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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(1): 91-5, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025164

RESUMO

Regarding the development of international standard of Guideline for Clinical Practice of Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Migraine, the existing problems of the design and methodology of randomized controlled trial (RCT) on acupuncture and moxibustion for migraine were summarized in views of participant, intervention, control, outcome and study design. Four directions need to be further explored, (1) research of adolescent migraine, special subtype of migraine and migraine in a special population; (2) research of the immediate analgesic effect of acupuncture and moxibuation at the attack stage of migraine and the therapeutic effect of migraine at each stage; (3) research on safety and health economics; (4) clinical trial registration of acupuncture and moxibustion. In study, the target population should be further determined and specialized, the diagnosis criteria of western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine be generalized and concentrated, the staging and type division of disease be accurate, the intervention procedure be integrated, the control design be rationalized, the outcomes be validated, and the description of randomization and blinding be clarified.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Moxibustão , Adolescente , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959985

RESUMO

The mechanisms of migraine pathogenesis are not completely clear, but 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed brain energy deficit in migraineurs. As glycolysis is the main process of energy production in the brain, mitochondria may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis. Nutrition is an important aspect of migraine pathogenesis, as many migraineurs report food-related products as migraine triggers. Apart from approved anti-migraine drugs, many vitamins and supplements are considered in migraine prevention and therapy, but without strong supportive evidence. In this review, we summarize and update information about nutrients that may be important for mitochondrial functions, energy production, oxidative stress, and that are related to migraine. Additionally, we present a brief overview of caffeine and alcohol, as they are often reported to have ambiguous effects in migraineurs. The nutrients that can be considered to supplement the diet to prevent and/or ameliorate migraine are riboflavin, thiamine, magnesium ions, niacin, carnitine, coenzyme Q10, melatonin, lipoic acid, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin. They can supplement a normal, healthy diet, which should be adjusted to individual needs determined mainly by the physiological constitution of an organism. The intake of caffeine and alcohol should be fine-tuned to the history of their use, as withdrawal of these agents in regular users may become a migraine trigger.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Vitaminas/farmacologia
4.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 155, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the literature investigating a causal relationship between stress and migraine and evaluate its implications for managing migraine. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched from 1988 to August 2021, identifying 2223 records evaluating the relationship between stress and migraine. Records were systematically screened. All potentially relevant records were thematically categorized into six mechanistic groups. Within each group the most recent reports providing new insights were cited. RESULTS: First, studies have demonstrated an association of uncertain causality between high stress loads from stressful life events, daily hassles or other sources, and the incidence of new-onset migraine. Second, major stressful life events seem to precede the transformation from episodic to chronic migraine. Third, there is some evidence for changes in levels of stress as a risk factor for migraine attacks. Research also suggests there may be a reversed causality or that stress-trigger patterns are too individually heterogeneous for any generalized causality. Fourth, migraine symptom burden seems to increase in a setting of stress, partially driven by psychiatric comorbidity. Fifth, stress may induce sensitization and altered cortical excitability, partially explaining attack triggering, development of chronic migraine, and increased symptom burden including interictal symptom burden such as allodynia, photophobia or anxiety. Finally, behavioral interventions and forecasting models including stress variables seem to be useful in managing migraine. CONCLUSION: The exact causal relationships in which stress causes incidence, chronification, migraine attacks, or increased burden of migraine remains unclear. Several individuals benefit from stress-oriented therapies, and such therapies should be offered as an adjuvant to conventional treatment and to those with a preference. Further understanding the relationship between stress, migraine and effective therapeutic options is likely to be improved by characterizing individual patterns of stress and migraine, and may in turn improve therapeutics.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Hiperalgesia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 139, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occipital transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an effective and safe treatment for migraine attack prevention. Structural brain alterations have been found in migraineurs in regions related to pain modulation and perception, including occipital areas. However, whether these structural alterations can be dynamically modulated through tDCS treatment is understudied. OBJECTIVE: To track longitudinally grey matter volume changes in occipital areas in episodic migraineurs during and up to five months after occipital tDCS treatment in a single-blind, and sham-controlled study. METHODS: 24 episodic migraineurs were randomized to either receive verum or sham occipital tDCS treatment for 28 days. To investigate dynamic grey matter volume changes patients underwent structural MRI at baseline (prior to treatment), 1.5 months and 5.5 months (after completion of treatment). 31 healthy controls were scanned with the same MRI protocol. Morphometry measures assessed rate of changes over time and between groups by means of tensor-based morphometry. RESULTS: Before treatment, migraineurs reported 5.6 monthly migraine days on average. A cross-sectional analysis revealed grey matter volume increases in the left lingual gyrus in migraineurs compared to controls. Four weeks of tDCS application led to a reduction of 1.9 migraine days/month and was paralleled by grey matter volume decreases in the left lingual gyrus in the treatment group; its extent overlapping with that seen at baseline. CONCLUSION: This study shows that migraineurs have increased grey matter volume in the lingual gyrus, which can be modified by tDCS. Tracking structural plasticity in migraineurs provides a potential neuroimaging biomarker for treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03237754 . Registered 03 August 2017 - retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03237754 .


