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1.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730956

RESUMO

Psychiatric comorbidities are common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we sought to evaluate the effects of medication and childhood ADHD subtypes on psychiatric comorbidities among adults with ADHD as compared to healthy adult controls. We assessed 121 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, 93 treated adults with ADHD, and 145 healthy controls (age 18-36 years) using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, intelligence tests, and medical records. Drug-naïve adults with ADHD had more comorbidities than treated adults with ADHD and controls. Childhood ADHD-combined subtype, relative to ADHD-inattentive subtype, was associated with higher risks of comorbidities. Current medication treatment was associate with a higher risk for anxiety disorders, and longer treatment duration was associated with lower risks of mood disorders and sleep disorders. Our results indicate that no medication treatment, short treatment duration, and childhood ADHD-combined subtype are associated with increased risks for psychiatric comorbidities among adults with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/patologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(5): 705-717, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350093

RESUMO

Our goal in conducting this study was to examine whether children with somatic symptom disorders (SSD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) have higher rates of insecure or disorganized attachment and difficulties in mentalizing (operationalized as reflective functioning) as compared to a control group. Participants were 131 children (8-15 years) spanning two groups-a clinical group (n = 85), comprised of children fitting the criteria of our target diagnostic classifications (SSD: N = 45; DBD: N = 40), as well as a comparison group of healthy control children (n = 46). Children completed the Child Attachment Interview, which was later coded by reliable raters for attachment security and reflective functioning (RF). Consistent with our predictions, children in the clinical group had significantly lower RF and were significantly more likely to have insecure (over 80%) and disorganized attachment (over 40%) than children in the comparison group. In addition, RF was significantly lower in children with DBD than children with SSD. Furthermore, in the SSD group, children's RF regarding self was significantly lower than RF regarding others. Finally, consistent with prior studies, RF and attachment were associated. The findings indicate that school-aged children with SSD and DBD have higher rates of insecure and disorganized attachment. Consistent with theory, RF and attachment were loosely coupled, but RF alone differentiated among the diagnostic subgroups. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(1): 17-42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432037

RESUMO

A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Neurosci Bull ; 34(3): 566-572, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29508250

RESUMO

The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD. This review discusses the role of abnormal connections in each CSTC circuit, especially in the emotion circuit, which may be responsible for targeted executive dysfunction at the neuroscience level. Thus, the two major domains - abstract thinking (cool) and emotional trait (hot) - trigger the mechanism of onset of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(9): 642-650, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of comorbid ODD on cerebral volume and cortical thickness in ADHD. METHODS: Three groups, 16 ± 3.5 years of age (mean ± SD; range 7-29 years), were studied on volumetric and cortical thickness characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (surface-based morphometry): ADHD+ODD (n = 67), ADHD-only (n = 243), and control subjects (n = 233). Analyses included the moderators age, gender, IQ, and scan site. RESULTS: ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only showed volumetric reductions in total gray matter and (mainly) frontal brain areas. Stepwise volumetric reductions (ADHD+ODD < ADHD-only < control subjects) were found for mainly frontal regions, and ADHD+ODD was uniquely associated with reductions in several structures (e.g., the precuneus). In general, findings remained significant after accounting for ADHD symptom severity. There were no group differences in cortical thickness. Exploratory voxelwise analyses showed no group differences. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only were associated with volumetric reductions in brain areas crucial for attention, (working) memory, and decision-making. Volumetric reductions of frontal lobes were largest in the ADHD+ODD group, possibly underlying observed larger impairments in neurocognitive functions. Previously reported striatal abnormalities in ADHD may be caused by comorbid conduct disorder rather than ODD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(12): 1027-1037.e3, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27871637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In both children and adults, psychiatric illness is associated with structural brain alterations, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, most studies compare gray matter volume (GMV) in healthy volunteers (HVs) to one psychiatric group. We compared GMV among youth with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and HVs. METHOD: 3-Tesla T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 184 youths (39 anxious, 20 BD, 52 DMDD, 20 ADHD, and 53 HV). Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted. One-way analysis of variance tested GMV differences with whole-brain familywise error (p < .05) correction; secondary, exploratory whole-brain analyses used a threshold of p < .001, ≥200 voxels. Given recent frameworks advocating dimensional approaches in psychopathology research, we also tested GMV associations with continuous anxiety, irritability, and inattention symptoms. RESULTS: Specificity emerged in the left dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), which differed among youth with BD, anxiety, and HVs; GMV was increased in youth with anxiety, but decreased in BD, relative to HVs. Secondary analyses revealed BD-specific GMV decreases in the right lateral PFC, right dlPFC, and dorsomedial PFC, and also anxiety-specific GMV increases in the left dlPFC, right ventrolateral PFC, frontal pole, and right parahippocampal gyrus/lingual gyrus. Both BD and DMDD showed decreased GMV relative to HVs in the right dlPFC/superior frontal gyrus. GMV was not associated with dimensional measures of anxiety, irritability, or ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Both disorder-specific and shared GMV differences manifest in pediatric psychopathology. Some differences were specific to anxiety disorders, others specific to BD, and others shared between BD and DMDD. Further developmental research might map commonalities and differences of structure and function in diverse pediatric psychopathologies.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 28(2): 174-180, mayo 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-151675

