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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e4, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413716

RESUMO

AIMS: There is currently no universally accepted measure for population-based surveillance of mood and anxiety disorders. As such, the use of multiple linked measures could provide a more accurate estimate of population prevalence. Our primary objective was to apply Bayesian methods to two commonly employed population measures of mood and anxiety disorders to make inferences regarding the population prevalence and measurement properties of a combined measure. METHODS: We used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health linked to health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. Structured interview diagnoses were obtained from the survey, and health administrative diagnoses were identified using a standardised algorithm. These two prevalence estimates, in addition to data on the concordance between these measures and prior estimates of their psychometric properties, were used to inform our combined estimate. The marginal posterior densities of all parameters were estimated using Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Summaries of posterior distributions, including the means and 95% equally tailed posterior credible intervals, were used for interpretation of the results. RESULTS: The combined prevalence mean was 8.6%, with a credible interval of 6.8-10.6%. This combined estimate sits between Bayesian-derived prevalence estimates from administrative data-derived diagnoses (mean = 7.4%) and the survey-derived diagnoses (mean = 13.9%). The results of our sensitivity analysis suggest that varying the specificity of the survey-derived measure has an appreciable impact on the combined posterior prevalence estimate. Our combined posterior prevalence estimate remained stable when varying other prior information. We detected no problematic HMC behaviour, and our posterior predictive checks suggest that our model can reliably recreate our data. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate population-based estimates of disease are the cornerstone of health service planning and resource allocation. As a greater number of linked population data sources become available, so too does the opportunity for researchers to fully capitalise on the data. The true population prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders may reside between estimates obtained from survey data and health administrative data. We have demonstrated how the use of Bayesian approaches may provide a more informed and accurate estimate of mood and anxiety disorders in the population. This work provides a blueprint for future population-based estimates of disease using linked health data.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Prevalência
2.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 20-28, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307818

RESUMO

Scales assessing stressor exposure often fail to demonstrate adequate psychometric qualities, demonstrating low interitem reliability or complex factor structures, as would be expected, given that the majority of stressors are independent events. However, in large-scale mass crisis events, the stressors may be highly interrelated, indicating shared experience. Furthermore, few stressor exposure scales also measure appraised stressfulness of those stressors. Development of a psychometrically sound measure of both stressor exposure and appraisal advances the study of highly stressful events such as community-wide crises, especially in providing a useful measure of its cumulative stressfulness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an enduring, worldwide stressor with an indefinite timeline. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a 23-item measure of stressor exposure and appraisal related to the pandemic developed within the first weeks of widespread shelter-in-place practices in the Unites States. We present initial psychometric results of the COVID-19 Stressor Scale. Results of a principal components analysis indicate that the measure is unidimensional and has strong internal consistency. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a useful measure for studying the ongoing stressors associated with the pandemic and presents a model for measuring other massive, ongoing crises.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Percepção , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 365-371, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) was declared by the world health organization a pandemic in March 2020, thousands of healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide were on the frontlines fighting against the pandemic. Herein, we selected two Middle East countries; Egypt and Saudi Arabia to investigate the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their HCWs. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a Google survey was used to access HCWs in many hospitals in Egypt and Saudi Arabia between the 14th and 24th of April 2020. The survey assessed HCWs regarding their sociodemographic and occupational features, sleeping hours, and psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). RESULTS: This study included 426 HCWs (48.4% physicians, 24.2% nurses, and 27.4% other HCWs). Of them, 69% had depression, 58.9% had anxiety, 55.9% had stress, and 37.3% had inadequate sleeping (<6 h/day). Female sex, age ≤30 years, working in Egypt, attending emergency and night shifts, watching/reading COVID-19 news ≥2 h/day, and not getting emotional support from family, society, and hospital were associated with a high likelihood of depression, anxiety, stress, and inadequate sleeping. LIMITATIONS: the cross-sectional design restricted our ability to distinguish between preexisting and emerging psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION: HCWs on the frontlines in Egypt and Saudi Arabia experienced depression, anxiety, stress, and inadequate sleeping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Obes ; 11(1): e12422, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with adverse child mental health outcomes and reduced physical activity. Moreover, prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes in children. OBJECTIVES: Assess prenatal exposure to GDM on anxiety levels and physical activity in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Sixty-five children age 9 to 15 reported their physical activity and anxiety levels using the 24-hours physical activity recall and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children via phone or video meetings. Prenatal exposure to GDM was obtained from maternal electronic medical records. RESULTS: The 38 GDM-exposed children reported significantly higher anxiety levels and were less likely to engage in any vigorous physical activity (VPA) (5% vs 30%) compared to the 27 GDM-unexposed children. Lower levels of physical activity were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety. Less engagement in VPA explained 75% of the association between GDM exposure and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic may be beneficial for reducing anxiety, particularly amongst GDM-exposed children.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
5.
Psychol Health Med ; 26(1): 131-144, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151748

