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1.
Life Sci ; 240: 117072, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751584

RESUMO

Deficits in cognitive functions are often observed in epileptic patients, particularly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Evidence suggests that this cognitive decline can be associated with the occurrence of focal brain lesions, especially on hippocampus and cortex regions. We previously demonstrated that the erythrinian alkaloids, (+)-erythravine and (+)-11α-hydroxy-erythravine, inhibit seizures evoked in rats by different chemoconvulsants. AIMS: The current study evaluated if these alkaloids would be acting in a neuroprotective way, reducing hippocampal sclerosis, and consequently, improving learning/memory performance. MAIN METHODS: Here we confirmed the anticonvulsant effect of both alkaloids by means of the pilocarpine seizure-induced model and also showed that they enhanced spatial learning of rats submitted to the Morris Water Maze test reverting the cognition deficit. Additionally, immunohistochemistry assays showed that neuronal death and glial activation were prevented by the alkaloids in the hippocampus CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions at both hemispheres indistinctly 15 days after status epilepticus induction. KEY FINDINGS: Our results show, for the first-time, the improvement on memory/learning elicited by these erythrinian alkaloids. Furthermore, data presented herein explain, at least partially, the cellular mechanism of action of these alkaloids. Together, (+)-erythravine and (+)-11α-hydroxy-erythravine seem to be a promising protective strategy against TLE, comprising three main aspects: neuroprotection, control of epileptic seizures and cognitive improvement. SIGNIFICANCE: Moreover, our findings on neuroprotection corroborate the view that seizure frequency and severity, hippocampal lesions and memory deficits are interconnected events.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/psicologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/psicologia , Animais , Convulsivantes , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Pilocarpina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esclerose/prevenção & controle , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/psicologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 751-758, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861959