RESUMO

Background: Disruptive behaviour is becoming more frequent in the classroom and is specifically associated with behaviours that hinder and obstruct the teaching-learning process. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate teachers’ perceptions of this question. More specifically, we sought to observe how teachers rate the measures proposed to improve teaching, to find out which forms of schooling are preferred so as to address disruption, to identify its causes and to analyse whether there are differences arising from teacher characteristics. Method: 346 participants completed a disruptive-behaviour Likert-scale. The average age is 43.47, 82.9% female and 13.6% male. Results: All measures are widely accepted, but there are differences in the priority given, the ideal forms of schooling is ordinary centres, although differences still exist depending on teacher characteristics; all the causes of increased problems are highly rated, with the absence of rules and limits in the family standing out. Conclusions: Teachers are calling for improvements and institutional support. Any forethought on how to improve the quality of the education system should take into account the results of this study (AU)


Antecedentes: el fenómeno de la disrupción es cada vez más habitual en las aulas y se asocia específicamente a conductas que dificultan y obstaculizan el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El objetivo principal de esta investigación consiste en analizar la percepción del profesorado sobre esta cuestión. Específicamente se trata de observar qué valoración dan a las medidas propuestas para mejorar la docencia, examinar qué modalidades de escolarización consideran más idóneas para afrontar la disrupción, determinar sus causas y analizar si existen diferencias según las características del profesorado. Método: 346 participantes respondieron a una escala de conductas disruptivas tipo Likert. La edad media es de 43,47, siendo el 82,9% mujeres y el 13,6% hombres. Resultados: las medidas propuestas para la mejora de la docencia son ampliamente aceptadas, existiendo diferencias en su priorización; la modalidad de escolarización idónea es la de centros ordinarios, existiendo diferencias de opinión, según las características del profesorado; y todas las causas del incremento de problemas son altamente puntuadas, destacando la falta de normas y límites en el entorno familiar. Conclusiones: los profesores demandan mejoras y necesidad de apoyo institucional. Toda reflexión previa sobre cómo mejorar la calidad del sistema educativo podría tener en consideración los resultados de este estudio (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/métodos , Ensino/tendências , Docentes , Tecnologia Educacional/instrumentação , Tecnologia Educacional/métodos , Tecnologia Educacional/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Escolaridade , Espanha
8.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 26(1): 44-72, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846227

RESUMO

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Transtorno da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 11(7): 1027-35, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26048179

RESUMO

Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Extinção Psicológica , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Problema , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
10.
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord ; 8(2): 65-71, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26620714

RESUMO

Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Branca/patologia , Anisotropia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem
11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 7: 252-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25610787

