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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406143

RESUMO

Sleep is intimately linked to cognitive performance and exposure to traumatic stress that leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) impairs both sleep and cognitive function. However, the contribution of pre-trauma sleep loss to subsequent trauma-dependent fear-associated memory impairment remains unstudied. We hypothesized that sleep deprivation (SD) prior to trauma exposure may increase the severity of a PTSD-like phenotype in rats exposed to single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD. Rats were exposed to SPS alone, SD alone, or a combination of SPS+SD and measures of fear-associated memory impairments and vigilance state changes were compared to a group of control animals not exposed to SPS or SD. We found that SPS, and SPS+SD animals showed impaired fear-associated memory processing and that the addition of SD to SPS did not further exaggerate the effect of SPS alone. Additionally, the combination of SPS with SD results in a unique homeostatic sleep duration phenotype when compared to SD, SPS, or control animals. SPS exposure following SD represses homeostatic rebound and eliminates sleep-deprivation-induced increases in NREM sleep delta power. This work identifies a unique time frame where trauma exposure and sleep interact and identifies this window of time as a potential therapeutic treatment window for staving off the negative consequences of trauma exposure.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Animais , Extinção Psicológica , Homeostase , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental , Ratos Long-Evans , Privação do Sono/complicações , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
2.
Neurology ; 96(10): e1470-e1481, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether memory tasks with demonstrated sensitivity to hippocampal function can detect variance related to preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers, we examined associations between performance in 3 memory tasks and CSF ß-amyloid (Aß)42/Aß40 and phosopho-tau181 (p-tau181) in cognitively unimpaired older adults (CU). METHODS: CU enrolled in the Stanford Aging and Memory Study (n = 153; age 68.78 ± 5.81 years; 94 female) completed a lumbar puncture and memory assessments. CSF Aß42, Aß40, and p-tau181 were measured with the automated Lumipulse G system in a single-batch analysis. Episodic memory was assayed using a standardized delayed recall composite, paired associate (word-picture) cued recall, and a mnemonic discrimination task that involves discrimination between studied "target" objects, novel "foil" objects, and perceptually similar "lure" objects. Analyses examined cross-sectional relationships among memory performance, age, and CSF measures, controlling for sex and education. RESULTS: Age and lower Aß42/Aß40 were independently associated with elevated p-tau181. Age, Aß42/Aß40, and p-tau181 were each associated with (1) poorer associative memory and (2) diminished improvement in mnemonic discrimination performance across levels of decreased task difficulty (i.e., target-lure similarity). P-tau mediated the effect of Aß42/Aß40 on memory. Relationships between CSF proteins and delayed recall were similar but nonsignificant. CSF Aß42 was not significantly associated with p-tau181 or memory. CONCLUSIONS: Tests designed to tax hippocampal function are sensitive to subtle individual differences in memory among CU and correlate with early AD-associated biomarker changes in CSF. These tests may offer utility for identifying CU with preclinical AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Aprendizagem por Associação , Estudos Transversais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Desempenho Psicomotor , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 8, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress can cause neurobiological and behavioral defects in offspring; environmental factors play a crucial role in regulating the development of brain and behavioral; this study was designed to test and verify whether an enriched environment can repair learning and memory impairment in offspring rats induced by prenatal stress and to explore its mechanism involving the expression of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) in the hippocampus of the offspring. METHODS: Rats were selected to establish a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned on 21st day and housed under either standard or an enriched environment. The learning and memory ability were tested using Morris water maze and Y-maze. The expression of IGF-2 and Arc mRNA and protein were respectively measured by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: There was an elevation in the plasma corticosterone level of rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy. Maternal stress's offspring exposed to an enriched environment could decrease their plasma corticosterone level and improve their weight. The offspring of maternal stress during pregnancy exhibited abnormalities in Morris water maze and Y-maze, which were improved in an enriched environment. The expression of IGF-2, Arc mRNA, and protein in offspring of maternal stress during pregnancy was boosted and some relationships existed between these parameters after being exposed enriched environment. CONCLUSIONS: The learning and memory impairment in offspring of prenatal stress can be rectified by the enriched environment, the mechanism of which is related to the decreasing plasma corticosterone and increasing hippocampal IGF-2 and Arc of offspring rats following maternal chronic stress during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/genética , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Aprendizagem , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135447, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127446