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of defatted walnut meal hydrolysate (DWMH) and tea polyphenols (TP) on learning improvement and to explain mechanistically why the combined treatments were more effective than either subject alone. In the step-down avoidance test and the Morris water maze test, codelivery of DWMH and TP was more effective than either individual supplement in reversing memory impairment in scopolamine-treated mice. Mixing with TP significantly facilitated the protective effects of DWMH or DWMH-derived peptides (cationic peptide P1 and anionic peptide P2) on H2O2-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Although combination treatment with TP and DWMH did not significantly alter systemic exposure to P1 or P2 in rats, it significantly increased the accumulation of the two peptides in the mouse brain. In addition, TP significantly improved cellular uptake of P1 and P2 by brain capillary endothelial cells, indicating that TP enhanced the blood-brain barrier permeation of DWMH-derived peptides. The proposed explanation for the advantage of combined treatment with TP and DWMH in reversing memory impairment was that TP enhanced both the protective effects of DWMH on nerve cells and the accumulation of DWMH in the brain. Our study can aid efforts to develop products and investigate the effects of nutrient combinations on brain disorders.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Juglans/química , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Nozes/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos
4.
Neurology ; 93(20): e1881-e1889, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the use of sex-specific norms and cut scores to identify memory impairment improves diagnostic accuracy of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) compared to non-sex-specific (typical) norms/cut scores given the female advantage in verbal memory. METHODS: We calculated sex-specific and typical norms/cut scores (age and education specific) for impairment on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Norms/cut scores were applied to 453 women and 532 men from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We compared sex differences in rates of aMCI (Jak/Bondi criteria) for sex-specific vs typical norms/cut scores. Using sex-specific cut scores as the true condition and typical cut scores as the predicted condition, we categorized participants as true positives (TPs), false positives (FPs), true negative (TNs), or false negative (FNs). In cross-sectional analyses within sex, we compared positivity rates of CSF hyperphosphorylated tau/ß-amyloid (Aß) and cortical Aß deposition ([18F]AV45 PET) and APOE ε4 frequency among diagnostic comparison groups. RESULTS: The frequency of aMCI was higher in men when using typical norms/cut scores. Using sex-adjusted norms/cut scores led to the identification of 10% FNs (missed aMCI cases) among women and 10% FPs among men. Biomarker analyses supported the hypothesis that sex-specific diagnostic criteria improves diagnostic accuracy. Biomarkers rates were higher in FNs vs TNs and similar in FNs and TPs. Biomarker rates were lower in FPs vs TPs and similar between FPs and TNs. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that non-sex-specific aMCI diagnostic criteria led to a 20% diagnostic error rate. Accounting for sex differences in verbal memory performance may improve aMCI classification.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103464, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience comorbid symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, children with ASD and ADHD often have sleep disturbances and deficits in executive functioning (EF). In typical development, sleep disturbances are causally linked to EF deficits and exacerbate ADHD-like symptoms. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether caregiver-report sleep and EF difficulties predict ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. METHODS: Caregiver-report of child sleep, EF, and ADHD symptom severity was collected for 101 children with ASD, 7-11 years of age. Hierarchical linear regressions tested the independent and interactive effects of sleep and EF in predicting ADHD symptoms. RESULTS: Children with ASD were more likely to have symptoms of ADHD if they experienced both sleep and EF difficulties. Children with difficulties in working memory were particularly at risk for clinically significant symptoms of ADHD. Notably, however, sleep did not mediate or moderate the relation between working memory and ADHD symptoms in this sample, suggesting that these variables act through independent mechanisms to increase vulnerability for comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: These results have clinical significance as sleep and EF deficits may identify an ASD subgroup that is at increased risk for a comorbid ADHD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Função Executiva , Transtornos da Memória , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite accumulating research demonstrating that acute exercise may enhance memory function, very little research has evaluated whether acute exercise can effectuate intentional directed forgetting (DF), an adaptative strategy to facilitate subsequent memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled intervention was employed. Participants were randomized into one of three groups, including: (1) exercise plus DF (Ex + DF), (2) DF (directed forgetting) only (DF) and (3) R (remember) only (R). The acute bout of exercise included 15 min of high-intensity treadmill exercise. The memory assessment involved the presentation of two-word lists. After encoding the first word list, participants were either instructed to forget all of those words (DF) or to remember them. Following this, participants encoded the second word list. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant main effect for list F(1, 57) = 12.27, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.18, but no main effect for group F(2, 57) = 1.32, p = 0.27, η2p = 0.04, or list by group interaction, F(2, 57) = 2.89, p = 0.06, η2p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a directed forgetting effect in that cueing an individual to forget a previously encoded list of items facilitates memory performance on a subsequent list of items. However, we failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect of acute exercise in facilitating directed forgetting. These findings are discussed in the context of directed forgetting theories, particularly the attention inhibition mechanism, as well as the timing of the acute bout of exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Mississippi , Adulto Jovem
7.
World Neurosurg ; 132: e759-e765, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine postoperative long-term changes of hippocampal volume (HV) correlating with cognitive functions in patients who underwent surgery for hippocampal sclerosis with postoperative freedom from seizures. METHODS: We studied 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging before and after surgery in 24 patients (mean ± SD age, 36.9 ± 11.0 years) with hippocampal sclerosis. We performed serial magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months to 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, and 3-5 years postoperatively. We compared HVs of 24 patients with HVs of 14 age-matched control subjects. We analyzed correlations between consecutive HVs and seizure duration and age at surgery. We compared consecutive changes in HVs between dominant and nondominant hemispheres with concurrent cognitive functions. RESULTS: Preoperative HVs of unresected contralateral hippocampus were significantly smaller than HVs of control subjects (P < 0.01). Unresected contralateral HV changes compared with preoperative HVs were -3.6% ± 6.9%, -2.3% ± 8.5%, -3.6% ± 10.2% (P < 0.05), and -5.0% ± 9.5% (P < 0.05) at consecutive postoperative periods. Largest change in HVs at 3-5 years was significantly correlated with older age at surgery (P < 0.05). Unresected contralateral dominant 14 HVs remained consistently smaller than nondominant 10 HVs up to 5 years with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Verbal memory was preserved in 14 patients with unresected contralateral smaller dominant hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: In seizure-free patients after hippocampal sclerosis resection , unresected contralateral HV significantly declined with older age at surgery. Visual memory was preserved regardless of side and volume loss. Despite significantly reduced HVs, verbal memory was preserved with the unresected contralateral dominant hippocampus. Earlier surgical intervention may have lower potential risk for memory decline secondary to postoperative HV loss.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior , Criança , Dominância Cerebral , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esclerose , Convulsões , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 47(4-6): 375-384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies suggest the importance of prospective memory (ProM) due to its functional relevance and sensitivity to neuropathology. However, its relevant neural substrates have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and both objective and subjective ProM measures in a group of non-demented people with subjective memory complaints, and to examine the potential of ProM measures to detect the difference between subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the pre-dementia stage. METHOD: Thirty-sevennon-dementedparticipants aged above 50 years were recruited from an outpatient Neurology Clinic; 13 of them fulfilled the criteria of MCI and 24 of SCD. All subjects received comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the adapted version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test, as well as the Taiwan version of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. The diffusion tensor imaging technique with tract-based spatial statistics was applied to measure cerebral microstructural changes. RESULTS: Time-based ProM performance was significantly correlated with microstructural integrity of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, while the event-based one was associated with that of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the genu of the corpus callosum among all participants and in the SCD group. After controlling for age, the correlation remained significant between event-based ProM performance and the left superior longitudinal fasciculus among all participants and in the MCI group, as well as between event-based ProM performance and the genu among all participants. Although self-reported ProM failures in real life was associated with fiber disruption of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus among all participants and within the MCI group, an inverse relationship was also observed with that of the corpus callosum in the SCD group even after controlling for age. As compared to the SCD group, people with MCI performed significantly worse on time-based ProM tasks and reported more ProM failures in daily life. CONCLUSIONS: ProM was related to the integrity of interhemispheric commissural fibers and association fibers that connect the frontal lobe with posterior regions, with a task-specific laterality effect. Time-based ProM tasks and self-reported ProM questionnaire may be sensitive to early pathological cognitive deterioration, while the concomitant aging process and individual awareness level may respectively confound the results of evaluation.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
9.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 47(4-6): 264-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the current evidence of a high prevalence of forgetfulness in middle-aged individuals, and the evidence of a link between midlife memory complaints and biological changes in the brain, no previous study has yet investigated midlife forgetfulness in relation to risk of dementia in old age. AIMS: We investigated whether midlife forgetfulness was an indicator of an increased risk of dementia in old age. METHODS: We used data from 3,136 employed men and women who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 1990. These data were linked to Danish national registers. Participants were asked whether their closest relative had ever told them that they were forgetful. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, 749 (24%) study participants were categorized as forgetful, and 86 (2.7%) participants were diagnosed with dementia during a total of 31,724 person-years at risk. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, and work-related factors, midlife forgetfulness was associated with a higher risk of dementia (IRR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.12-2.97). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate midlife forgetfulness and dementia, and the results suggest that midlife forgetfulness is an early indicator of an increased risk of dementia in old age.


