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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e17992, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an intervention for unhealthy visual behaviors of school-age children using a wearable device (Clouclip). METHOD: The design was a self-controlled prospective study. Clouclip, with the vibration alert disabled, was first applied to measure baseline near-work behaviors in the first week. The vibration alert was then enabled to signal unhealthy visual behaviors (near-work distance < 30 cm and >5 seconds, or near-work distance <60 cm for >45 minutes) for 3 weeks. Near-work behaviors were measured again at the first week and the first month after intervention, respectively. The changes in behaviors between the baseline and the first week and the first month after intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-seven subjects were eligible for this experiment (the mean age 10.45 ±â€Š0.50 years, 34 boys). Children who logged sufficient wearing time (12.30 ±â€Š0.18 hours on weekdays and 12.16 ±â€Š0.23 hours on weekends) were included for analysis. The average daily near-work distance was significantly increased after the vibration intervention. The time ratio of near-work activity <30 cm to the total <60 cm and the frequency of continuous near-work (distance <60 cm and continuous time >30 minutes) were significantly decreased after the intervention. Although some of the effects were reversed with time following the intervention, some were observed to be maintained until the end of the observation period, and the improvement of the behaviors was more prominent in children who had a shorter near-work distance (<30 cm) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Clouclip can significantly modify near-work behaviors in school-age children and it can last a certain period of time. If these behaviors are causes of myopia development and progression, Clouclip might provide a strategy for managing myopia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Miopia/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Saúde da Família/educação , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(20): 453, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851649

RESUMO

May is Healthy Vision Month, an annual observance dedicated to making vision and eye health a national priority. During this month, CDC's Vision Health Initiative (VHI) in the Division of Diabetes Translation joins with the National Eye Institute's National Eye Health Education Program to educate the public about preventing vision loss and promoting eye health. Almost 3.22 million U.S. persons are affected by vision impairment, which can be associated with social isolation, disability, and decreased quality of life (https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/risk/burden.htm).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(6): 463-465, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116165

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Reducing the incidence or prevalence of any disease by 40% is of huge public health significance. Slowing myopia by 1 diopter may do just that for myopic maculopathy-the most common and serious sight-threatening complication of myopia. There is a growing interest in slowing the progression of myopia due to its increasing prevalence around the world, the sight-threatening consequences of higher levels of myopia, and the growing evidence-based literature supporting a variety of therapies for its control. We apply data from five large population-based studies of the prevalence of myopic maculopathy on 21,000 patients. We show that a 1-diopter increase in myopia is associated with a 67% increase in the prevalence of myopic maculopathy. Restated, slowing myopia by 1 diopter should reduce the likelihood of a patient developing myopic maculopathy by 40%. Furthermore, this treatment benefit accrues regardless of the level of myopia. Thus, while the overall risk of myopic maculopathy is higher in a -6-diopter myope than in a -3-diopter myope, slowing their myopic progression by 1 diopter during childhood should lower the risk by 40% in both.


Assuntos
Miopia/prevenção & controle , Doenças Retinianas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827965

RESUMO

Vision impairment has a significant impact on quality of life. Seventy percent of existing vision impairment in Canada is estimated to be correctable with prescription glasses. The sizeable proportion of correctable vision impairment appears related to the barriers to access to vision care in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to determine gaps in the understanding of barriers to accessing vision care for vulnerable populations in Canada. The Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework was adopted. Studies published in English between 2005 and September 2017 on access to primary vision care by vulnerable populations in Canada were reviewed. Electronic databases used included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, SCOPUS, ProQuest, and CINAHL. The Behavioural Model of Health Services Use was used to elucidate gaps in the literature. To develop relevant policies around vision care, efforts should be made to assess all dimensions of access for vulnerable populations across Canada.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Populações Vulneráveis , Canadá , Humanos
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(3): M1-M19, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817825

RESUMO

With the growing prevalence of myopia, already at epidemic levels in some countries, there is an urgent need for new management approaches. However, with the increasing number of research publications on the topic of myopia control, there is also a clear necessity for agreement and guidance on key issues, including on how myopia should be defined and how interventions, validated by well-conducted clinical trials, should be appropriately and ethically applied. The International Myopia Institute (IMI) reports the critical review and synthesis of the research evidence to date, from animal models, genetics, clinical studies, and randomized controlled trials, by more than 85 multidisciplinary experts in the field, as the basis for the recommendations contained therein. As background to the need for myopia control, the risk factors for myopia onset and progression are reviewed. The seven generated reports are summarized: (1) Defining and Classifying Myopia, (2) Experimental Models of Emmetropization and Myopia, (3) Myopia Genetics, (4) Interventions for Myopia Onset and Progression, (5) Clinical Myopia Control Trials and Instrumentation, (6) Industry Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Myopia Control, and (7) Clinical Myopia Management Guidelines.


