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1.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(2): 132-141, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in PD patients on neural responses associated with two aspects of spoken language processing: semantics of action-related verbs and morphosyntactic processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a passive unattended paradigm to present spoken linguistic stimuli, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses in three PD patients in four DBS conditions: left unilateral STN-DBS, right unilateral STN-DBS, bilateral STN-DBS, and no STN-DBS. To ensure that any observed effects of DBS on the neuromagnetic responses could be attributed to the linguistic context per se and were not merely induced by the electrical stimulation, we assessed the effects of STN-DBS on linguistic contrasts within each stimulation condition. Hence, we contrasted the processing of action vs. abstract verbs as well as the processing of correct vs. incorrect morphosyntactic inflections within each DBS condition. RESULTS: The results revealed that, compared to the DBS-off state, both bilateral and right unilateral stimulation of the STN yielded significant dissociations in the processing of action and abstract verbs, with greater neuromagnetic responses for action verbs compared to abstract verbs. For morphosyntax processing, only left unilateral stimulation yielded significant dissociations (relative to the DBS-off state), with greater neuromagnetic responses to the incorrect inflections compared to the correct inflections. CONCLUSION: The results reflect differential effects of unilateral and bilateral STN-DBS on neuromagnetic responses associated with the processing of spoken language. They suggest that different specific aspects of linguistic information processing in PD are affected differently by STN-DBS.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Idoso , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia
2.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(5): 288-296, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867413

RESUMO

A 71-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to our hospital due to a sudden difficulty with conversation. On admission, she was alert, but had a euphoric mood, disorientation, and a disturbance of recent memory. Her speech was fluent. Her repetition and auditory word cognition were excellent, but she had a slight difficulty with naming visual objects. She frequently showed word-finding difficulty and irrelevant paraphasia during free conversation and a word fluency task. Her irrelevant paraphasia was observed more frequently when she was asked to explain her outbreak of anger at the hospital, i.e., it was situation-dependent. She also had anosognosia. MRI showed an infarct in the territory of the left tuberothalamic artery. Single-photon emission computed tomography revealed low-uptake lesions in the left thalamus and orbital frontal, medial frontal, and medial temporal lobes. The patient was diagnosed with non-aphasic misnaming. The clinical characteristics of patients with non-aphasic misnaming in the literature were reviewed. All of the patients with non-aphasic misnaming had word-finding difficulty and irrelevant paraphasia. Additionally, they had either emotional disturbance or anosognosia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Idoso , Agnosia/complicações , Agnosia/diagnóstico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Confusão/complicações , Confusão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
3.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(2): 675-685, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656921

RESUMO

Introduction Children born prematurely often score lower on standardized tests of language in early childhood. Less is known about longer term outcomes. This investigation considered language outcomes in pre-adolescent children born very preterm/very low birthweight, as assessed by both standardized test scores and language sample measures, and explored attention abilities as a possible moderating factor. Method The present investigation provided a longitudinal follow-up to Mahurin Smith et al. (2014) by examining the language outcomes of 84 children at the 11-year time point (39 with a history of prematurity and 45 born at full term) and a total of 82 at the 12-year time point (37 with a history of prematurity, 45 born at full term). Assessments included subtests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals- Fourth Edition, productive language measures taken from narrative tasks, and parent and examiner ratings of attention. Results Gestational age significantly predicted standardized language scores at age 11 years, but this effect was no longer statistically significant at age 12 years. When parent ratings of attention were considered as additional variables, gestational age was no longer a significant predictor. Gestational age did not serve as a significant predictor for the productive language measures at either time point. Discussion Results indicate that catch-up growth in language may take place in pre-adolescence for many children born prematurely. Clinical implications focus on the need to utilize multiple forms of language assessment and to directly consider the potential role of attention on standard test results.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Semântica , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Atenção , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Idioma , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(3): 67-76, 1 feb., 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200674