Assuntos
Demência/etiologia , Demência/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Local de Trabalho
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9039-9049, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353898

RESUMO

This study focused on the effects of oxidized tyrosine products (OTPs) and major component dityrosine (DT) on the brain and behavior of growing mice. Male and female mice were treated with daily intragastric administration of either tyrosine (Tyr; 420 µg/kg body weight), DT (420 µg/kg body weight), or OTPs (1909 µg/kg body weight) for 35 days. We found that pure DT and OTPs caused redox state imbalance, elevated levels of inflammatory factors, hippocampal oxidative damage, and neurotransmitter disorders while activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in the hippocampus and downregulating the genes associated with learning and memory. These events eventually led to growing mice learning and memory impairment, lagging responses, and anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, the male mice exhibited slightly more oxidative damage than the females. These findings imply that contemporary diets and food-processing strategies of the modern world should be modified to reduce oxidized protein intake.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/efeitos adversos , Tirosina/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Tirosina/metabolismo
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 4709-4715, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218539

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is precipitated by exposure to severe traumatic events such as wars, natural disasters, catastrophes, or other traumatic events. Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal (family: Solanaceae) known traditionally as "Ashwaghanda" is used widely in ayurvedic medicine, and known to have positive role in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, WS effect on impairment of memory due to PTSD was studied in animal models. Single-prolonged stress rat model, which consisted of restrain for 2 h, forced swimming for 20 min, rest for 15 min, and diethyl ether exposure for 1-2 min, was used to induce PTSD animals. The WS root powder extract was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day. The radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Enzymatic assays were used to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments. The result showed that PTSD resulted in short- and long- term memory impairments. Administration of WS prevented this impairment of memory induced by PTSD. Furthermore, WS prevented PTSD induced changes in oxidative stress biomarker in the hippocampus. For quality assessment, the methanolic extract for WS was subjected to UHPLC analysis. A calibration curve for isowithanone as a marker compound was constructed. WS roots content of isowithanone was found to be 0.23% (w/w). In conclusion, WS administration prevented PTSD induced memory impairment probably through preserving changes in antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Withania/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2597-2603, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218600