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Estudos Transversais , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Método Simples-Cego
8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1074-8, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of acupuncture on default mode network (DMN) in migraine patients without aura based on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Fifteen patients with migraine were included and treated with acupuncture based on "root-knot" theory (Zuqiaoyin [GB 44] for shaoyang headache, Lidui [ST 45] for yangming headache, Zhiyin [BL 67] for taiyang headache, and ashi point), once every other day, three times a week for 4 weeks. The patients received fMRI scanning before and after acupuncture treatment, the effect of acupuncture on DMN in patients with migraine was observed; the frequency of migraine attack, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the using of analgesic medication before and after treatment were recorded to evaluate the curative effect of acupuncture; the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the improvements of quality of life and emotional state. RESULTS: Compared before acupuncture, the functional connections of left parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC), dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in DMN after acupuncture were weakened (P<0.05), and the functional connections of bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and dMPFC were weakened (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, the frequency of migraine attack, VAS, SAS and SDS scores after treatment were decreased (P<0.05), and MSQ score was increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture shows good clinical efficacy for migraine without aura, and could adjust the functional connection of DMN.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1079-83, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of ZHU Lian's type Ⅱ inhibition acupuncture for chronic migraine, and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with chronic migraine were randomized into an observation group (60 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (60 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the control group, flunarizine hydrochloride capsule was taken orally, 5 mg each time, once a day. In the observation group, ZHU Lian's typeⅡ inhibition acupuncture was applied at Erheliao (TE 22), Shousanli (LI 10), Hegu (LI 4), Yangbai (GB 14), Tongziliao (GB 1), Zusanli (ST 36) ect., once every other day. The treatment was given 4 weeks in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the migraine clinical symptom score, cerebral hemodynamics indexes (blood flow velocity of arterior cerebral artery [ACA], posterior cerebral artery [PCA], bilateral middle cerebral artery [MCA] and basilar artery [BA]), serum related indexes (levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP]) and migraine specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ) score were observed in the two groups, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: The total effective rate in the observation group was 93.0% (53/57), which was higher than 79.3% (46/58) in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the number of headache attack was reduced, duration time was shortened, and the scores of pain intensity and concomitant symptom, cerebral hemodynamics indexes (blood flow velocity of ACA, PCA, MCA and BA) and serum levels of VEGF and CGRP were lower than before treatment in the two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of 5-HT and MSQ scores of functional limitation, dysfunction and emotion were higher than before treatment in the two groups (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ZHU Lian's type Ⅱ inhibition acupuncture could reduce frequency of migraine attack and duration time, improve pain intensity, cerebral blood flow velocity and quality of life for patients with chronic migraine, its mechanism may be related to regulating serum levels of 5-HT, CGRP and VEGF.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Calcitonina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Serotonina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628805

