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1.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 114, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. MS is significantly associated with a high rate of psychological, behavioral, and emotional consequences. Despite the frequent mental disorders, high rate of psychological comorbidities, and emotional problems in people with MS (PwMS), these conditions are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of a group format of the unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders in adult PwMS associated with an emotional disorder. METHODS: Seventy adult PwMS were randomized using an internet-based computer system to either the unified protocol (n = 35) or treatment as usual condition. The assessment protocol included semi-structured clinical interviews and self-reports evaluating diagnostic criteria, depression, anxiety and worry symptoms, emotional dysregulation, and affectivity. RESULTS: The parametric test of analysis of covariance, followed the intent to treat analyses, revealed the unified protocol significantly changed depression symptoms (Cohen's d = 1.9), anxiety symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.16), worry symptoms (Cohen's d = 1.27), emotion dysregulation (Cohen's d = 0.44), positive affect (Cohen's d = 1.51), and negative affect (Cohen's d = 1.89) compared with the control group. The unified protocol also significantly improved outcome scores at the end of treatment relative to baseline (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The findings support that the unified protocol could be an additional efficient psychological treatment for PwMS. Trial registration IRCT, number: IRCT20190711044173N1. Registered 31october 2019, https://en.irct.ir/user/trial/40779/view .


Assuntos
Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 427-433, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study was carried out to determine the psychological impact levels of nurses and midwives due to the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: The research is planned in a descriptive type. Nurses and midwives working in any health institution in Turkey constituted the population of the research. The questionnaire form of the study was shared on social media tools between 01 and 14 April 2020 and a total of 758 nurses and midwives were included in the study sample. Personal Information Form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were used as data collection tools. RESULTS: Participants who attended the study were 56.9% of nurses and 43.1% of midwives. Approximately half of the nurses and midwives (48.8%) participating in our study contacted the patient with suspected COVID-19, and 29.8% provided care to the patient diagnosed with COVID-19. Nurses and midwives were scored 52.75 ± 9.80 for State Anxiety, 44.87 ± 7.92 for Trait Anxiety Inventory and 35.16 ± 9.42 for Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. It has been determined that 54.5% of nurses and midwives have been making their lives worse since the outbreak started, 62.4% had difficulties in dealing with the uncertain situation in the outbreak, 42.6% wanted psychological support and 11.8% had alienated from their profession. It was determined that there was a difference between scale scores and difficulties in work, family and private life due to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: As a result, it is seen that the midwives and nurses in our country have high psychological effects due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 353-359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030452

RESUMO

Divorce is a life event with a high level of stress for the entire family. Research shows that the number of divorces is on a steady rise. Family is very important for development of the children and changes within the family, after the divorce, could make consequences on them. Children are dependent on parents and disadvantaged during divorce because it is out of their control. They cannot predict how long will it take and what will be the outcome of divorce which includes separation from close family members, school change, change of home, change of life style and so on. Children often lack information and skills to overcome the challenges that the divorce carries. Conflicting relationships between parents make up the biggest obstacle that makes it difficult for a child to successfully deal with changes in the family. Even though parents deal with heavy feelings, it is desirable to put them the child and his interests in the first place. In order to stabilize the family system it is needed 2 up to 4 years. Children differ from one another in the reactions to the divorce, but there are some emotional reactions that are characteristic for most children of divorced parents, and the most often children reactions are of depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, lower self-esteem and so on. The emotional reactions of children during the divorce can vary relative to the gender and age of the child. However, the divorce of a parent does not necessarily have to be so negative for children, especially if parents behave in an adequate way and they endeavor to act in such a way to make this process as painless as possible for children.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
4.
Tex Med ; 116(10): 18-25, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126272