RESUMO

Because the disruptive behavior disorders are highly impairing conditions, it is important to determine if structural variations in brain are associated early in life with these problems among children. Structural MRI data were acquired from 111 9-11 year olds (58 girls and 53 boys), 43 who met diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder and 68 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to examine associations of behavioral measures with gray matter volumes in whole-brain analyses. Unlike previous studies, variation in gray matter volume was not found to be associated with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis in any brain region at p < .05 with FWE correction. Nonetheless, an inverse nonlinear association of the number of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus was significant in the full sample (p < .05 with FWE correction), with a trend in the right hemisphere (p < 0.001 uncorrected). There also was a trend toward a stronger association of the number of CD symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus in girls than boys. The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 231(3): 210-7, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25533028

RESUMO

Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Função Executiva , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Rev Neurol ; 58 Suppl 1: S3-16, 2014 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25252664

RESUMO

AIM: To review the magnetic resonance imaging findings in child and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: Studies have shown that ADHD is characterised by multiple functional and structural neural network abnormalities including most prominently fronto-striatal, but also fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and even fronto-limbic networks. Evidence from longitudinal structural imaging studies has shown that ADHD is characterised by a delay in structural brain maturation. This is reinforced by indirect evidence from cross-sectional imaging studies for more immature brain function as well as structural and functional connectivity patterns, which, however, needs corroboration by longitudinal studies. Dysfunction of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be more pronounced in ADHD relative to other pediatric disorders and there is some evidence for differential abnormalities in the basal ganglia. A meta-analysis of stimulant effects on brain function shows that the most consistent mechanism of action of acute psychostimulant medication is the increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. First attempts to use neuroimaging data to make individual diagnostic classifications of ADHD children based on pattern recognition techniques are promising but need replication across centres and scanners. CONCLUSIONS: The last two decades of neuroimaging have shaped out biomarkers of ADHD. Future studies will need to focus on using this information for clinical translation such as using neuroimaging for individual diagnostic and prognostic classification or by using neuroimaging as a neurotherapy to reverse those brain function abnormalities that have been established over the last two decades of neuroimaging.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Substância Branca/patologia
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 202(3): 239-44, 2012 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22819939

RESUMO

Youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and psychopathic traits (CD/ODD+PT) are at high risk of adult antisocial behavior and psychopathy. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate functional abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala in both youths and adults with psychopathic traits. Diffusion tensor imaging in psychopathic adults demonstrates disrupted structural connectivity between these regions (uncinate fasiculus). The current study examined whether functional neural abnormalities present in youths with CD/ODD+PT are associated with similar white matter abnormalities. Youths with CD/ODD+PT and comparison participants completed 3.0 T diffusion tensor scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Diffusion tensor imaging did not reveal disruption in structural connections within the uncinate fasiculus or other white matter tracts in youths with CD/ODD+PT, despite the demonstration of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity in these youths. These results suggest that disrupted amygdala-frontal white matter connectivity as measured by fractional anisotropy is less sensitive than imaging measurements of functional perturbations in youths with psychopathic traits. If white matter tracts are intact in youths with this disorder, childhood may provide a critical window for intervention and treatment, before significant structural brain abnormalities solidify.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Sistema Límbico/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Anisotropia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 202(3): 245-51, 2012 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22743120

RESUMO

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are among the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in children and adolescents. Some important characteristics of DBD vary based on the presence or absence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may affect the understanding of and treatment decision-making related to the disorders. Thus, identifying neurobiological characteristics of DBD with comorbid ADHD (DBD+ADHD) can provide a basis to establish a better understanding of the condition. This study aimed to assess abnormal white matter microstructural alterations in DBD+ADHD as compared to DBD alone and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty-three DBD (19 with comorbid ADHD) and 46 age-matched healthy adolescents were studied using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly lower FA and higher MD, RD and AD in many white matter fibers were found in adolescents with DBD+ADHD compared to controls. Moreover, lower FA and higher RD were also found in the DBD+ADHD versus the DBD alone group. Alterations of white matter integrity found in DBD patients were primarily associated with ADHD, suggesting that ADHD comorbidity in DBD is reflected in greater abnormality of microstructural connections.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Vias Neurais/patologia
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 194(3): 279-286, 2011 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22047730