RESUMO

The diagnostic criteria for "Vestibular Migraine of Childhood", "Probable Vestibular Migraine of Childhood" and "Recurrent Vertigo of Childhood" is put forth by the Committee for the Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society and the Migraine Classification subgroup of the International Headache Society at the beginning of 2021. It provides directions for the diagnosis and treatment of these syndromes to international community of pediatricians, otolaryngologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuro-otologists physiotherapists, neurophysiologists, and audiologists. The paper concludes the current situation and research progress of diagnosis and treatment of children vertigo diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Doenças Vestibulares , Criança , Consenso , Tontura , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Vertigem/terapia , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/terapia
11.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 126, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MIDAS is the most used questionnaire to evaluate migraine-related disability, but its utility to assess treatment response remains unclear. Our aim was to estimate the MIDAS' minimal important change (MIC) value and its responsiveness. METHODS: A total of 103 patients were enrolled in a non-pharmacological, preference-based clinical trial. MIDAS and global rating of self-perceived change (GRoC) scores were collected at baseline, after 5 weeks of treatment, 4-weeks and 3-months follow-up after treatment. Anchor-based approaches were used to establish MIC values and responsiveness. FINDINGS: In all 3 timepoint comparisons, MIDAS presented a MIC of 4.5 points. A moderate positive correlation was identified between the MIDAS change and GRoC scores. The area under the curve ranged from 0.63 to 0.68. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MIDAS has a limited responsiveness to change. A change of 4.5 points or more represents a clinically important change for patients with high frequent migraine and chronic migraine receiving non-pharmacological treatment.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 9919773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567299

RESUMO

Objective: To comprehensively summarize the evidence on the preferences and values of migraine patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sino-Med, Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang Data for studies on the preferences and values of migraine patients. A qualitative review was performed, but no quantitative synthesis. Results: Twenty-one studies were finally included, involving a total of 8701 participants. Patients expected a cure, to be symptom-free, a reduction in frequency of headaches, a reduction in severity of headaches, and an improved quality of life from their preventive treatment. Patients expected rapid pain relief, complete pain relief, return to normal activities, no recurrence, and no adverse events from their acute symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: Efficacy is the primary consideration in the treatment of migraine. Specifically, the most important embodiment of patient preferences and values is the reduced frequency of attacks with preventive treatment as well as prompt analgesia with acute symptomatic treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Preferência do Paciente , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Pract Neurol ; 21(6): 475-480, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556570

RESUMO

Most people who see, treat or experience migraine will be aware that its clinical manifestations exceed the symptom of head pain. However, available acute treatments so far have targeted migraine symptoms only in the context of the pain phase of an attack. The associated disability clearly involves more than just these symptoms, and the phenotype can include additional painless features, including alterations in mood, cognition and homeostasis and sensory sensitivities. Recognising these symptoms, understanding their neurobiological basis and systematically recording them prospectively in clinical therapeutic trials are likely to offer valuable pathophysiological and therapeutic insights into this complex brain disorder, ultimately helping to improve the quality of lives of sufferers. We aim to explore the multifaceted disorder that is migraine, with a particular focus on the non-painful non-aura symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Dor
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 107990, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403655

RESUMO

Migraine is a common neurological disorder with strong links to vision. Interictal migraine is thought to be characterised by internal noise in the brain, possibly due to increased variability in neural firing, which can be estimated using equivalent noise tasks. High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) can be used to modulate levels of internal noise in the brain, and so presents a possible therapy to redress noise levels in the migraine brain. This is a case-control study using a 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) design. Hf-tRNS and Sham control stimulation were used alongside a global motion direction discrimination task and visually based equivalent noise tasks. The migraine group demonstrated increased baseline internal noise levels compared to the control group. Internal noise levels, and sampling, were reduced using hf-tRNS but not Sham stimulation. However, there were no differences in terms of coherence thresholds, slopes, and lapse rate for global motion discrimination between the two groups. This is the first demonstration of the possibility of decreasing internal noise levels in migraine using hf-tRNS. Future work could explore the possibility of neurostimulation as a therapy for migraine.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Encéfalo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Percepção Visual
16.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(2): 369-401, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351111

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Conditions causing recurrent spontaneous episodes of dizziness or vertigo span several medical specialties, making it challenging for clinicians to gain confidence in evaluating and managing the spectrum of episodic vestibular disorders. Patients are often asymptomatic and have normal examinations at the time of evaluation. Thus, diagnosis depends heavily on eliciting key features from the history. Overreliance on symptom quality descriptions commonly leads to misdiagnosis. The goal of this article is to provide the reader with a straightforward approach to the diagnosis and management of conditions that cause episodic spontaneous dizziness. RECENT FINDINGS: Consensus diagnostic criteria have been established for vestibular migraine, Ménière disease, vestibular paroxysmia, and hemodynamic orthostatic dizziness/vertigo. Vertigo has been recognized as a common symptom in vertebrobasilar ischemia, cardiogenic dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension. Treatment recommendations for vestibular migraine still lack high-quality evidence, but controlled trials are occurring. SUMMARY: The evaluation should start with a detailed description of the episodes from the patient and any observers. Rather than focusing first on whether the symptom quality is most consistent with vertigo, dizziness, lightheadedness, or unsteadiness, the clinician should clarify the timing (episode frequency and duration), possible triggers or circumstances (eg, position changes, upright posture), and accompanying symptoms. History should identify any auditory symptoms, migraine features, posterior circulation ischemic symptoms, vascular risk factors, clues for anxiety, and potentially relevant medications. Carefully selected testing can help secure the diagnosis, but excessive and indiscriminate testing can lead to more confusion. Treatments for these conditions are vastly different, so an accurate diagnosis is critical.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Doenças Vestibulares , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Tontura/diagnóstico , Tontura/etiologia , Tontura/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Vertigem/terapia , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/terapia
17.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(7): 753-759, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340809