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El perfil neuropsicológico de los pacientes con deterioro cognitivo leve ha sido objeto de estudio de diversas investigaciones. Sin embargo, se han publicado relativamente pocos trabajos sobre las características del lenguaje en estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Analizar e integrar la bibliografía publicada sobre el tema tras la revisión sistemática realizada por Johnson y Lin en 2014. Sujetos y métodos. Se ha realizado una revisión sistemática en la que se han consultado tres bases de datos (Web of Science, PubMed y PsycInfo). Se han analizado 17 estudios empíricos revisados por pares, con participantes adultos con deterioro cognitivo leve, que incluyen al menos un grupo control y que evalúan parámetros de lenguaje. Se ha aplicado un protocolo de registro de elaboración propia para codificar las características y los resultados de los estudios, y se ha evaluado la calidad de los estudios y los artículos en los que se han publicado a través de una escala de elaboración propia basada en instrumentos validados previamente. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes con deterioro cognitivo leve pueden presentar déficits en denominación, producción del discurso, comprensión oral y comprensión escrita. CONCLUSIONES: Es importante evaluar el lenguaje en pacientes con deterioro cognitivo leve, aunque dicha exploración no permita establecer por sí sola un diagnóstico. No obstante, la variabilidad en la patología asociada al diagnóstico, la edad, el idioma y el nivel educativo de los participantes, así como al tamaño muestral, y los instrumentos utilizados para evaluar el lenguaje en los estudios revisados impiden que se puedan realizar afirmaciones concluyentes y hacen que sea necesario realizar más investigación sobre el tema


INTRODUCTION: The neuropsychological profile of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been the target of several investigations. However, few works have been published about the language profile in these patients. AIM. To analyse and integrate the published scientific literature about this topic after the systematic review carried out by Johnson and Lin in 2014. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in which three databases (Web of Science, PubMed and PsycInfo) were consulted. Seventeen studies have been analysed, with adult participants diagnosed with MCI, that included at least one control group, and studies that evaluated language parameters. A self-made registration protocol has been applied to encode the characteristics and results of the studies; and the quality of the studies and articles has been evaluated through a self-elaboration scale based on previously validated instruments. RESULTS: Patients with MCI can present deficits in naming, speech production, oral comprehension, and written comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to evaluate language in patients with MCI, although this exploration does not allow establishing a diagnosis on by itself. However, the pathology variability associated with the diagnosis, the age, the language, and the educational level of the participants, as well as the sample size, and the instruments and measures used to evaluate the language in the studies reviewed, make impossible to obtain a conclusive statement, so further research about this topic is needed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia
5.
Phys Ther ; 101(5)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the relationship between language abilities and specific motor skills in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to compare the relationship of receptive language (RL) and expressive language (EL) abilities with motor functioning in toddlers with ASD aged 24 to 36 months and their peers with typical development (TD). Furthermore, the study compared multidimensional motor functioning in toddlers with ASD with delayed RL and EL development and toddlers with ASD and typical RL and EL development. The predictive powers of the motor skills were examined for the group with delayed RL and EL development. METHODS: The language abilities of 38 toddlers with ASD and 38 age-matched toddlers with TD were evaluated using the Receptive and Expressive Language Subscales of the Mullen Scale of Early Learning, and their motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition. RESULTS: Significant correlations between language ability and motor functioning were observed in the ASD and TD groups. The ASD group with delayed RL and EL development had lower scores for multidimensional motor functioning than the ASD group with typical RL and EL development and the TD group. Moreover, the risks of delayed EL and RL development could be predicted by the lower motor scores in toddlers with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: The positive correlation between language abilities and motor functioning in toddlers with ASD indicated potential connections between the early onsets of motor and speech-language impairments in these toddlers. IMPACT: The results may have implications for the development of motor-based interventions targeting language development in young children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117449, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059054