RESUMO

The mental health fallout caused by COVID-19 radiates throughout Texas. In this issue, we look at four of the biggest challenges physicians are responding to as more people say that worry and stress related to coronavirus have negatively impacted their mental health.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Suicídio , Texas/epidemiologia
5.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 56, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and home isolation has impacted quality of life, but the perceived impact on anxiety and sleep remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 and stay-at-home orders on self-report anxiety and sleep quality, with a focus on sex differences. We hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic would be associated with increased anxiety and decreased sleep quality, with stronger associations in women. METHODS: One hundred three participants (61 female, 38 ± 1 years) reported perceived changes in anxiety and sleep quality due to stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic and were administered the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Chi-square and T test analyses were utilized to assess sex differences in reported anxiety and sleep. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the associations between reported impact of COVID-19 and anxiety/sleep parameters. RESULTS: Women (80.3%) reported higher prevalence of increased general anxiety due to COVID-19 when compared to men (50%; p = 0.001) and elevated STAI state anxiety compared to men (43 ± 1 vs. 38 ± 1 a.u., p = 0.007). Despite these differences in anxiety, the perceived impact of COVID-19 on PSQI was not different between sexes. However, when stratified by perceived changes in anxiety due to COVID-19, participants with higher anxiety responses to COVID-19 had higher ISI compared to those with no perceived changes in anxiety (9 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 a.u., p = 0.003). Additionally, participants who reported reduced sleep quality due to COVID-19 reported higher state anxiety (45 ± 1 a.u.) compared to those that perceived no change (36 ± 2 a.u., p = 0.002) or increased (36 ± 2 a.u., p < 0.001) sleep quality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 and state-ordered home isolation was associated with higher anxiety and reduced sleep quality, with a stronger association in women with respect to anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 371-373, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006842
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety could be felt even in objectively peaceful situations, but a vision of conflict could result in increased stress levels. In this article, we aimed to identify hidden patterns of mental conditions and create male profiles to illustrate the different subgroups as well as determinants of anxiety levels among them in accordance with proximity to a possibility of direct exposure to military action. METHODS: A sample of Ukrainian males, in duty as conscripts to military service (n = 392, M±SD = 22.1±5.3) participated in a survey. We used the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In addition to psychological indices, social-demographic data were collected. To discover the number of clusters, the k-means algorithm was used, the optimal number of clusters was found by the elbow algorithm. For validation of the model and its use for further prediction, the random forest machine-learning algorithm, was used. RESULTS: By performing k-means cluster analyses, 3 subgroups were identified. High values of psychological indices dominated in Subgroup 2, while lowest values dominated in Subgroup 3. Subgroup 1 showed a more even distribution among the indices. The strength of the relevance and main determinants of the prediction of the presented model mostly consisted of mental qualities, while socio-demographic data were slightly significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear relevance between proximity or even the experience of military actions and anxiety levels. Other factors, mostly subjective feelings about mental conditions, are crucial determinants of feeling anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Adulto , Alcaloides de Berberina , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fenantridinas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 59(4): 565-577, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women's greater prevalence of anxiety disorders compared to men is widely assumed to be partly due to gender differences in cognitive and behavioural factors that perpetuate anxiety, such as repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and avoidance. However, past studies assessing this assumption have not controlled for gender differences in baseline symptom severity, the type of stressful life experiences against which RNT and avoidance are measured, or emotional reactivity to these experiences. DESIGN: Using a two-group design, the present study controlled for these confounds by comparing avoidance and RNT in relation to a controlled symptom provocation task in spider phobic men and women with equivalent spider fear severity on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. METHODS: Participants engaged in a behavioural approach test (BAT) involving a live spider, during which they were assessed for avoidance (physical proximity to the spider) and subjective distress. Two weeks later, participants reported on their levels of negative affect and RNT experienced during the preceding weeks in relation to the BAT. RESULTS: Women exhibited greater avoidance and reported greater RNT than men, despite reporting comparable distress and negative affect. Gender remained a significant predictor of avoidance when accounting for distress and also remained a significant predictor of RNT when accounting for depressive symptoms and negative affect. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide in vivo evidence that heightened avoidance and RNT may perpetuate anxiety symptoms in women independently of gender differences in symptom severity, daily experiences, or emotional reactivity. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Following symptom provocation, men and women with spider phobia differ in cognitive and behavioural coping responses. Women exhibit greater avoidance and repetitive negative thinking than men, and these differences are not attributable to gender differences in symptom severity or emotional reactivity. These findings provide novel evidence for gender differences in maintaining factors that perpetuate anxiety disorders whilst accounting for confounding factors present in prior research.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 118-121, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912591