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global, virulent pandemic disease that emerged in December 2019, with both short- and long-term psychological repercussions being inevitable. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress, defined by the presence of either depression or anxiety, among the public in Oman during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a web-based, cross-sectional study conducted using governmental and private institutional e-mail systems and social media platforms. Anxiety and depression were assessed using both the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictors. There were a total of 1538 participants in this study (75% female). The prevalence of psychological distress was 30%. Being female, having financial instability, being treated for mental illness and self-medication for coping with stress were independent predictors of psychological distress among the study sample (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-2.29; OR = 2.05, CI = 1.54-2.74; OR = 5.35, CI = 3.50-8.18; OR = 7.23, CI = 3.06-17.09, respectively). The results from this study will help public health officials in Oman to plan for and mitigate psychological repercussions of the current and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113552, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and women who recently gave birth are vulnerable to COVID-19-related psychosocial stresses. METHODS: We assessed COVID-19-related health worries and grief, and current mental health symptoms (depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD) in 1,123 U.S. women during the COVID-19 pandemic (May 21 to August 17, 2020) through a cross-sectional study design. RESULTS: Among our respondents, 36.4% reported clinically significant levels of depression, 22.7% for generalized anxiety, and 10.3% for PTSD. Women with pre-existing mental health diagnoses based on their self-reported history were 1.6-to-3.7 more likely to score at clinically significant levels of depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD. Approximately 18% reported high levels of COVID-19-related health worries and were 2.6-to-4.2 times more likely to score above the clinical threshold for mental health symptoms. Approximately 9% reported high levels of grief and were 4.8-to-5.5 times more likely to score above the clinical threshold for mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal women with pre-existing mental health diagnoses show elevated symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although causation cannot be inferred, COVID-19-related health worries and grief experiences may increase the likelihood of mental health symptoms among those without pre-existing mental health concerns. Providers should develop strategies for addressing health-related worry and grief within their practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 144-148, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that unexpected pandemic has led to an increase in mental health problems among a variety of populations. METHODS: In this study, an online non-probability sample survey was used to anonymously investigate the anxiety and depression symptoms among medical staff under the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaire included Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Factors associated with anxiety and depression symptoms were estimated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1090 medical staff were investigated in this study. The estimated self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms and both of the two were 13.3%, 18.4% and 23.9% respectively. Factors associated with self-reported anxiety symptoms include married status (OR=2.3, 95%CI: 1.2, 4.4), not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.7), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.2, 95%CI: 1.4, 3.5) and higher stress (OR=14.4, 95%CI: 7.8, 26.4). Factors associated with self-reported depression symptoms include not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), sometimes/often getting care from neighbours (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.9), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.3, 3.0) and higher stress (OR=9.7, 95%CI: 6.2, 15.2). LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sample survey. Besides, scales used in this study can only identify mental health states. CONCLUSIONS: Under outbreak of COVID-19, self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms were high in investigated medical staff. Psychological interventions for those at high risk with common mental problems should be integrated into the work plan to fight against the epidemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Prevalência
8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 46: 102580, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic of the kind not seen for a century, has caused global apprehension and distress. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate whether the psychological state and behaviours of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their caregivers were different from the non-MS population or not during the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 115 MS patients, 33 MS caregivers and 129 healthy controls. Depression anxiety stress score-21 (DASS-21) was used for evaluation of their psychological state. RESULTS: MS patients had significantly higher DASS-21 scores (51.48±29.62) than their caregivers (29.79±27.19) and non-MS population (32.91±23.39) (p = 0.005). Younger patients (r=-0.252, p<0.0001), those with high EDSS scores (r = 0.023, p = 0.013) and those who believed that MS patients are at high risk for COVID-19 infection (p = 0.009) had the highest anxiety scores. There was no difference between the three groups in the level of commitment to staying at home (p = 0.747), wearing facemask (p = 0.164), wearing gloves (0.225), avoiding crowd (p = 0.225) and frequent hand washing (p = 0.570). Anxious patients had more relapses (p = 0.002) and pseudorelapses (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, MS patients were more anxious, stressed and depressed during the COVID-19 pandemic than their caregivers and the non-MS population, but they were not more motivated to follow the basic preventive measures against infection.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , /patogenicidade , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243883, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of disability and anxiety in Covid-19 survivors at discharge from hospital and analyze relative risk by exposures. DESIGN: Multi-center retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Twenty-eight hospitals located in eight provinces of China. METHODS: A total of 432 survivors with laboratory-confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection participated in this study. At discharge, we assessed instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) with Lawton's IADL scale, dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index, and anxiety with Zung's self-reported anxiety scale. Exposures included comorbidity, smoking, setting (Hubei vs. others), disease severity, symptoms, and length of hospital stay. Other risk factors considered were age, gender, and ethnicity (Han vs. Tibetan). RESULTS: Prevalence of at least one IADL problem was 36.81% (95% CI: 32.39-41.46). ADL dependence was present in 16.44% (95% CI: 13.23-20.23) and 28.70% (95% CI: 24.63-33.15) were screened positive for clinical anxiety. Adjusted risk ratio (RR) of IADL limitations (RR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.80-3.40), ADL dependence (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.15-3.76), and probable clinical anxiety (RR 2.53, 95% CI 1.69-3.79) were consistently elevated in survivors with severe Covid-19. Age was an additional independent risk factor for IADL limitations and ADL dependence; and setting (Hubei) for IADL limitations and anxiety. Tibetan ethnicity was a protective factor for anxiety but a risk factor for IADL limitations. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of Covid-19 survivors had disability and anxiety at discharge from hospital. Health systems need to be prepared for an additional burden resulting from rehabilitation needs of Covid-19 survivors.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Pessoas com Deficiência , Sobreviventes , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , /psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332400