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is an age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by decline in cognitive functions, such as memory loss and behavioural abnormalities. The present study sought to assess alterations in agmatine metabolism in the beta-amyloid (Aß1-42) Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Aß1-42 injected mice showed impairment of cognitive functioning as evidenced by increased working and reference memory errors in radial arm maze (RAM). This cognitive impairment was associated with a reduction in the agmatine levels and elevation in its degrading enzyme, agmatinase, whereas reduced immunocontent was observed in its synthesizing enzyme arginine decarboxylase expression within hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Chronic agmatine treatment and its endogenous modulation by l-arginine, or arcaine or aminoguanidine prevented the learning and memory impairment induced by single intracranial Aß1-42 peptide injection. In conclusion, the present study suggests the importance of the endogenous agmatinergic system in ß-amyloid induced memory impairment in mice.


Assuntos
Agmatina/metabolismo , Agmatina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Animais , Carboxiliases/biossíntese , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/enzimologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureo-Hidrolases/metabolismo
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028634, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331917

RESUMO

Importance: Plasma measurement of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides has been associated with cognitive function, but evidence of its ability to identify cognitive decline is still scarce. Objective: To investigate the associations between plasma Aß42/40 and cognitive decline over time among community-dwelling older adults with subjective memory concerns. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study used data from volunteers in the 5-year study Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Participants were aged 70 years or older and observed for a median (interquartile range) of 3.9 (2.0-4.0) years. Recruitment of participants started in May 2008 and ended in February 2011. Follow-up ended in April 2016. Data analysis was conducted from April to October 2020. Exposure: Plasma Aß42 and Aß40 were measured at 12 months for 448 participants (92.8%) and at 24 months for the rest. The moment of Aß assessment was defined as the baseline for this study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cognitive function was assessed at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months by a composite cognitive score based on 4 tests; Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); Clinical Dementia Rating, sum of boxes; and Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living. Mixed-effect linear regressions were performed. Results: A total of 483 participants (median [IQR] age, 76.0 [73.0-80.0]; 286 [59.2%] women) were analyzed. Of them, 161 (33.3%) were classified as low plasma Aß42/40 (≤0.107). After adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, Geriatric Depression Scale score, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, and MAPT intervention groups, low plasma Aß42/40 was associated with more pronounced decline in composite cognitive score (adjusted between-group mean difference: -0.20, 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.07; P = .004) and decline in MMSE score (adjusted between-group mean difference: -0.59; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.11; P = .02) during the follow-up period compared with the group with an Aß42/40 ratio greater than 0.107. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, low plasma Aß42/40 was associated with more pronounced decline in cognitive function (measured by multiple outcomes) over time. Findings suggest that plasma Aß42/40 may be used to identify people at risk of cognitive decline, being an alternative to more complex and expensive measures, such as positron emission tomography imaging or cerebrospinal fluid measurement.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva , Vida Independente , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Idoso , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Correlação de Dados , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/sangue , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia
7.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , El Salvador/etnologia , Feminino , Guatemala/etnologia , Haiti/etnologia , Cefaleia/psicologia , Honduras/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , México/etnologia , Nicarágua/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inconsciência/epidemiologia , Inconsciência/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(5): 481-486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) lesions on MRI are common in patients with cognitive impairment. It has been suggested that cerebral hypoperfusion is involved in the etiology of these lesions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and SVD burden in patients referred to a memory clinic with SVD on MRI. METHOD: We included 132 memory clinic patients (mean age 73 ± 10, 56% male) with SVD on MRI. We excluded patients with large non-lacunar cortical infarcts. Global CBF (mL/min per 100 mL of brain tissue) was derived from 2-dimensional phase-contrast MRI focused on the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery. SVD burden was defined as the sum of (each 1 point): white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) Fazekas 1 or more, lacunes, microbleeds (MBs), or enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) presence, and each SVD feature separately. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between CBF and SVD burden, age- and sex-adjusted. RESULTS: Median SVD burden score was 2, 36.4% of patients had MBs, 35.6% lacunar infarcts, 48.4% intermediate to severe enlarged PVS, and 57.6% a WMH Fazekas score 2 or more. Median WMH volume was 21.4 mL (25% quartile: 9.6 mL, 75% quartile: 32.5 mL). Mean CBF ± SD was 44.0 ± 11.9 mL/min per 100 mL brain. There was no relation between CBF and overall SVD burden (CBF difference per burden score point [95% CI]: -0.5 [-2.4; 1.4] mL/min/100 mL brain, p = 0.9). CBF did also not differ according to presence or absence or an high burden of any of the individual SVD features. Moreover, there was no significant relation between WMH volume and CBF (CBF difference per ml increase in WMH [95% CI] -0.6 [-1.5; 0.3] mL/min/100 mL brain p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: Global CBF was not related to overall SVD burden or with individual SVD features in this memory clinic cohort, indicating that in this setting these lesions were not primarily due to cerebral hypoperfusion.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Memória , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Imagem de Perfusão , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/fisiopatologia
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 164-170, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659473