RESUMO

Any new pandemic has the potential to arouse considerable anxiety, with this anxiety associated in previous work with economic disruption and societal disruption. We examined anxiety, symptom awareness, trust and associated behavioural responses in the first three weeks of the SARS-CoV-2 (covid-19) outbreak in Thailand. We collected data on-street at randomly selected locations in Bangkok. Of 274 potential respondents, 203 (74.7%) responded. A four-item measure assessed anxiety, with open-ended questions assessing knowledge of symptoms, trusted information sources and measures taken to avoid infection. Respondents reported good awareness of the prime symptoms of the Coronovirus. Binary logistic regressions controlling for sex and age found the more anxious avoided the Chinese, people who were coughing, crowded places and public transport or flying. Younger respondents reported greater trust in foreign media and older populations information from national government. Trust in doctors online was positively associated with avoidance of coughing people and keeping fit; trust in national government with avoiding coughing people, keeping fit, and avoiding public transport . We conclude that anxiety can motivate both desirable and undesirable behaviours during pandemic outbreaks. Effective and targeted communication by trusted sources is needed to motivate preventive actions but also to limit unnecessary or disruptive behaviours.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(10): 663-667, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893245

RESUMO

In elderly patients with so-called psychogenic physical symptoms, changes with age of the symptoms were discussed from the standpoint of geriatric psychiatry. In recent years, the diagnostic criteria for psychogenic physical symptoms have been revised and are closer to the definition of psychosomatic disorders. In aging, the aging phenomenon of each body organ progresses, and the brain is no exception. Clinical findings suggest that conventional physical and mental symptoms are alleviated as brain function declines in general. If dementia is added, the speed of relief will increase. In Japan, where super-aging is advancing, the need to focus on the positive aspects of aging is discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Psiquiatria Geriátrica , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107442, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected people globally, and people with chronic diseases are suffering more in maintaining their mental and physical health. METHOD: This cross-sectional, case-control study assessed the anxiety level in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. RESULTS: The results showed that 13.5% of patients had experienced a severe level of anxiety, but the mean anxiety level between groups did not show significant difference. CONCLUSION: Although still many aspects of the pandemic on people with epilepsy are yet to be determined, active investigation of psychological sequels of the pandemic is demanded.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 184, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two important aspects for the development of anxiety disorders are genetic predisposition and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In order to identify genetic risk-factors for anxiety, the aim of this exploratory study was to investigate possible relationships between genetic polymorphisms in genes important for the regulation and activity of the HPA axis and self-assessed anxiety in healthy individuals. METHODS: DNA from 72 healthy participants, 37 women and 35 men, were included in the analyses. Their DNA was extracted and analysed for the following Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)s: rs41423247 in the NR3C1 gene, rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene, rs53576 in the OXTR gene, 5-HTTLPR in SLC6A4 gene and rs6295 in the HTR1A gene. Self-assessed anxiety was measured by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Self-assessed measure of both STAI-S and STAI-T were significantly higher in female than in male participants (p = 0.030 and p = 0.036, respectively). For SNP rs41423247 in the NR3C1 gene, there was a significant difference in females in the score for STAI-S, where carriers of the G allele had higher scores compared to the females that were homozygous for the C allele (p < 0.01). For the SNP rs53576 in the OXTR gene, there was a significant difference in males, where carriers of the A allele had higher scores in STAI-T compared to the males that were homozygous for the G allele (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study shows that SNP rs41423247 in the NR3C1 gene and SNP rs53576 in the OXTR gene are associated with self-assessed anxiety in healthy individuals in a gender-specific manner. This suggests that these SNP candidates are possible genetic risk-factors for anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21451, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health is closely related to the occurrence of hypertension, particularly the prognosis of hypertension patients. The role of psychotherapy in the occurrence, development, prevention, and prognosis of hypertension, remains to be clarified. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a prospective, double-blind, randomized, multiple-centers study. Eighty patients enrolled in this trial will be randomized at 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint is will be the reduction of the patient psychological scale (PHQ-9) score. Secondary endpoints will be the drop in blood pressure, awareness of physical and mental health and self-efficacy scale. Measurements will be performed at baseline, 5-week (questionnaires only), 10-week (primary endpoint), using the Anxiety Screening Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Depression Scale (PHQ-9). Data analysis will be carried out using the SPSS v.25 software assuming a level of significance of 5%. Results will be analyzed using multilevel, regression analysis and hierarchical linear models. DISCUSSION: We hope to provide some insight in the understanding the underlying mechanism of the novel mindfulness in the management of hypertension related psychological stress/disturbance, and will enable us to develop novel approach to manage essential hypertension and its related psychological disorders. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:: http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1900028258).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 243-258, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876552