RESUMO

The global epidemic of (mis)information, spreading rapidly via social media platforms and other outlets, can be a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders among vulnerable individuals. Cyberchondria can be a vulnerability factor for developing anxiety in a pandemic situation, particularly when the Internet is flooded with (mis)information. The aim of our study was to examine how cyberchondria is related to changes in levels of COVID-19 concern and safety behaviours among persons living in Croatia during the period in which the first COVID-19 case was identified and when the country recorded its first fatality. Repeated cross-sectional data collection was conducted during two waves over a period of three weeks (N1 = 888; N2 = 966). The first began on the day of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Croatia (February 24th, 2020) and the second wave began three weeks later, on the day the first COVID-19 fatality was recorded in Croatia (March 19th, 2020). Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding various COVID-19 concerns and safety behaviours aimed at disease prevention (information seeking, avoidance and hygiene) and a measure of cyberchondria (Short Cyberchondria Scale, SCS). We analysed whether changes to the epidemiological situation during the period between the two waves of data collection led to an increase in COVID-19 related behaviour directly and indirectly via an increase in COVID-19 concerns. The results indicated that, between the two waves of research, there was a pronounced increase in concerns regarding COVID-19 (b = 1.11, p < .001) as well as significant behavioural changes (b = 1.18-2.34, p < .001). Also, results demonstrated that cyberchondria plays a moderating role in these changes. In the first wave, persons with severe cyberchondria were already intensely concerned with safety behaviours. High cyberchondria and high levels of concern about the COVID-19 are associated with intense avoidance behaviours, R2 = .63, p < .001. A moderated partial mediation model was confirmed, in which the effect of the epidemiological situation was weaker for those with higher results on the SCS (as indicated by index of moderated mediation between -.10 and -.15, p < .05). As such, cyberchondria is a contributing factor to long-term anxiety and its impact during pandemic on the general mental health burden should therefore be further investigated.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Hipocondríase , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , /psicologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocondríase/epidemiologia , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
12.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(6): 537-544, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280678

RESUMO

A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted to assess perceived risk and fear of contagion, as well as mental health outcomes among 650 Italian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. A relevant proportion of the sample reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and distress. Female sex, nursing profession, fear of being infected, as well as the time of exposure to the COVID-19 spread and the fact of directly attending infected patients were the main risk factors for developing mental health disturbances. Tailored interventions need to be implemented to reduce psychological burden in healthcare workers, with a particular attention to nurses.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
13.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(10): 723-730, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283835

