las encefalopatías que las producen, por medio de una revisión de literatura. Metodos: Para la realización del estudio, los autores siguieron los criterios sugeridos por la Cochrane Handbook. Primero, se formuló una pregunta, seguida de la localización y selección criteriosa de los artículos. A continuación, ocurrió la evaluación crítica de cada estudio, finalizando con el análisis, interpretación y presentación de los resultados encontrados. Se han consultado las bases de datos Science Direct, Pubmed / Medline y Scopus, con la utilización de los descriptores "brain diseases", "brain cura", "traumatismo cerebrovascular" y "stroke" con el operador booleano OR, asociado a los descriptores "alexia" y "adquirido dyslexia" a través del operador booleano AND. Revisión de Literatura: La primera búsqueda electrónica contabilizó 137 artículos científicos, de los cuales 11 fueron elegidos por tratarse de estudios que contenían la relación anatómica de las lesiones y/o signos clínicos y lingüísticos de la dislexia adquirida. Conclusión: La principal causa de la dislexia adquirida fue el accidente cerebrovascular, sobre todo en el lobo occipital, en ambos hemisferios, repercutiendo en la percepción y posterior reconocimiento visual de la palabra. Se hace necesario ampliar las investigaciones sobre la dislexia adquirida, a fin de profundizar el conocimiento sobre la misma, instrumentalizando a los clínicos para el proceso de rehabilitación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Revisão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dislexia Adquirida , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Transtornos da Linguagem
12.
Croat Med J ; 60(2): 141-149, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044585

RESUMO

Perhaps due to different roles they have had in social groups during evolution, men and women differ in their verbal abilities. These differences are also (if not even more) present in children, both in the course of typical and pathological development. Beside the fact that girls have a well-documented advantage in early language development, almost all developmental disorders primarily affecting communication, speech, and language skills are more frequent in boys. The sex-related difference in the prevalence of these disorders is especially pronounced in autism spectrum disorder (1 girl for each 4-5 boys is affected). The aim of this review is to present the sex differences in typical communication and language development and in the prevalence of communication-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Also, a special focus is put on data from the field of neuroscience that might provide insight into the neurobiological mechanisms that can add to the understanding of this phenomenon. We argue that the functional organization of the female brain gives women an inherent advantage in the acquisition of communication and language system over men.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 71(2-3): 94-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes an alternative assessment tool for second language learning, based on Processing Theory (PT). The basis of this theory is that language learners cannot acquire what they cannot process. This paper presents a tool, based on this theory that avoids the over- or under-diagnosis of language impairment in second language learners. METHOD: This tool has five levels, with the prerequisites for the following step at each level. Each level is designed to determine children's ability to process language factors required at each stage. The five levels begin with identification and acquisition of words in a target language and end with the acquisition of grammar based on word order rules. RESULTS: Findings were that bilingual children, with typical language development, were successful at level 4 (the phrase and morphology level) after 2 years of exposure to Swedish. Bilingual children with language impairment were much slower in their language development in both their first and second languages.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Linguística , Multilinguismo , Árabes/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Barreiras de Comunicação , Diversidade Cultural , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Suécia
14.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 71(2-3): 127-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The number of migrant children referred to speech-language pathologists (SLPs) is increasing in the United States. SLPs need to be competent in distinguishing between a language disorder and language differences associated with children who are learning English as a new language. METHODS: SLPs need to acquire the knowledge, skills, and cultural attitudes to evaluate language of bilingual children to competently assess and intervene with linguistically diverse children and families. Often children separated from their biological parents at the border are placed in foster homes, and the foster parents often do not have essential information regarding the children's developmental history to share with the SLP. The children described in this article include school-age children in the United States who are learning to speak English as a second language and are migrants. RESULTS: This article presents the difficulties faced when working with children learning a new language, effective strategies used with this population, and some of the resources available in the United States for children and families. CONCLUSION: This article highlights some challenges SLPs experience, assessment protocols used in different states and local school districts, successful strategies that involve working with interpreters, and varied service delivery options.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Multilinguismo , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Migrantes , Aculturação , Criança , Diversidade Cultural , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Educação , Programas Governamentais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Política Pública , Estados Unidos
15.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(2): 109-119, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132892