Assuntos
Miopia/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Miopia/classificação , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
N Z Med J ; 132(1491): 63-70, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845129

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the accuracy of the B4 School Check (B4SC) vision screening programme in two distinct regions of New Zealand. METHODS: A retrospective audit of all children who were screened for vision in the Southern and Tairawhiti District Health Boards, between 1 April and 30 September 2016. Results from the B4SC screening programme (n=2,109) were compared to records for all children who were screened and subsequently presented to an optometrist at a DHB eye clinic (n=116). RESULTS: The B4SC produced a sensitivity in the range of 54.7% to 94.7% and a specificity of 93.8% to 95.7%. There was a low positive predictive value (PPV), between 29.5% and 51.1%, with a relatively high number of false positive referrals. The negative predictive value (NPV) was higher, however, between 97.8% and 99.7%, meaning nearly all children who passed screening had no visual impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The high NPV is reassuring that very few children with visual impairment are missed by screening. The low PPV was consistent with the international literature and is related to a tendency for over-referral from the B4CS programme. Further work could evaluate increasing the threshold for referral to reduce the number of false positive cases.


Assuntos
Auditoria Médica/normas , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Seleção Visual/normas , Acuidade Visual , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
10.
J Occup Health ; 61(2): 175-181, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Blind working (BW) time (time during which vision is not required), the interblink interval (IBI), and subjective symptoms were investigated in workers using visual display terminals (VDTs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To investigate BW time, 10 VDT users were instructed to close their eyes when this did not interfere with their work. They were video recorded for 60 minutes using a webcam attached to the display on which they were engaged in regular data input tasks, and BW time was measured. The values of the IBI during the final 20 minutes of the BW experiment and during the final 20 minutes of normal working without BW were compared. A questionnaire was administered to investigate subjective symptoms using a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: The total BW time during the final 20-minute period was 20.6-121.0 seconds (1.7%-10.1%). The mean IBI of 5.5 ± 4.5 seconds during the BW experiment was not significantly different from that of 6.2 ± 5.6 seconds during normal working, and the mean of three IBIs immediately after BW during the BW experiment was 2.7 ± 1.0 seconds, significantly shorter than the 6.2 ± 5.6 seconds during normal working. Dry eye, ocular fatigue, and blurred vision during normal working improved when subjects were engaged in BW. CONCLUSIONS: VDT users could engage in BW during VDT work, the IBI was shorter immediately after BW, and subjective symptoms improved. These results suggest that BW may provide a more effective measure for the management of VDT working time.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Terminais de Computador , Fatores de Tempo , Trabalho/fisiologia , Adulto , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/prevenção & controle , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
13.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 7(1): e00456, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631446

RESUMO

Vigabatrin (VGB; (S)-(+)/(R)-(-) 4-aminohex-5-enoic acid), an antiepileptic irreversibly inactivating GABA transaminase (GABA-T), manifests use-limiting ocular toxicity. Hypothesizing that the active S enantiomer of VGB would preferentially accumulate in eye and visual cortex (VC) as one potential mechanism for ocular toxicity, we infused racemic VGB into mice via subcutaneous minipump at 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/d (n = 6-8 animals/dose) for 12 days. VGB enantiomers, total GABA and ß-alanine (BALA), 4-guanidinobutyrate (4-GBA), and creatine were quantified by mass spectrometry in eye, brain, liver, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and VC. Plasma VGB concentrations increased linearly by dose (3 ± 0.76 (35 mg/kg/d); 15.1 ± 1.4 (70 mg/kg/d); 34.6 ± 3.2 µmol/L (140 mg/kg/d); mean ± SEM) with an S/R ratio of 0.74 ± 0.02 (n = 14). Steady state S/R ratios (35, 70 mg/kg/d doses) were highest in eye (5.5 ± 0.2; P < 0.0001), followed by VC (3.9 ± 0.4), PFC (3.6 ± 0.3), liver (2.9 ± 0.1), and brain (1.5 ± 0.1; n = 13-14 each). Total VGB content of eye exceeded that of brain, PFC and VC at all doses. High-dose VGB diminished endogenous metabolite production, especially in PFC and VC. GABA significantly increased in all tissues (all doses) except brain; BALA increases were confined to liver and VC; and 4-GBA was prominently increased in brain, PFC and VC (and eye at high dose). Linear correlations between enantiomers and GABA were observed in all tissues, but only in PFC/VC for BALA, 4-GBA, and creatine. Preferential accumulation of the VGB S isomer in eye and VC may provide new insight into VGB ocular toxicity.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Vigabatrina/farmacocinética , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , 4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Estereoisomerismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Vigabatrina/efeitos adversos , Vigabatrina/química , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Córtex Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Campos Visuais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(1): e186801, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646195