RESUMO

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits during a moral judgment task. Fourteen adolescents with psychopathic traits and 14 healthy controls were assessed using fMRI while they categorized illegal and legal behaviors in a moral judgment implicit association task. fMRI data were then analyzed using random-effects analysis of variance and functional connectivity. Youths with psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala activity when making judgments about legal actions and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex during task performance. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are associated with amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. This dysfunction may relate to previous findings of disrupted moral judgment in this population.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/irrigação sanguínea , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/irrigação sanguínea , Oxigênio/sangue , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 35(8): 1404-17, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21575012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between the numerous cognitive, motor, and behavioral difficulties of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and underlying specific structural brain injuries can be investigated using high-resolution imaging. Differential sensitivity of the brain's "relay" stations, namely the deep gray matter structures, may play a key factor given their multifaceted role in brain function. The purpose of our study was to analyze differences in deep gray matter volumes of children and adolescents with FASD relative to age/sex-matched controls and to examine whether any volume differences were consistent across the age range of neurodevelopment. METHODS: Children and adolescents (N = 28, 6 to 17 years) diagnosed with FASD and 56 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (i.e., 2 matched controls per FASD subject) underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans that were used for the automated volume measurement (FreeSurfer) of the intracranial space, total white matter, cortical gray matter, and 6 deep gray matter structures, namely the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, with left and right measured separately. Volumes were compared between FASD and controls, as well as changes with age. RESULTS: Significant reductions of volume in FASD were observed for the intracranial vault (7.6%), total white matter (8.6%), total cortical gray matter (7.8%), and total deep gray matter (13.1%). All 6 deep gray matter structures showed significant volume reductions bilaterally with the caudate (approximately 16%) and globus pallidus (approximately 18%) being most affected. The hippocampus, thalamus, and globus pallidus showed reductions in all 3 age subgroups (6 to 9, 10 to 13, and 14 to 17 years) but the caudate and putamen had smaller volumes for FASD only within the 2 youngest subgroups; the amygdala was only smaller for FASD in the 2 oldest subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Significant, but variable, volume reductions throughout the deep gray matter are observed over a wide age range of 6 to 17 years in FASD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Adolescente , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Globo Pálido/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Putamen/patologia , Tálamo/patologia
20.
Aggress Behav ; 37(4): 326-37, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21538379

RESUMO

Our aims were to (1) examine possible neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) as a group and (2) assess neuroanatomical anomalies specific to each DBD (i.e., conduct disorder [CD] and oppositional defiant disorder). Cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry were analyzed in 47 8-year-old boys (22 DBDs with and without CD and/or ODD and 25 healthy controls) from Magnetic Resonance Imaging brain scans. DBD symptoms were assessed using the Dominic-R. In DBD subjects relative to controls, we found (1) a decreased overall mean cortical thickness; (2) thinning of the cingulate, prefrontal and insular cortices; and (3) decreased gray matter density (GMd) in the same brain regions. We also found that scores on the Dominic-R were negatively correlated with GMd in the prefrontal and precuneus/superior temporal regions. There was a subdiagnostic main effect for CD, related to thinning of the middle/medial frontal, and for ODD in the left rectal/orbitofrontal. Findings suggest that thinning and decreased GMd of the insula disorganizes prefrontal circuits, diminishing the inhibitory influence of the prefrontal cortex on anger, aggression, cruelty, and impulsivity, and increasing a person's likelihood of aggressive behavior. These findings have implications for pathophysiologic models of the DBDs, their diagnostic classification system, and for designing more effective intervention programs.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Agressão , Ira , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
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