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an environmental pollutant having a toxic effect on Parkinson's disease, with significant damage seen in the neurons of basal ganglia. Hence, Mn pollution is a public health concern. A Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to determine the damage to basal nuclei, and the effect of Mn intake was detected using the Morris water maze test and transmission electron microscopy. The SH-SY5Y cell line was exposed to Mn, and downstream signaling was assessed to determine the mechanism of toxicity. Mn exposure injured neurons, repressing GABAAR receptors and inducing GABABR receptors. The synergistic effect of the GABABR receptor and Kir6.1-SUR1 or Kir6.2-SUR1 was found to be one of the potential factors for the secretion of α-synuclein. The accumulation of α-synuclein regulated downstream factors calmodulin (CAM) cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thereby impairing learning and memory. Other genes downstream of CREB, rather than the feedback regulation of CREB, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor might also be involved.


Assuntos
Canais KATP/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Manganês/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Intoxicação por Manganês/psicologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA-B/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(692): 894-897, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374532

RESUMO

Deficits of episodic memory and subjective memory complaints are common in adults with acquired brain injury. These impairments are likely to have a negative impact on daily activities and vocational integration. Neuropsychological assessments examine their degree of severity, the nature of the impaired processes and the presence of other, associated cognitive or affective symptoms. Cognitive rehabilitation mainly aims at reducing the impact of persisting memory difficulties on everyday life using compensation strategies. Cognitive rehabilitation studies have improved their quality in the last decade, as indicated by the increased number of randomized controlled trials and demonstrated the efficacy of some therapeutic interventions on various variables.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Cognição , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/reabilitação , Memória Episódica , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Neuropsychology ; 34(5): 569-577, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The imagination inflation effect, which is a form of memory distortion, occurs when imagining an event that never happened may increase the tendency to falsely remember that it really occurred. We investigated this effect in Korsakoff's syndrome. METHOD: Our procedures consisted of 2 sessions and a recognition test. In Session 1, patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and controls listened to statements of actions (e.g., "hold the pen"), enacted the actions, or imagined performing the actions. In Session 2, participants imagined statements of actions from Session 1 as well as new statements of actions once or 3 times. On the recognition test, participants had to decide whether statements of actions were or were not enacted during Session 1. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated that imagining performing the actions increased the tendency of both patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and controls to falsely recall the actions as having been enacted. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome are prone to the imagination inflation effect, an effect that can be attributed to difficulties with source monitoring. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Síndrome de Korsakoff/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Korsakoff/complicações , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1228: 425-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342475