RESUMO

Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can cause severe visual disability even in high-resource settings. A better understanding of the prevalence and processes leading to ROP-induced severe visual impairment may help health care professionals design preventive measures. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of severe visual disability among children born preterm in Sweden, evaluate adherence to best practice, and determine the health system's structural capacity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, nationwide cohort study of 1 310 227 children born between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015, in Sweden, of whom 17 588 (1.3%) were born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation). Children born preterm with a verified diagnosis of severe visual disability had their medical records reviewed for evaluation of ROP screening, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition, a questionnaire on structural capacity was sent to all ophthalmology departments. Exposures: Stages 4 and 5 ROP. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was prevalence of severe visual disability (visual acuity ≤20/200 for both eyes) associated with ROP stages 4 and 5. Secondary outcomes included adherence to national ROP guidelines using a predefined protocol with 15 key performance indicators for screening, diagnosis, and treatment; assessment of whether visual disability was deemed avoidable; and examination of structural capacity, including information on equipment and facilities, staffing, and patients. Results: Seventeen children (10 boys; mean [range] birth weight, 756 [454-1900] g; mean [range] gestational age, 25 [22-33] weeks) became severely visually disabled because of ROP, corresponding to a prevalence of 1 in 1000 very preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestational age) and 1 in 77 000 for all live births. Severe visual impairment was considered potentially avoidable in 11 of 17 affected children (65%) owing to untimely or no screening, missed diagnosis, or untimely and suboptimal treatment. Large variations in infrastructure (facilities, guidelines, staffing, and annual patient numbers) were also identified as potential contributors to these findings. Conclusions and Relevance: Retinopathy of prematurity still causes severe visual disability in Sweden, resulting in 1 affected infant per 1000 very preterm births. In most of these infants, noncompliance with best practice was identified, indicating that a significant proportion could have been avoided.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Transtornos da Visão , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/complicações , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suécia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
16.
Eye (Lond) ; 33(3): 492-504, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore self-inflicted retinal burns from laser pointers in children. METHODS: Literature review of laser pointer retinal injuries in childhood and online survey of UK Consultant Ophthalmologists. A cohort of local children with self-inflicted injury is described. The matter is topical. We review progress in recent legislation and policy change in the UK. RESULTS: Four of 77 case reports of laser burns in childhood analysed reported psychological or behavioural issues. Three of four children in our cohort had such issues. Delay in diagnosis occurred in two of our patients. Structural retinal damage persisted for over 12 months in all four children (seven eyes). Our survey of UK ophthalmologists found 159 cases of injury (85% male), 80% under 20 years of age. The majority of the laser pointers were purchased online. Many patients (36%) suffered moderate vision loss (6/18 to 6/60 Snellen), while 17% (at least 11 patients) suffered severe vision loss (<6/60 Snellen). CONCLUSION: We highlight the risk of macular damage and vision loss from handheld lasers specifically in children with behavioural, learning or mental health issues. The diagnosis may be difficult or delayed in such children. In children with uncertain macular changes, ophthalmologists should explore the history for possible instances of exposure to handheld lasers pointers. Regulatory authorities and manufacturers of handheld lasers need to be aware of the risk to children. Furthermore, there is a need to better inform parents, carers and teachers of the risk of ocular self-injury from such lasers pointers.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Queimaduras Oculares/epidemiologia , Lasers/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Criança , Queimaduras Oculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Formulação de Políticas , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
17.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 11(7): 659-663, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Speech Arm Vision Eyes (SAVE) scale, a 4-item clinical scale emphasizing binary scoring and avoidance of nuanced examination distinctions, predicts LVOs with similar characteristics as more complex scales. METHODS: Receiver operating characteristic analyses of the prospective STOPStroke study assessed the ability of the SAVE scale and other published scales to predict LVO. We identified scale thresholds with positive likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals of ≥5.0 or negative likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals of ≤0.5. RESULTS: 735patients were studied. LVO prevalence was 33%. Area under the curve was 0.79 for SAVE, 0.82 for FAST-ED, 0.80 for mNIHSS and NIHSS, and lower for all other scales. SAVE=4, EMSA=6, mNIHSS≥10, NIHSS≥16, and RACE≥8 had positive likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals ≥5.0. SAVE≥2, CPSS≥2, C-STAT≥1, EMSA≥4, FAST-ED≥3, G-FAST≥3, mNIHSS≥6, NIHSS≥9, PASS≥1, RACE≥2, VAN=1, and 3I-SS≥1 had negative likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals ≤0.5. CONCLUSIONS: SAVE=4 performed similarly to more complex scales at predicting LVO. Other simplified scales did not have thresholds with positive likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals ≥5.0. Validation is need in a prehospital cohort of patients with suspected stroke.