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The worldwide emergence of COVID-19 has been associated with diverse consequences, including anxiety. Hope is believed to act as a motivation to enable one to cope with the anxiety. This study was conducted to identify the role of hope in alleviating anxiety due to the COVID-19 outbreak during the primary phase among community dwellers in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 3,565 subjects with the convenience sampling method. Data collection tools used included the COVID-19 knowledge checklist, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires and Snyder Hope Scale. Participants were asked to fill in the questionnaires online. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (multivariate linear regression analysis). RESULTS: Participants' mean scores of anxiety and hope were 6.06±4.52 and 31.27±4.52, respectively. The results indicated that 27.1% of the changes in the anxiety scores were predictable with some of the variables examined in this study. A high score of hope was directly associated with a lower level of anxiety. In addition, the number of hours spent following news and information on COVID-19 was significantly related to anxiety level. Moreover, female gender, urban residence, and having relatives suffering from COVID-19 were significantly related to a higher level of anxiety (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The morbidity and mortality associated with the COVID-19 outbreak had brought a lot of anxiety among community dwellers. Hope, potentially, can contribute to overcoming anxiety. Therefore, health policymakers can introduce appropriate social interventions to enable the community to cope with stress and anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esperança , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vida Independente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158085

RESUMO

This study analyzed the possible interaction effects between tobacco consumption and anxiety or depression during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal health. We recruited a sample of 807 pregnant Spanish women from public healthcare services. Women completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, health status and tobacco consumption (continuous, quitting or no consumption) in the first and third trimester of pregnancy and at 2 months postpartum, and self-reported measures of anxiety and depression in the first trimester. Abstinence of tobacco consumption was verified through biochemical measurements. Interaction effects between tobacco consumption and anxiety were found for delivery (p < 0.001), neonatal health complications (p = 0.026) and gestational age at birth (p = 0.029). Interaction effects between tobacco consumption and depression were found for pregnancy (p = 0.032), delivery complications (p < 0.001) and weeks of gestation at birth (p = 0.031). This study suggests that there are different kinds of interaction effects between tobacco consumption and anxiety or depression. Smokers with high anxiety presented more delivery complications compared to quitters and non-smokers with high anxiety. There is a cumulative effect of anxiety on the effects of tobacco consumption on maternal health. The results highlighted the beneficial impact of quitting smoking during pregnancy to reduce the risk of suffering anxiety, depression and health complications.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Gravidez
15.
Public Health ; 189: 91-93, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine COVID-19 preventive behaviours among individuals with mental health problems. STUDY DESIGN: This is a pooled cross-sectional study. METHODS: Online survey data were analysed from 2000 Japanese adults collected in April and May 2020. Information was obtained on 13 COVID-19 preventive behaviours and anxiety and depressive symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: In models adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors, anxiety (coefficient: -0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.30, -0.24) and depressive symptoms (coefficient: -0.82, 95% CI: -1.34, -0.30) were both associated with significantly lower engagement in COVID-19 preventive behaviours. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of facilitating the performance of preventive behaviours in individuals with mental health problems to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health ; 189: 158-161, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The number of people testing positive for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in the UK, particularly among young adults, is increasing. We report here on the mental health of young adults and related psychological and behavioural responses to the pandemic and consider the role of these factors in fuelling the increase in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in this group. METHODS: An online survey was completed during the first six weeks of the first UK-wide lockdown by 3097 respondents, including data for 364 respondents aged 18-24 years. The survey included measures of mental health and indices capturing related psychological and behavioural responses to the pandemic. RESULTS: The mental health of 18- to 24-years-olds in the first 6 weeks of lockdown was significantly poorer than that of older respondents and previously published norms: with 84% reporting symptoms of depression and 72% reporting symptoms of anxiety. Young adults also reported significantly greater loneliness and reduced positive mood, both of which were also associated with greater mental health difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: We contend that the combination of mental health, social and economic considerations may have contributed to the rise of COVID-19 infections in young adults, and ascribing blame to this group will not aid our efforts to regain control of the disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , /psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242802, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No prospective studies have examined the prevalence, antecedents or concurrent characteristics associated with self-harm in non-treatment-seeking primary school-aged children. METHODS: In this cohort study from Melbourne, Australia we assessed 1239 children annually from age 8-9 years (wave 1) to 11-12 years (wave 4) on a range of health, social, educational and family measures. Past-year self-harm was assessed at wave 4. We estimated the prevalence of self-harm and used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations with concurrent and antecedent factors. RESULTS: 28 participants (3% of the 1059 with self-harm data; 18 girls [3%], 10 boys [2%]) reported self-harm at age 11-12 years. Antecedent (waves 1-3) predictors of self-harm were: persistent symptoms of depression (sex-age-socioeconomic status adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 7.