RESUMO

Background: Robinson Crusoe Island is a geographically and socially isolated settlement located over 600 km west of the Port of Valparíso, Chile. An unusually high incidence (30%) of the Chilean equivalent of developmental language disorder (in Spanish, trastorno especifico de lenguaje (TEL)), has been reported in Islander children, with 90% of these affected children found to be direct descendants of a pair of original founder-brothers, therefore strongly suggesting a shared genetic basis. Aim: This study reports a comprehensive examination of 34 genes that have been previously directly implicated in language-related mechanisms. It utilises whole-genome sequencing to investigate potential underlying variants in seven TEL affected and 10 unaffected islanders. The aim was to identify the underlying genetic cause of the TEL phenotype under two inheritance model paradigms; Mendelian monogenic and complex susceptibility. Subjects and methods: A targeted candidate gene approach was used to look for rare, shared variants that may underlie the diagnosis of TEL in a Mendelian genetic model. This study tested whether an overall burden of rare variants is enriched in individuals affected by TEL or with Islanders related to the founder-brother lineage. It further examined if any variants segregate with affection status or with founder-brother-related status and, therefore, may increase risk of developing a language disorder as part of a complex model. Finally, gene-based tests were performed to evaluate relationships between combined variation across candidate genes and TEL affection status. Results: No single pathogenic rare variant segregated with either affection or founder-related status within the 34 candidate genes. Additionally, no evidence was found of an overall increased variant burden in TEL individuals compared to those with TLD. Gene-based analysis found no clear association between the combined effects of variants across the 34 genes and affection status or founder-brother-relatedness. Conclusion: The high prevalence of language disorders found on Robinson Crusoe Island is not caused by either a shared high-impact variant, or an increased burden of variants within candidate genes previously implicated in language disorders. We have comprehensively tested for 'low hanging fruit' in genes implicated in language disorders. Therefore, the underlying cause of TEL on Robinson Crusoe lies outside of these known language disorder genes, or within a complex susceptibility model.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Chile/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 51-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and model-based reliability of general and specific contributions of the subscales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) when evaluating motor skills across a range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and bifactor analysis were conducted on BOT-2 data from 187 elementary school students (grades 1 to 6) (mean age: 113 ± 20 months; boys: n = 117, 62.56%) and on MABC-2 data from 127 elementary school students (grade 1) (mean age: 76 ± 2 months; boys: n = 58, 45.67%). RESULTS: The results of the CFA fit the data for multidimensionality for the BOT-2 and presented poor fit indices for the MABC-2. For both tests, the bifactor model showed that the reliability of the subscales was poor. CONCLUSIONS: The BOT-2 exhibited factorial validity with a multidimensional structure among the current samples, but the MABC-2 showed poor fit indices, insufficient to confirm its multidimensional structure. For both tests, most of the reliable variance came from a general motor factor (M-factor), therefore the scoring and reporting of subscale scores were not justified for both tests.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
HNO ; 67(8): 576-583, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976818