RESUMO

Objectives: Addressing the lack of population-based data, the purpose of this representative study was to assess sex- and age-specific associations of maternal and paternal rearing behavior with depressiveness and anxiety controlling for sociodemographic and somatic variables. Methods: 8,175 subjects participating in a population-based study completed standardized questionnaires measuring Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and distress. Results: Women recalled their fathers as more controlling and warmer, and their mothers as more rejecting than men. Comparisons between age groups (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years) revealed that younger participants recalled more parental control and emotional warmth. In addition to sociodemographic and somatic risk factors, paternal rejection and maternal control were associated with depressiveness and anxiety both for women and men (OR 1.58-1.96; OR 1.37-1.66). Maternal warmth was negatively related to distress (OR 0.66-0.69). Conclusions: Findings suggested sex- and age-specific differences in recalled maternal and paternal rearing behavior. The current results highlighted the important role of recalled parental rearing behavior besides sociodemographic factors and somatic diseases for the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms across the age groups.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação Infantil , Depressão/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Mães/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 90-94, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-section survey-based study amongst doctors working within Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: A total of 207 doctors completed the survey. Obstetricians and Gynaecologists reported significantly higher rates of both Major Depressive Disorder (versus, p = 0.023) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (versus, p = 0.044) as compared to the UK-wide estimates. Sub-group analysis showed that anxiety was more common amongst female doctors as compared to males (versus, p = 0.047). Although the prevalence of GAD was higher amongst registrars compared to their Consultant and/or Senior House Officer counterparts, this was not statistically significant. Respondents felt that the most significant factor for work-related changes to mental health was keeping up to date with frequently changing guidelines and protocols related to COVID-19. Only of respondents felt able to talk to colleagues about their mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Key findings include the high prevalence of mental health conditions amongst doctors, demonstration of the persistent taboo that mental health carries within the speciality and the key contributory factors to poor mental health. Further work should be done to assess if changes to the way new and updating guidelines, protocols and pathways are disseminated reduces the impact on the mental health of doctors. With the threat of a second COVID-19 peak looming, now more than ever, it is vital that steps are taken to break the stigmatisation of mental health amongst doctors, encouraging doctors to seek help when required.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 181-188, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758711

RESUMO

COVID-19 affected our mental health as well as our physical health. In this study, the anxiety and hopelessness levels of healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers and the factors affecting them were evaluated in Turkey. Beck Hopelessness Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied online to participants. Totally 2156 individuals were included in the study and 52.0% (n:1121) of them are healthcare workers. The hopelessness and state anxiety levels of healthcare workers were higher than non-healthcare workers. Nurses' hopelessness levels are higher than doctors, and state anxiety levels are higher than both doctors and other healthcare workers. Anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in women, those living with a high-risk individual at home during the pandemic, those who had difficulty in caring for their children, and those whose income decreased. Anxiety levels are an important predictor of hopelessness. The increase in anxiety levels explained 28.9% of the increase in hopelessness levels. Increased working hours is one of the important factors affecting anxiety. As a conclusion, healthcare workers were more affected psychologically in the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the society. Nurses were affected more than other healthcare workers. It is important to identify the factors affecting anxiety, hopelessness, and individuals who may be more psychologically affected during the pandemic. An important contribution can be made to the protection of public health by ensuring that psychosocial interventions for high-risk groups are planned in advance.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785258

RESUMO

Active learning pedagogies decrease failure rates in undergraduate introductory biology courses, but these practices also cause anxiety for some students. Classroom anxiety can impact student learning and has been associated with decreased student retention in the major, but little is known about how students cope with anxiety caused by active learning practices. In this study, we investigated student coping strategies for various types of active learning (clickers, volunteering to answer a question, cold calling, and group work) that were used in 13 introductory Biology courses at a large public university in 2016-2017. A survey asked students to rate their anxiety regarding the four active learning practices and over half of the students explained the coping strategies they used to manage their active learning anxieties. Coping responses from 880 students were sorted into pre-defined categories of coping strategies: problem solving, information seeking, self-reliance, support seeking, accommodation, helplessness, escape, delegation, and isolation. We found that a different category of coping was dominant for each type of active learning. The dominant coping strategies for anxiety associated with clickers, cold calling, and group work were adaptive coping strategies of information seeking, self-reliance, and support-seeking, respectively. The dominant coping strategy for volunteering to answer a question was escape, which is a maladaptive strategy. This study provides a detailed exploration of student self-reported coping in response to active learning practices and suggests several areas that could be foci for future psychosocial interventions to bolster student regulation of their emotions in response to these new classroom practices.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Biologia/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 59(4): 237-250, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851609