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.6 to 24) or anxiety (aOR: 5.1; 95%CI 2.1 to 12), frequent bullying victimisation (aOR: 24.6; 95%CI 3.8 to 158), and recent alcohol consumption (aOR: 2.9; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.1). Concurrent (wave 4) associations with self-harm were: having few friends (aOR: 8.7; 95%CI 3.2 to 24), poor emotional control (aOR: 4.2; 95%CI 1.9 to 9.6), antisocial behaviour (theft-aOR: 3.1; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.9; carrying a weapon-aOR: 6.9; 95%CI 3.1 to 15), and being in mid-puberty (aOR: 6.5; 95%CI 1.5 to 28) or late/post-puberty (aOR: 14.4; 95%CI 2.9 to 70). CONCLUSIONS: The focus of intervention efforts aimed at preventing and reducing adolescent self-harm should extend to primary school-aged children, with a focus on mental health and peer relationships during the pubertal transition.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study examined the prevalence, sociodemographic, and clinical correlates of chronic pain among primary care patients in the state of Kerala, India. It also examined the patterns and relationships of chronic physical and mental health conditions with chronic pain. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional survey conducted among 7165 adult patients selected randomly by a multi-stage stratified design from 71 primary health centers. The questionnaires administered included Chronic pain screening questionnaire, self-reported Chronic physical health condition checklist, Patient Health Questionnaire-SADS, The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and WHOQOL- BREF for Quality/Satisfaction with Life. The prevalence and comorbid patterns of chronic pain were determined. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear mixed-effects model was employed to examine the relationship of chronic pain to socio-demographic variables and examined physical and mental health conditions. RESULTS: A total of 1831 (27%) patients reported chronic pain. Among those with chronic pain, 28.3% reported no co-occurring chronic mental or physical illness, 35.3% reported one, and 36.3% reported multi-morbidity. In the multivariate analysis, patients with chronic pain when compared to those without had higher odds of being older, female, having lower education, not living with their family, greater disability, and poor satisfaction with life. Chronic pain was independently associated with both medical (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, arthritis, and other medical illnesses) and mental health conditions (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and tobacco dependence). It showed a varying strength of association and additive effect with increasing number of co-occurring physical and mental illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pain is a common condition among primary care attendees associated with significant burden of medical and mental health comorbidity. The findings highlight the need to incorporate treatment models that will ensure appropriate management to improve outcomes within the resource constraints.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics of and possible differences in clinical and electroencephalographic parameters in patients with alcohol dependence with- and without comorbid affective disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients, including 74 with an established diagnosis of alcohol dependence and 21 with alcohol dependence and affective disorders, were examined. Duration of alcohol dependence and affective disorder (years), number of hospitalizations and suicidal attempts were analyzed as anamnestic data. Hamilton's anxiety and depression scale (HDRS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the General clinical impression scale (CGI-s) were used as psychometric tools. The study of bioelectric activity of the brain was carried out using a 16-channel encephalograph. The background electroencephalogram was recorded, the values of absolute spectral power and coherence of theta, alpha and beta rhythms were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients with comorbidity of alcohol dependence and affective disorders have a significantly higher risk of suicidal behavior, a greater frequency of hospitalizations, higher levels of anxiety compared with patients without affective disorders. Electrophysiological data have shown that patients with comorbidity of alcohol dependence and affective disorders have higher values of spectral power of alpha-rhythm in all parts of the cerebral cortex (except for temporal lobes) and beta-rhythm in the occipital cortex, as well as an increase in interhemispheric coherence in all frequency ranges.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio
20.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 258, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the impact of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the mental health of the patients has been limited by the lack of relevant data. With the rapid and sustained growth of the publications on COVID-19 research, we will perform a living systematic review (LSR) to provide comprehensive and continuously updated data to explore the prevalence of delirium, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We will perform a comprehensive search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedicine Literature to identify relevant studies. We will include peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies published in English and Chinese. Two reviewers will independently assess the methodological quality of included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal tool and perform data extraction. In the absence of clinical heterogeneity, the prevalence estimates with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of delirium, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will be calculated by using random-effects model to minimize the effect of between-study heterogeneity separately. The literature searches will be updated every 3 months. We will perform meta-analysis if any new eligible studies or data are obtained. We will resubmit an updated review when there were relevant changes in the results, i.e., when outcomes became statistically significant (or not statistically significant anymore) or when heterogeneity became substantial (or not substantial anymore). DISCUSSION: This LSR will provide an in-depth and up-to-date summary of whether the common neuropsychiatric conditions observed in patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are also prevalent in a different stage of COVID-19 patients. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020196610.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Delírio , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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