RESUMO

We investigated whether a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, has any effect on visual working memory (WM) performance. In most cases, cognitive performance is thought to return to premorbid levels soon after injury, without further medical intervention. We tested this assumption in undergraduates, among whom a history of mTBI is prevalent. Notably, participants with a history of mTBI performed worse than their colleagues with no such history. Experiment 1 was based on a change detection paradigm in which we manipulated visual WM set size from one to three items, which revealed a significant deficit at set size 3. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether feedback could rescue WM performance in the mTBI group, and found that it failed. In Experiment 3 we manipulated WM maintenance duration (set size 3, 500-1,500 ms) to investigate a maintenance-related deficit. Across all durations, the mTBI group was impaired. In Experiment 4 we tested whether retrieval demands contributed to WM deficits and showed a consistent deficit across recognition and recall probes. In short, even years after an mTBI, undergraduates perform differently on visual WM tasks than their peers with no such history. Given the prevalence of mTBI, these data may benefit other researchers who see high variability in their data. Clearly, further studies will be needed to determine the breadth of the cognitive deficits in those with a history of mTBI and to identify relevant factors that contribute to positive cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Estudantes/psicologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuropsychology ; 33(7): 1020-1031, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients who suffer from memory loss after an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) may also suffer from anosognosia, or unawareness of their memory loss. How we define and measure anosognosia can have critical implications for its study and clinical assessment. Commonly used measures often lack standardization and reliability checks for responses. Moreover, these methods rely heavily on cognitive abilities (e.g., language abilities) that are often affected after brain injury. The aim of this study is to elucidate how to best conceptualize and detect anosognosia for memory loss by introducing a new method of assessment, the Visual-Analogue Test for Anosognosia for memory impairment (VATAmem). METHOD: A total of 51 patients (M = 61 years, M = 13 years of education) with memory difficulties after ABI were recruited from outpatient clinics. A total of 73 informants were also recruited (M = 51 years old, M = 13 years of education). Both patients and informants evaluated the severity of patients' everyday memory mistakes on the VATAmem, for prospective and retrospective memory deficits by using visual analogue scales, vignettes, and check questions to ensure reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 30% of the patients were deemed unaware of their memory deficits. Patients were less aware of their prospective (29%) than their retrospective memory difficulties (18%). The new method of assessment provided by the VATAmem reduced possible false positives and enhanced reliability. We conclude that careful consideration of methodology is a key step to interpreting anosognosia findings within a theoretical framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agnosia/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agnosia/diagnóstico , Conscientização , Cognição , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(8): 747-754, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237108