RESUMO

Motor and cognitive functions are organized in large-scale networks in the human brain that interact to enable flexible adaptation of information exchange to ever-changing environmental conditions. In this review, we discuss the unique potential of the consecutive combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and functional neuroimaging to probe network organization and reorganization in the healthy and lesioned brain. First, we summarize findings highlighting the flexible (re-)distribution and short-term reorganization in motor and cognitive networks in the healthy brain. Plastic after-effects of rTMS result in large-scale changes on the network level affecting both local and remote activity within the stimulated network as well as interactions between the stimulated and distinct functional networks. While the number of combined rTMS-fMRI studies in patients with brain lesions remains scarce, preliminary evidence suggests that the lesioned brain flexibly (re-)distributes its computational capacities to functionally reorganize impaired brain functions, using a similar set of mechanisms to achieve adaptive network plasticity compared to short-term reorganization observed in the healthy brain after rTMS. In general, both short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and stroke-induced reorganization seem to rely on three general mechanisms of adaptive network plasticity that allow to maintain and recover function: i) interhemispheric changes, including increased contribution of homologous regions in the contralateral hemisphere and increased interhemispheric connectivity, ii) increased interactions between differentially specialized networks and iii) increased contributions of domain-general networks after disruption of more specific functions. These mechanisms may allow for computational flexibility of large-scale neural networks underlying motor and cognitive functions. Future studies should use complementary approaches to address the functional relevance of adaptive network plasticity and further delineate how these general mechanisms interact to enable network flexibility. Besides furthering our neurophysiological insights into brain network interactions, identifying approaches to support and enhance adaptive network plasticity may result in clinically relevant diagnostic and treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dominância Cerebral , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
7.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(11-12): 405-416, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264534

RESUMO

Background and purpose: In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Methods: Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. Results: People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Conclusion: Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person's impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Testes de Linguagem , Fala/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Afasia/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Hungria , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147602

RESUMO

We examined the relationship between cognitive-linguistic mechanisms and auditory closure ability in children. Sixty-seven school-age children recognized isolated words and keywords in sentences that were interrupted at a rate of 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz. In essence, children were given only 50% of speech information and asked to repeat the complete word or sentence. Children's working memory capacity (WMC), attention, lexical knowledge, and retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) abilities were also measured to model their role in auditory closure ability. Overall, recognition of monosyllabic words and lexically easy multisyllabic words was significantly better at 2.5 Hz interruption rate than 5 Hz. Recognition of lexically hard multisyllabic words and keywords in sentences was better at 5 Hz relative to 2.5 Hz. Based on the best fit generalized "logistic" linear mixed effects models, there was a significant interaction between WMC and lexical difficulty of words. WMC was positively related only to recognition of lexically easy words. Lexical knowledge was found to be crucial for recognition of words and sentences, regardless of interruption rate. In addition, LTM retrieval ability was significantly associated with sentence recognition. These results suggest that lexical knowledge and the ability to retrieve information from LTM is crucial for children's speech recognition in adverse listening situations. Study findings make a compelling case for the assessment and intervention of lexical knowledge and retrieval abilities in children with listening difficulties.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Vocabulário
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 111: 107328, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes is one of the most common childhood disorders. Despite the benignity usually attributed to this epileptic syndrome, several studies have demonstrated that these children have cognitive disabilities. Among these disturbances, language disorders have been the less studied in depth. We aimed to obtain accurate information about the language skills of children with this epileptic syndrome and to explore the correlation between demographic and clinical factors associated with epilepsy and the language skills. METHODS: We assessed 30 children with this epileptic syndrome, followed in three hospitals in Lisbon, and 60 controls, aged between 6 and 12 years, attending the same schools and matched by age, gender, and parents' socioprofessional level. All the included children did not present cognitive impairment (reasoning ability, verbal memory), sensory, or motor limitations. The evaluation tests covered all language areas. RESULTS: Overall, children with this epileptic syndrome had lower skills in the majority of the language areas, when compared with their peers. These children showed greater difficulties in semantics and syntax domains. The atypical evolution of the seizures and a longer duration of epilepsy were the clinical variables that most influence the language skills of our samples. CONCLUSION: The early assessment of these capacities and the possible need for therapeutic intervention should be emphasized, in order to minimize the impact on their academic performance and quality of life.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Rolândica/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Rolândica/psicologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Idioma , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia Rolândica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Semântica
10.
Neurocase ; 26(6): 328-339, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103577