RESUMO

The French Headache Society proposes updated French guidelines for the management of migraine. This article presents the third part of the guidelines, which is focused on the non-pharmacological treatment of migraine, including physical exercise, dietary supplements and plants, diets, neuromodulation therapies, acupuncture, behavioral interventions and mindfulness therapy, patent foramen ovale closure and surgical nerve decompression.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia
18.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(7): 725-733, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340812

RESUMO

The French Headache Society proposes updated French guidelines for the management of migraine. The first part of these recommendations is focused on the diagnosis and assessment of migraine. First, migraine needs to be precisely diagnosed according to the currently validated criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3d version (ICHD-3). Migraine-related disability has to be assessed and we suggest to use the 6 questions of the headache impact test (HIT-6). Then, it is important to check for risk factors and comorbidities increasing the risk to develop chronic migraine, especially frequency of headaches, acute medication overuse and presence of depression. We suggest to use a migraine calendar and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). It is also necessary to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of current migraine treatments and we suggest to systematically use the self-administered Migraine Treatment Optimization Questionnaire (M-TOQ) for acute migraine treatment. Finally, a treatment strategy and a follow-up plan have to be proposed. Guidelines for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are presented in the second and third part of the recommendations.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Comorbidade , Cefaleia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(7): 631-4, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369687

RESUMO

In the randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture, the setting of the control group (sham acupuncture) directly affected the interpretations about their outcomes (beyond placebo), and has been being the hot spot and difficult problem. In the present paper, we discussed various types of sham acupuncture (invade and non-invade needling) commonly used nowadays and made an in-depth analysis on the factors contributing to the successful blinding to patients with episodic migraine without aura in a clinical study published in British Medical Journal (2020, 368:m697). Moreover, we put forward some thoughts on how to optimize the setting of sham acupuncture in the treatment of pain diseases. These thoughts are 1) setting different placebo control group for different types of pain, 2) selecting conventional acupoints not associated with the disease, 3) selecting the most sui-table type of placebo acupuncture through pre-tests, 4) choosing the distal non-meridian and non-acupoint not in the same neuronal segment with the pain locus when using non-invade consolation needling, 5) trying best to reduce the patients' doubts about placebo acupuncture operation, 6) selecting subjects with little or without acupuncture experience for multicenter studies, and 7) trying best to select objective indicators and to avoid the subjects' report bias when evaluating the effects of acupuncture and consolation acupuncture.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia
20.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 354, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may relieve symptoms of migraineurs. Frequency is one of the key stimulation parameters. The aim of this study is to investigate the modulation effect of taVNS frequency on the descending pain modulation system (DPMS) in patients with migraine. METHODS: Twenty-four episodic migraineurs without aura (21 females) were recruited for the single-blind, crossover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Each participant attended two separate fMRI scan sessions, one for 1 Hz and another for 20 Hz taVNS, in a random order. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was applied using the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) as the region of interest. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-taVNS resting state, continuous 1 Hz taVNS (during) produced a significant increase in functional connectivity between the PAG and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC), right precuneus, left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left cuneus. Compared with 20 Hz taVNS, 1 Hz taVNS produced greater PAG connectivity increases with the MCC, right precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A significant negative correlation was observed between the number of migraine attacks in the previous 4 weeks and the PAG-MCC functional connectivity in the pre-taVNS resting-state before 1 Hz taVNS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that taVNS with different frequencies may produce different modulation effects on the descending pain modulation system, demonstrating the important role of stimulation frequency in taVNS treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal , Método Simples-Cego
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