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations between self-reported hearing loss and outdoor activity limitations, psychological distress and self-reported memory loss among older people. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study using the data from the 2016 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan. The study population included people aged ≥65 years living at home, without a clinical diagnosis of dementia. The exposure of interest was self-reported hearing loss, whereas outcomes included outdoor activity limitations (Yes/No), psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score of ≥5) and self-reported memory loss (Yes/No). We carried out logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, educational status, number of household members, household expenditure and number of clinical diagnoses requiring outpatient visits. RESULTS: Among 137 723 older people (mean age 74.5 years [standard deviation 7.4 years], 45.1% men), 12 389 (9.0%) reported hearing loss. People with hearing loss showed a higher prevalence of outdoor activity limitations (28.9% vs 9.5%, P < 0.001), psychological distress (39.7% vs 19.3%, P < 0.001) and memory loss (37.7% vs 5.2%, P < 0.001) than those without. The adjusted odds ratios comparing people with and without hearing loss were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1), 2.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0-2.1) and 7.1 (95% confidence interval 6.8-7.4) for outdoor activity limitations, psychological distress and self-reported memory loss. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study suggested that older people with hearing loss were more likely to experience outdoor activity limitations, psychological distress and memory loss than those without. Early identification of and intervention in hearing loss might potentially reduce the risk of these poor health outcomes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 747-754.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Perda Auditiva , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Memória , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
15.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 30(1): 1-8, 2019.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that the level of clinical insight in schizophrenia patients is related to working memory functions. However, these studies were not specifically concerned with the components of working memory and had not focused in detail on working memory functions. For this reason, the current study investigated the relationship between clinical insight and working memory components in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.  METHOD: The patient group was evaluated by using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder to measure clinical insight. Moreover, all participants underwent a "Situation Awareness" test in order to measure working memory functions. Based on published data, the first stage of this test was accepted to measure the "visual spatial sketchpad" component of working memory, and the second stage was accepted to measure the "episodic buffer" (bound information storage) component. The functions of these components were measured separately as top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes.  RESULTS: The episodic buffer function (managed by the bottom-up cognitive process) was related with clinical insight. This relationship also continued after correcting for the effect of positive symptoms on insight. The patients performed worse than the controls in terms of visual spatial sketchpad function, which was managed by both topdown and bottom-up cognitive processes. The patients performed worse than the controls in terms of both top-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and visual spatial sketchpad function. Furthermore, the patients were also worse than the controls in terms of episodic buffer function (managed by top-down cognitive processes).  CONCLUSION: Clinical insight may be associated with binding function (associated with episodic buffer function) managed by bottom-up cognitive processes in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Further studies are necessary to confirm this novel finding.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 30(1): 16-22, 2019.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric differential diagnosis is often ignored in young patients with memory complaints, even if no neurological or physical illnesses were evident. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between subjective memory complaints and objective memory impairment, depression and anxiety levels in young patients with memory complaints.  METHOD: The study was carried out with 56 patients under the age of 55 who applied to the psychiatry, neurology and internal medicine outpatient clinics with memory complaints and 55 healthy volunteers. All participants completed the Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire (SMCQ), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Benton Visual Memory Test (BVMT), the Digit Span Test (DST), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI).  RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the scores of SMCQ, MoCA, AVLT, BVMT, DST, VFT, BDI and BAI in individuals with memory complaints compared to the controls, which could not be ascribed to any neurological or physical disease. Depression and anxiety levels were significantly higher than those of the control group.  CONCLUSION: Differential diagnosis of memory complaints has to be made in young patients. Subjective memory complaints may be indicative of depression and anxiety disorders. It is necessary to evaluate the cognitive impairment that may develop over time in young patients with subjective memory disturbances via longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3439-3450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250074

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cannabis use is widespread and has previously been associated with memory impairments. However, the role of cannabis in relation to false memory production, i.e., memories of events that were not experienced, is less well-understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current field study was to examine the impact of cannabis use on false memory production. METHODS: The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to induce false memories. In this paradigm, participants study word lists that are associatively related to a non-presented word, termed the critical lure. In a later memory test, true recognition rates and false alarm rates toward critical lures and unrelated items are assessed. Memory performance was compared between three groups: regular cannabis consumers who were acutely intoxicated (n = 53), regular cannabis consumers who were sober (n = 50), and cannabis-naïve controls (n = 53). The participants were approached in Dutch coffee shops (cannabis outlets) and cafes and asked to participate in our study. After collecting general information on their cannabis use, they were subjected to the DRM procedure. RESULTS: Although false memory rates for critical lures did not statistically differ between groups, both intoxicated and sober cannabis consumers falsely recognized more unrelated items than control participants. Also, individuals without a history of cannabis use demonstrated higher memory accuracy compared with the intoxicated group. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that cannabis intoxication and history of cannabis use induce a liberal response criterion for newly presented words for which the level of association with previously learned words is low and uncertainty is high.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3650-3659, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165850