RESUMO

We report a patient with asymmetric Bálint's syndrome (predominantly right-sided oculomotor apraxia and simultanagnosia and optic ataxia for the right hemispace), and multimodal agnosia (apperceptive visual agnosia and bilateral associative tactile agnosia) with accompanying right hemianopia, bilateral agraphesthesia, hemispatial neglect, global alexia with unavailable kinesthetic reading, and lexical agraphia for kanji (Japanese morphograms), after hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipito-temporal area. The coexistence of tactile agnosia, bilateral agraphesthesia, and ineffective kinesthetic reading suggests that tactile-kinesthetic information can be interrupted because of damage to the fiber connection from the parietal lobe to the occipito-temporal area, leading to these tactually related cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Apraxias/congênito , Ataxia , Hemorragia Cerebral , Síndrome de Cogan , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos da Percepção , Idoso , Agnosia/etiologia , Agnosia/patologia , Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Agrafia/etiologia , Agrafia/patologia , Agrafia/fisiopatologia , Apraxias/etiologia , Apraxias/patologia , Apraxias/fisiopatologia , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/patologia , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Cogan/etiologia , Síndrome de Cogan/patologia , Síndrome de Cogan/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/patologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/patologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/patologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Síndrome , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
11.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 42(7): 710-724, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777976

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) tend to use more pronouns than healthy aged adults when referring to entities during discourse. This referential behavior has been associated with the decrease of cognitive abilities, such as lexical retrieval difficulties or reduced abilities in working memory. However, the influence of certain important discourse factors on the referential choices made by people with AD has yet to be established. This study examines referential choices made at three discourse stages during narrative discourse (the introduction of a referent, the maintaining of the referent in focus, and the shift from one referent in focus to another). These referential choices are examined in increasingly complex referential contexts. In addition, this study investigates the relationships between referential choices and various cognitive abilities. To do so, the narrative discourses of 21 people with AD and 21 healthy adults were elicited using a newly developed storytelling in sequence task. The analyses focused on the production of three major referential expressions (indefinite expressions, definite expressions and pronouns) which are expected to vary according to discourse stage and the referential complexity of the stories. The results show that AD participants produce significantly fewer of the referential expressions expected at the introduction and shift stages than healthy aged adults produce. Nevertheless, the variation in the categories of referential expressions produced by the AD participants between the discourse stages is similar to that produced by the healthy aged adults, suggesting a preserved sensitivity to the factors manipulated in the task (i.e., discourse stages and referential complexity). This study also highlights the fact that different cognitive competences, especially executive abilities, are greatly involved in referential choices. The results add further evidence that referential choices rely on a variety of cognitive skills, depending on the discourse context in which they are made.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino
12.
Brain Lang ; 209: 104841, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818719

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic cell loss and reduced striatal volume. Prior studies have demonstrated striatal involvement in access to lexical-semantic knowledge and damage to this structure may be evident in the lexical properties of responses. Semantic fluency task responses from early stage, non-demented PD participants with right (PD-R) or left (PD-L) lateralizing symptoms were compared to matched controls on lexical properties (word frequency, age of acquisition) and correlated with striatal volumes segmented from T1-weighted brain MR images. PD-R participants produced semantic fluency responses of a lower age of acquisition than PD-L and control participants (p < 0.05). PD-R age of acquisition responses correlated positively with putamen volume (p < 0.05), while age of acquisition of responses correlated negatively with caudate volume in controls (p < 0.05). Findings provide evidence for a role of the striatum in lexical-semantic access and qualitative changes in lexical access in select PD patients.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Putamen/patologia , Semântica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia
13.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 42(2): 161-170, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696887