Assuntos
Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Braço/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/prevenção & controle , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fala/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
18.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 7(6): 436-441, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556381

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration are leading causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide. They tend to be asymptomatic in the early phase of disease and therefore require active screening programs to identify the patients requiring referral and treatment. Deep learning-based artificial intelligence technology has recently become a major topic in the field of ophthalmology. This paper aimed to provide a general view of the major findings on the application of deep learning for the classification of eye diseases from common imaging modalities. In the future, it is expected that these technologies will be applied in real-world screening programs to improve their efficiency and affordability.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 89(12): 1089-1091, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A number of ophthalmic abnormalities, including optic disc edema, have been reported in several astronauts involved in long-duration spaceflights. An increased understanding of factors contributing to this syndrome, initially designated visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome and recently renamed spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome, has become a high priority for ESA and NASA, especially in view of future long-duration missions, including trips to Mars. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are still not well understood. In the present paper, we propose that optic disc edema in astronauts may occur, at least in part, as a result of retention of interstitial fluid in distended paravascular spaces at the prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Preflight, in-flight, and postflight analysis of the optic nerve head and surrounding structures by optical coherence tomography in long-duration International Space Station crewmembers could provide important structural information in this respect.Wostyn P, De Winne F, Stern C, De Deyn PP. Dilated prelaminar paravascular spaces as a possible mechanism for optic disc edema in astronauts. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(12):1089-1091.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Edema/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Disco Óptico , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Medicina Aeroespacial , Edema/etiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Voo Espacial , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
20.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(10): 959-970, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247238

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that the visual field defects in patients with tilted disc syndrome can be reduced or eliminated by neutralizing the peripheral scotoma in the area of posterior retinal bowing, which may allow differentiation between a congenital anomaly and acquired pathology. PURPOSE: Tilted disc syndrome is a congenital and unchanging condition that may present with visual field defects mimicking loss seen in neurological diseases, such as transsynaptic retrograde degeneration. Our purpose was to systematically investigate the ability of a neutralized peripheral refraction to eliminate refractive visual field defects seen in tilted disc syndrome. This was compared with the same technique performed on patients with neurological deficits. METHODS: The Humphrey Field Analyzer was used to measure sensitivities across the 30-2 test grid in 14 patients with tilted disc syndrome using four refractive corrections: habitual near correction and with an additional -1.00, -2.00 or -3.00 D negative lens added as correction lenses. Peripheral refractive errors along the horizontal meridian were determined using peripheral retinoscopy and thus allowed calculation of residual peripheral refraction with different levels of refractive correction. Visual field defects were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using sensitivities and probability scores in both patient groups. RESULTS: A smaller residual refractive error after the application of negative addition lenses correlated with improvement in visual field defects in terms of sensitivity and probability scores in patients with tilted disc syndrome. Patients with established neurological deficits (retrograde degeneration) showed improvement in sensitivities but not in probability scores. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing the refractive error at the region of posterior retinal bowing due to tilted disc syndrome reduces the apparent visual field defect. This may be a useful and rapid test to help differentiate between tilted disc syndrome and other pathological causes of visual field defects such as neurological deficits.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho/prevenção & controle , Disco Óptico/anormalidades , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Escotoma/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anormalidades do Olho/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Retinoscopia , Escotoma/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
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