RESUMO

Cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress are the most common causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Safflower seed contains various anti-oxidant and cholinergic improvement compounds, such as serotonin and its derivatives. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of a safflower seed extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in a mouse model. The safflower seed extract was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 day-1, and then behavior tests (such as T-maze and novel object recognition tests) were conducted. Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and antioxidant enzymes in the brain were measured. In behavior tests, the novel route exploration and object recognition were improved by the administration of the safflower seed extract, which suggests that the safflower seed extract improves memory function in the scopolamine-treated mouse model. In addition, the safflower seed extract-administered group showed inhibition of the AChE activity and improved cholinergic dysfunction. Furthermore, the administration of the safflower seed extract resulted in lower ROS production and higher antioxidant enzyme levels as compared to the scopolamine-treated group, suggesting the protective role of the safflower seed extract against oxidative stress. The results of the present study suggest that the safflower seed extract improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits via the inhibition of cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress. Therefore, safflower seeds might become a promising agent for memory improvement in AD patients.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos , Sementes/química
19.
Trials ; 20(1): 282, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leisure activities can be both enjoyable and cognitively stimulating, and participation in such activities has been associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline. Thus, integrating stimulating leisure activities in cognitive training programs may represent a powerful and innovative approach to promote cognition in older adults at risk of dementia. The ENGAGE study is a randomized controlled, double-blind preference trial with a comprehensive cohort design that will test the efficacy and long-term impact of an intervention that combines cognitive training and cognitively stimulating leisure activities. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four older adults with a memory complaint will be recruited in Montreal and Toronto. A particular effort will be made to reach persons with low cognitive reserve. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: cognitive + leisure training (ENGAGE-MUSIC/SPANISH) or active control (ENGAGE-DISCOVERY). The ENGAGE-MUSIC/SPANISH training will include teaching of mnemonic and attentional control strategies, casual videogames selected to train attention, and classes in music or Spanish as a second language. The ENGAGE-DISCOVERY condition will comprise psychoeducation on cognition and the brain, low-stimulating casual videogames and documentary viewing with discussions. To retain the leisure aspect of the activities, participants will be allowed to exclude either music or Spanish at study entry if they strongly dislike one of these activities. Participants randomized to ENGAGE-MUSIC/SPANISH who did not exclude any activity will be assigned to music or Spanish based on a second random assignment. Training will be provided in 24 2-h sessions over 4 months. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, at 4-month follow-up, and at 24-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be cognitive performance on a composite measure of episodic memory (delayed recall scores for words and face-name associations) measured at baseline and at the 4-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include a composite measure of attention (speed of processing, inhibition, dual tasking, and shifting), psychological health, activities of daily living, and brain structure and function and long-term maintenance measured at the 24-month follow-up. Information on cognitive reserve proxies (education and lifestyle questionnaires), sex and genotype (apolipoprotein (Apo)E4, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)) will be collected and considered as moderators of training efficacy. DISCUSSION: This study will test whether a program combining cognitive training with stimulating leisure activities can increase cognition and reduce cognitive decline in persons at risk of dementia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03271190 . Registered on 5 September 2017.


Assuntos
Cognição , Atividades de Lazer , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27823, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a major complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), spanning vaso-occlusive crises and persistent pain. Although it is known that persistent pain is associated with considerable impairment in youth without SCD, little is known about the functional effects of persistent pain in SCD. The current study aimed to (a) characterize persistent pain in youth with SCD and (b) determine the extent to which youth with SCD and persistent pain differ in disease morbidity, functional impairment, and neurocognitive and psychological functioning. PROCEDURE: Eighty-nine participants (ages 7-16) and caregivers completed questionnaires (BRIEF [Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function], Conners-3 [Conners-third edition], and PedsQL™-SCD Module, where PedsQL is Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory). Participants completed neurocognitive tests WISC-V [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fifth edition], WJ-III [Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-third edition], and WIAT-III [Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-third edition]). Youth were classified as having persistent pain if they reported daily pain for 7 days. Chi-square and independent sample t-test analyses were used to assess group differences (those with vs without persistent pain). RESULTS: Patients with persistent pain (n = 18) reported lower health-related quality of life (P = .000). Caregivers were more likely to rate youth with persistent pain as having lower planning/organization abilities (P = .011) and clinically elevated symptoms of defiance/aggression and oppositional defiance (Ps = .00; .01). Patients with persistent pain demonstrated poorer working memory (P = .023) and processing speed (P = .027), and fewer demonstrating reading fluency abilities in the average or above range (P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Youth with SCD and persistent pain are at risk for psychosocial and neurocognitive impairments, suggesting that persistent pain may be an important indicator of disease burden. Furthermore, disease management may be enhanced by assessing cognitive and psychosocial functioning and incorporating interdisciplinary treatments addressing impairment associated with persistent pain.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos da Memória , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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