RESUMO

Introduction Children with anxiety disorders have been suggested to possess deficits in verbal fluency, shifting and attention, with inconsistent results regarding working memory and its subcomponents. This study extends previous findings by analyzing the performance of children with anxiety disorders in a wide range of neuropsychological functions. Methods We evaluated 54 children with a primary diagnosis of an anxiety disorder according to diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) using subtests of a neuropsychological battery. The severity of anxiety disorders was assessed using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). We calculated the frequency of neuropsychological impairments (-1.5 standard deviation of the normative sample). Comparisons between groups were performed based on the severity of anxiety symptoms, as well as in the presence of one vs. more diagnoses of anxiety disorder. Results We found higher impairment in visuospatial working memory (23.1%), semantic memory (27.8%), oral language (35.4%) and word writing (44.4%) in anxious children. Moreover, children with higher anxiety severity presented lower performance in visuospatial working memory, inferential processing, word reading, writing comprehension, copied writing, and semantic verbal fluency (d = 0.49 to 0.96 [Cohen's d]). The higher the number of anxiety diagnoses, the lower the performance in episodic memory and oral and written language (d = 0.56 to 0.77). Conclusion Our data suggested the presence of memory (visuospatial working memory and semantic memory) and language deficits (oral and writing) in some children with an anxiety disorder. Severity and number of anxiety diagnoses were associated with lower performance in memory and language domains in childhood.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Fobia Social/complicações , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 42(5): 495-504, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576080

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Language dysfunction has recently been suggested to be one route to alexithymia, an impairment in recognizing and communicating one's own emotions. Neuropsychological evidence is needed to investigate the possibility that acquired language problems could underlie acquired alexithymia. METHOD: This project examined data from a large group of chronic stroke patients (N = 118) to test whether self-reported or behavioral measures of language and communication problems were associated with alexithymia. We also examined the impact of hemisphere of damage on alexithymia. RESULTS: We found no differences in alexithymia levels for patients with observed language impairments on brief tests of picture naming, comprehension, and reading vs unimpaired patients. However, self-reported communication difficulties were found to be associated with higher scores of alexithymia, even after controlling for depression and anxiety. Patients with left- versus right-hemisphere damage did not differ in their alexithymia scores. CONCLUSIONS: We found partial support for the language hypothesis of alexithymia. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepant findings between the self-report and objective language measures and suggest that self-report measures may be more sensitive to milder, more pragmatic language impairments, as opposed to the severe structural language impairments measured by the cognitive screening tests.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Transtornos da Comunicação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Neurocase ; 26(3): 121-124, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364009

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pure word deafness is a rare neurological disorder linked with an inability to comprehend speech. The precise localization of damage is still unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old woman presented with acute verbal contact disturbances, disorientation, and anxiety. In the neurological examination a slight right hemiparesis was found, together with a pure word deafness (PWD) in neuropsychological tests. Neuroimages confirmed bilateral ischemic lesions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) acute in the left hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Our case suggested that bilateral, symmetric lesions in the region of STG could cause pure world deafness. The diversity and severity of symptoms confirm the necessity of pure world deafness classification for subtypes.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia
16.
Conscious Cogn ; 82: 102951, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446188

RESUMO

We tested whether the acquisition of grapheme-color synesthesia during childhood is related to difficulties in written language learning by measuring whether it is more frequent in 79 children receiving speech and language therapy for such difficulties than in the general population of children (1.3%). By using criteria as similar as possible to those used in the reference study (Simner et al., 2009), we did not identify any synesthete (Bayesian 95% credible interval [0, 4.5]% for a flat prior). The odds of the null model (no difference between 0/79 and 1.3%) over alternative models is 28 (Bayes Factor). A higher prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes among children with learning difficulties is therefore very unlikely, questioning the hypothesis of a link between synesthesia and difficulties in language acquisition. We also describe the difficulty of diagnosing synesthesia in children and discuss the need for new approaches to do so.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Sinestesia/fisiopatologia , Redação , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sinestesia/epidemiologia
17.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci ; 11(5): e1528, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244259

RESUMO

Although a growing literature points to substantial variation in speech/language abilities related to individual differences in musical abilities, mainstream models of communication sciences and disorders have not yet incorporated these individual differences into childhood speech/language development. This article reviews three sources of evidence in a comprehensive body of research aligning with three main themes: (a) associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, (b) musical rhythm in children with developmental speech/language disorders and common comorbid attentional and motor disorders, and (c) individual differences in mechanisms underlying rhythm processing in infants and their relationship with later speech/language development. In light of converging evidence on associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, we propose the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis, which posits that individuals with atypical rhythm are at higher risk for developmental speech/language disorders. The hypothesis is framed within the larger epidemiological literature in which recent methodological advances allow for large-scale testing of shared underlying biology across clinically distinct disorders. A series of predictions for future work testing the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis are outlined. We suggest that if a significant body of evidence is found to support this hypothesis, we can envision new risk factor models that incorporate atypical rhythm to predict the risk of developing speech/language disorders. Given the high prevalence of speech/language disorders in the population and the negative long-term social and economic consequences of gaps in identifying children at-risk, these new lines of research could potentially positively impact access to early identification and treatment. This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Neuroscience > Development Linguistics > Language Acquisition.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Transtornos da Linguagem , Música , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Percepção do Tempo , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia
18.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 30(2): 229-238, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336409