RESUMO

There are several mechanisms that cause memory impairment, including motivated forgetting, active forgetting, natural decay, and memory interference. Interference occurs when one is attempting to recall something specific, but there is conflicting information making it more difficult to recall the target stimuli. In laboratory settings, it is common to measure memory interference with paired associate tasks-usually utilizing the AB-CD, AB-AC, AB-ABr, or AB-DE AC-FG method. Memory impairments are frequent among those with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. The memory effects of each condition differ, but are all related to alterations in brain physiology and general memory deterioration. Exercise, or physical activity, has been demonstrated to attenuate memory interference in some cases, but the mechanisms are still being determined. Further research is needed on memory interference, in regard to exercise and neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão , Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Esclerose Múltipla , Esquizofrenia , Depressão/complicações , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações
13.
Neuron ; 106(2): 218-235, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325058

RESUMO

Neurological disorders affecting human memory present a major scientific, medical, and societal challenge. Direct or indirect deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the entorhinal-hippocampal system, the brain's major memory hub, has been studied in people with epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease, intending to enhance memory performance or slow memory decline. Variability in the spatiotemporal parameters of stimulation employed to date notwithstanding, it is likely that future DBS for memory will employ closed-loop, nuanced approaches that are synergistic with native physiological processes. The potential for editing human memory-decoding, enhancing, incepting, or deleting specific memories-suggests exciting therapeutic possibilities but also raises considerable ethical concerns.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Demência/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 287: 112910, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200141

RESUMO

Relational memory, or the ability to form contextual associations among items encountered closely in time, is impaired in schizophrenia. The ability to bind items into a relational memory is dependent on the hippocampus, a region that is abnormal in schizophrenia. However, the hippocampus is also involved in exploratory behavior, leaving open the question whether relational memory deficits in schizophrenia are due to failure of relational binding or diminished visual exploration of individual items during encoding. We studied visual exploration patterns during the encoding of face-scene pairs in 66 healthy control subjects and 69 early psychosis patients, to test the hypothesis that differences in visual exploration during the encoding phase can explain task accuracy differences between the two groups. Psychosis patients had lower explicit test accuracy and were less likely to transition from mouth to eyes during encoding. The visual exploration pattern differences between groups did not mediate the relationship between group and explicit test accuracy. We conclude that early psychosis patients have an abnormal pattern of binding items together during encoding that warrants further research.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183249

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce a mechanistic model through which exercise may enhance episodic memory, specifically via attenuating proactive and retroactive memory interference. We discuss the various types of memory, different stages of memory function, review the mechanisms behind forgetting, and the mechanistic role of exercise in facilitating pattern separation (to attenuate memory interference).


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 31-36, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094071

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine prevalence and factors leading to verbal learning and memory dysfunction among patients with epilepsy. A total of 211 subjects were recruited. Their verbal memory was assessed by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This test was further subdivided into four major spheres for analysis, namely the verbal learning, interference list, immediate memory and delayed memory. All data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Among the 211 patients, 55% (n = 116) had focal seizures and the remaining 45% (n = 95) had generalized seizures. Prevalence of verbal learning and memory impairment was high at 39.97% overall, and found most commonly in patients with focal impaired awareness seizures. Verbal learning and immediate memory dysfunction were significantly lower in focal impaired awareness group compared to others. Age more than 50 years, exposure to three or more antiepileptic drugs and use of carbamazepine more than 1000 mg a day were the predictors in poor verbal memory outcome. No statistical difference was observed in the mean RAVLT scores among the gender and hand dominance groups. Between patients with and without electroencephalogram changes as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging changes, the mean RAVLT scores showed no statistically significant difference. Verbal learning and memory impairment is prevalent among the epilepsy patients. The consequences of the memory impairment can be as debilitating as the seizure control. RAVLT is a reliable and practical test in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Aprendizagem Verbal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1607-1619, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088834