RESUMO

Due to significant changes in the new ICD-11 classification, stress-related disorders have advanced further into clinical and scientific focus. In contrast to the ICD-10 classification, complex posttraumatic stress disorder as well as prolonged grief have been established as independent diagnoses. Additionally, the diagnostic criteria for adjustment disorder were newly conceptualized and refined. Stress-related disorders have a high relevance for out- and inpatient rehabilitation centers. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a 1-year-prevalence in Germany of 1-2%. Comorbidities such as depression or anxiety disorders are common. PTSD may also result from physical illness and can in turn complicate the course of the disease or even lead to chronification of symptoms. The most effective treatment is a trauma-focused psychotherapy, which usually takes place in an outpatient setting. Psychosomatic inpatient rehabilitation is a valuable resource in the treatment plan of PTSD. The optimal point is mostly following the acute therapy when reintegration to work and social life is the aim. As rehabilitation centers can provide a safe therapeutic setting for patients, allowing them to open up about their trauma, it can pave the way to a trauma focused treatment. Additionally, socio-medical aspects of trauma-related disorders will be touched upon in this overview.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/reabilitação , Alemanha , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Auricular stimulation (AS) is a promising method in the treatment of situational anxiety. Expressive writing (EW) is an established psychological method, which reduces test anxiety and improves exam results. The aim of this crossover trial was to compare AS with EW, and with the no intervention (NI) condition, for treatment of exam anxiety. METHODS: Healthy medical students underwent 3 comparable anatomy exams with an interval of one month, either performing EW, receiving AS or NI prior to the exam; the order of interventions was randomized. AS was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at the areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve on the day before the exam. Anxiety level, measured using State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after the interventions and immediately before exam, was the primary outcome. Quality of night sleep, blood pressure, heart rate and activity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were analyzed across 3 conditions. RESULTS: All 37 included participants completed the study. Anxiety level (STAI) decreased immediately after AS in comparison with baseline (P = 0.02) and remained lower in comparison with that after EW and NI (P<0.01) on the day of exam. After EW and NI anxiety increased on the day of exam in comparison with baseline (P<0.01). Quality of sleep improved after AS in comparison with both control conditions (P<0.01). The activity of sAA decreased after EW and after AS (P<0.05) but not after NI condition. CONCLUSION: Auricular stimulation, but not expressive writing, reduced exam anxiety and improved quality of sleep in medical students. These changes might be due to reduced activity of the sympathetic nervous system.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Redação , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 292: 113360, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771837

RESUMO

In this systematic review, we compared the incidences of psychological issues during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as anxiety, depression, occupational stress, PTSD and insomnia, in healthcare workers (HCW) and non-healthcare workers (NHCW). PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar and PsycInfo were systematically searched for related published articles. In all electronic databases, the following search strategy was implemented, and these key words were used: "COVID 19″ OR "SARS-CoV-2″ AND "psychological" OR "stress" OR "depression" AND "healthcare$". We identified 6 studies, out of the final 15 selected, which reported numerical estimates for incidences of psychological effects. Meta-analysis was conducted, comparing both combined and individual effect sizes of all psychological manifestations. Qualitative evidence was reported from the remaining 9 cross- sectional studies. The summary effects of the combined quantitative meta-analysis conducted on 6 studies did indicate near significant differences between HCW and NHCW. Summary effects of individual manifestations indicated significantly higher incidence of insomnia among HCW, when compared to NHCW. Qualitative evidence from remaining cross-sectional studies provided additional information into the nature of the psychological issues. We conclude that even though reasons for psychological distress among HCW and NHCW may be different, both suffered in equal measures excepting for insomnia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
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