RESUMO

This article provides an overview of research that uses magnetoencephalography to understand the brain basis of human language. The cognitive processes and brain networks that have been implicated in written and spoken language comprehension and production are discussed in relation to different methodologies: we review event-related brain responses, research on the coupling of neural oscillations to speech, oscillatory coupling between brain regions (eg, auditory-motor coupling), and neural decoding approaches in naturalistic language comprehension.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
19.
Brain Lang ; 203: 104743, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004807

RESUMO

To characterize structural white matter substrates associated with language functions in children with language disorders (LD), a psychometry-driven diffusion tractography network was investigated with canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which can reliably predict expressive and receptive language scores from the nodal efficiency (NE) of the obtained network. The CCA found that the NE values of six regions: left inferior-frontal-opercular, left insular, left angular gyrus, left superior-temporal-gyrus, right hippocampus, and right cerebellar-lobule were highly correlated with language scores (ρexpressive/ρreceptive = 0.609/0.528), yielding significant differentiation of LD from controls using new imaging predictors uexpressive (F = 15.024, p = .0003) and ureceptive (F = 7.421, p = .009). This study demonstrates the utility of intrinsic language network analyses in distinguishing and potentially subtyping the type and severity of language deficit, especially in very young children (≤3 years) with LD. The use of structural imaging to identify children with persisting language disorder could prove useful in understanding the etiology of language disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
20.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(1): 92-99, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of contrasting hypotheses have been put forward concerning mathematical performance deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, debate as to the nature of this deficit continues. The present study analyzed whether the trajectories of SLI-children may be attributed to the use of symbolic vs. linguistic assessment tasks, or to a deficit in the magnitude system. METHOD: SLI-children (N=20) and typically achieving children (N=20) were monitored between kindergarten and first grade. Four tasks were designed, each with varying demands on language, symbolic, and domain-specific skills. RESULTS: The groups only differed in the trajectories of those numerical tasks involving high language demand. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that SLI children present an early deficit in the development of numerical skills that require retrieval from long term memory and articulation of a phonological representation. Number skills involving greater language demand should be included as part of SLI early detection and intervention protocols


ANTECEDENTES: diferentes hipótesis sobre las dificultades en matemáticas de niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje (TEL) han sido contrastadas, sin embargo, el debate sobre la naturaleza de este déficit todavía perdura. El presente estudio analizó si las trayectorias de los niños con TEL en habilidades numéricas pueden atribuirse a la naturaleza simbólica de las tareas utilizadas, a la demanda lingüística de las mismas, o a un déficit en el sistema de magnitud. MÉTODO: niños con TEL (N = 20) y con rendimiento típico (N = 20) fueron monitoreados entre Educación Infantil y el primer curso de Educación Primaria. Se diseñaron cuatro tareas, cada una con una demanda variable de habilidades de lenguaje, información simbólica y de dominio específico. RESULTADOS: los grupos se diferenciaron únicamente en las trayectorias de aquellas tareas numéricas que implicaban una alta demanda de lenguaje. CONCLUSIONES: estos hallazgos indican que los niños con TEL presentan un déficit temprano en el desarrollo de aquellas habilidades numéricas que requieren recuperación rápida de una representación fonológica de la memoria a largo plazo y su articulación. Las habilidades numéricas que implican una mayor demanda de lenguaje deben incluirse como parte de los protocolos de detección e intervención temprana de TEL


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Matemática , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Análise de Variância , Testes de Inteligência , Leitura
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