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cortical and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation are associated with behavioral deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of flavonoid chrysin against TBI-induced vestibulomotor impairment, exploratory/locomotor dysfunctions, recognition memory decline, and anxiety/depression-like behaviors, as well as the verified possible involved mechanisms. METHODS: Chrysin (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day; P.O.) was administered to rats immediately after diffuse TBI induction, and it was continued for 3 or 14 days. Behavioral functions were assessed by employing standard behavioral paradigms at scheduled points in time. Three days post-TBI, inflammation status was assayed in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus using ELISA kits. Moreover, apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 family proteins were examined by TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: The results indicated that treatment with chrysin improved vestibulomotor dysfunction, ameliorated recognition memory deficit, and attenuated anxiety/depression-like behaviors in the rats with TBI. Chrysin treatment also modulated inflammation status, reduced apoptotic index, and regulated Bcl-2 family proteins expression in the brains of rats with TBI. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results suggest that chrysin could be beneficial for protection against TBI-associated behavioral deficits, owing to its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Psychooncology ; 29(5): 861-868, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer-associated cognitive decline is a concern among cancer survivors. Survivors' memory lapses (eg, location of keys, names, and reason entered room) may negatively impact quality of life. This study used smartphone-based surveys to compare cancer survivors to those without cancer history on frequency of, severity of, and affective response to daily memory lapses. METHODS: For 14 evenings, breast cancer survivors (N = 47, M age = 52.9) and women without a cancer history (N = 105, M age = 51.8) completed smartphone-based surveys on memory lapse occurrence and severity and negative and positive affect. RESULTS: Survivors were nearly three times more likely to report a daily memory lapse but did not differ from comparison group on memory lapse severity. Negative affect was significantly higher on days with memory lapses associated with doing something in the future (eg, appointments) but this did not differ across groups. Positive affect was not significantly related to survivorship status or the occurrence of daily memory lapses. CONCLUSION: Survivors may be at-risk for more frequent memory lapses. Both survivors and women without a history of cancer reported greater negative affect on days when memory lapses occurred, suggesting that daily cognitive functioning may have important implications for quality of life.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104646, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African-Americans (AA) are 3 times more likely to have small-vessel-type ischemic strokes (SVS) than Whites. Small vessel strokes are associated with cognitive impairment, a relationship incompletely explained by white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. We examined whether inflammatory/endothelial dysfunction biomarkers are associated with cognition after SVS in AAs. METHODS: Biomarkers were obtained in 24 subjects (median age 56.5 years, 54% women, median 12 years education). Cognition was assessed more than 6 weeks poststroke using the memory composite score (MCS), which was generated using recall from the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-II and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. A semi-automated, volumetric protocol was used to quantify WMH volume (WMHv) on clinical MRI scans. Potential biomarkers including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interferon gamma, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) were log-transformed and correlated with MCS with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among serum biomarkers, only VCAM-1-correlated with poorer memory based on the MCS (r = -.659; P = .0006). VCAM-1 (r = .554; P = .005) and age (r = .479; P = .018) correlated with WMHv; VCAM-1 was independently associated with MCS after adjustment for WMHv, age, and education (P = .023). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this exploratory analysis suggest that endothelial dysfunction and inflammation as reflected by VCAM-1 levels may play a role in poststroke cognitive impairment. Additional studies are needed to validate this observation and to evaluate this relationship in non-AAs and with other stroke types and compare this finding to cognitive impairment in nonstroke populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/sangue , Transtornos da Memória/sangue , Memória , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/etnologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etnologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(4): 1209-1221, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912193

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Parental drug use around or before conception can have adverse consequences for offspring. Historically, this research has focused on the effects of maternal substance use on future generations but less is known about the influence of the paternal lineage. This study focused on the impact of chronic paternal morphine exposure prior to conception on behavioral outcomes in male and female progeny. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the impact of paternal morphine self-administration on anxiety-like behavior, the stress response, and memory in male and female offspring. METHODS: Adult, drug-naïve male and female progeny of morphine-treated sires and controls were evaluated for anxiety-like behavior using defensive probe burying and novelty-induced hypophagia paradigms. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was assessed by measuring plasma corticosterone levels following a restraint stressor in male and female progeny. Memory was probed using a battery of tests including object location memory, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning. RESULTS: Paternal morphine exposure did not alter anxiety-like behavior or stress-induced HPA axis activation in male or female offspring. Morphine-sired male and female offspring showed intact hippocampus-dependent memory: they performed normally on the long-term fear conditioning and object location memory tests. In contrast, paternal morphine exposure selectively disrupted novel object recognition in female, but not male, progeny. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that paternal morphine taking produces sex-specific and selective impairments in object recognition memory while leaving hippocampal function largely intact.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Autoadministração
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