RESUMO

As a prerequisite for diagnosing auditory processing disorders (APD), differential diagnostic considerations are essential, especially with regard to language comprehension disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, specific cognitive impairments (e. g., in memory or multi-modal perception performance), specific learning disorders affecting reading and/or spelling, and autistic-type diseases. The current clinical management is presented in detail in the updated APD guidelines, as are the resulting conclusions for the interpretation of individual test results.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Audiologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva , Dislexia , Transtornos da Linguagem , Percepção Auditiva , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/diagnóstico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 20: 430-436, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of approximately 1: 32 000. While the clinical presentation of KS is heterogeneous, manifestations may include: characteristic facial features, postnatal growth retardation, and skeletal abnormalities. With regards to the cognitive profile, most individuals with KS have an Intellectual Disability, but the magnitude of the impairment ranges from mild to severe, and verbal abilities are generally stronger than nonverbal abilities (i.e., visual spatial and visual perception abilities). Given the low incidence of KS, there is limited literature illustrating the longitudinal development of individuals with the condition. This report presents the cognitive and behavioral trajectory of an individual with KS. CASE REPORT The patient in this case report was a 27-year-old female with KS. Her cognitive profile had remained in the average range over time, but consistent with the limited KS literature, her verbal abilities were significantly higher than her nonverbal abilities. Specifically, our patient demonstrated significant deficits in visual motor and visual perceptual skills. With regards to her core language skills, her expressive skills were average, yet her receptive skills were below average. Throughout the majority of her schooling, her academic achievement skills were mildly delayed. Notably, her performance on cognitive and academic assessments remained stable over time. During young adulthood, she developed significant internalizing symptoms, particularly depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS This is the first case report to illustrate the presentation of an individual with KS from toddlerhood through young adulthood. The patient's clinical presentation across time was relatively consistent with the KS literature to date; notable patterns of language, motor, cognitive and behavioral deficits illustrate the considerable heterogeneity that exists within the syndrome. This case report, particularly, illustrates the persistence of the cognitive profile over time and also the co-occurring psychiatric symptoms that might emerge.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/etiologia
19.
Codas ; 31(2): e20180015, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stroke is a common disease for people and a global public health concern in terms of mortality, disability, and cost demand. This study aims to assess which groups of comorbidities related to speech-language disorders are identified by physicians and nurses of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) as to be referred to post-stroke speech-language rehabilitation at Primary and Secondary Health Care. METHODS: Twenty-two physicians and nurses, from the FHS supported by the Family Health Support Center in southern Brazil, answered a questionnaire developed for this study, exploring socio-demographic variables, education background, professional performance and conduct to post-stroke patients. A descriptive data analysis (absolute and relative frequencies) was performed in SPSS Software 22. RESULTS: Among the participants, 77.3% refer post-stroke patients to physiotherapy and 54.5% to speech-language rehabilitation. None refer to patients to treatment due to cognitive comprehension sequelae; 90.0% refer for significant speech-language disorders. In case of changes in the stomatognathic system, 80.0% of physicians do not refer to speech-language pathologists, and 83.3% of nurses usually do. CONCLUSION: The professionals showed difficulty in identifying speech-language pathological signs and symptoms related to cognition and the stomatognathic system, not referring to speech-language rehabilitation at primary or secondary health care. The results highlight the importance of continuing education and improvement of the knowledge of the primary health care teams, so that speech-language sequelae are properly identified and sent for rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Afasia/diagnóstico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/reabilitação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/reabilitação , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Epilepsy Res ; 153: 28-33, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze patients whose only manifestation of epilepsy were generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) during childhood and discuss its validity as separate syndrome of childhood. METHODS: We included children with at least two unprovoked GTCS between 3 and 11 years of age, no other seizure types at diagnosis, normal psychomotor development and neurological examination, an EEG with normal background and paroxysms of generalized spikes and waves with a frequency 2.5 Hz or above, and an unknown cause for epilepsy. Only patients with a follow-up >2 years were included. RESULTS: Over a 12-year period (2005-2017) 26 patients met the inclusion criteria of epilepsy with GTCS only. Mean age at onset was 5 years. The seizures occurred while awake in 16 patients, on awakening in two, and during sleep in eight patients. The duration of seizures was around 3 min. Generalized spike-and-wave discharges were observed in all patients when awake and during sleep in eight and 26 patients, respectively. Nineteen responded well to valproic acid or levetiracetam. Two patients who received clobazam initially did not respond well; however, a switch to valproic acid resulted in excellent seizure control. Antiepileptic treatment was discontinued in sixteen patients who remained seizure free over a period of 2-9 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy with GTCS alone in childhood is a type of epilepsy; however, it may be considered as a well-defined epileptic syndrome. Patients responded well to valproic acid or levetiracetam.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/complicações , Convulsões/complicações , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
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