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1.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 92-98, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130654

RESUMO

The goal is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program (PP) aimed at timely detection, prevention of the formation and prevention of chronicity of mental disorders in internally displaced persons (IDPs). 414 IDPs took part in the research. A complex of clinical-psychopathological, psychometric, psychodiagnostic and statistical methods were used. It was found that the group of IDPs is heterogeneous and includes 3 categories of persons: group I - IDPs without signs of mental disorders (conditionally healthy) (53,86%), group II - IDPs with individual symptoms of mental disorders (risk group) (20,05%) and group III - IDPs with established mental disorders (26,09%). The examined IDPs of the III group were found mental disorders, predominantly of the anxiety-depressive spectrum. Factors of psychic traumatization (FPT) were assessed in a dynamic aspect: retrospectively (during of staying in the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) zone), 12 and 24 months after leaving the ATO zone and during of examination. The dynamics of FPT and their significance in time and with regard to gender specificity were shown. In order to timely identify and prevent the formation of mental disorders in IDPs and increase their adaptive capabilities, it is proposed to use PP, which had a group structured work format. The results of its approbation were presented and it were proved that the using of PP could significantly increase the level of psychological adaptation of IDPs by reducing the level of mental stress, reactive anxiety and the severity of negative perception of the future and improving the quality of life.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130587

RESUMO

A previously fit and well 37-year-old male healthcare worker presented with confusion, psychotic symptoms and a suicide attempt in the context of a new COVID-19 diagnosis. Following surgical interventions and an extended admission to the intensive care unit, he made a good recovery in terms of both his physical and mental health. A number of factors likely contributed to his presentation, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe insomnia, worry, healthcare worker-related stress, and the unique social and psychological stressors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This case highlights the need to further characterise the specific psychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 in community settings, and should remind general medical clinicians to be mindful of comorbid psychiatric symptoms when assessing patients with newly diagnosed COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/complicações , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prognóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Estresse Psicológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study a role of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ex combatants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-seven ex combatants were studied. The duration of follow-up was 15-18 years. The diagnosis was established in accordance with ICD-10 criteria. Patients were stratified by diagnosis into main group (PTSD) and comparison group (organic brain injury with reduced symptoms of PTSD ). A psychopathological method and a battery of questionnaires and scales, including those adapted for assessment of consequences of combat trauma, were administered. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical presentations of both groups in posttraumatic period show the similarity and homogeneity of posttraumatic disorders in these groups. In the future, the pathogenetic role of TBI severity appears more clearly, which, depending on the severity, leads to the formation of an organic lesion of the brain or performs only a pathoplastic role, giving some features to the clinical picture of PTSD. It was found that the more severe the injury, the greater the likelihood of PTSD transition to organic brain damage. It is emphasized that PTSD treatment is a continuous, long-term, complex and graded process that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Encéfalo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085670

RESUMO

Exposure to disasters is associated with a range of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories. However, few studies have tracked PTSS for more than a decade postdisaster, and none to our knowledge has explored the role of predisaster resources and vulnerabilities in shaping the likelihood of trajectory membership. The current study included participants from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina Study (N = 885). Participants were originally part of a community college intervention study and were assessed prior to the hurricane (6-21 months predisaster), and approximately 1 year, 4 years, and 12 years postdisaster. Latent class growth analysis identified PTSS trajectories. Perceived social support, probable mental illness, and physical health conditions or problems-all assessed predisaster-were examined as predictors of trajectory membership at the univariate level and in multivariable models without and with adjustment for disaster exposure. Three PTSS trajectories were detected: Moderate-Decreasing (69.3%), High-Decreasing (23.1%), and High-Stable (7.6%). In the multivariable predictive model without adjustment for disaster exposure, probable predisaster mental illness was significantly associated with greater odds of the High-Decreasing and High-Stable trajectories, and physical health conditions or problems with greater odds of the High-Decreasing trajectory, relative to the Moderate-Decreasing trajectory. However, when disaster exposure was adjusted, only the association between predisaster mental illness and the odds of the High-Stable trajectory remained statistically significant. Lower predisaster perceived social support was significantly associated with membership in the High-Decreasing trajectory, relative to the Moderate-Decreasing, at the univariate level, but not in either multivariable model. Whereas predisaster mental illness confers risk for chronic postdisaster PTSS, other impacts of predisaster resources and vulnerabilities on elevated PTSS trajectories do not go beyond those of disaster exposure. The results support disaster preparedness efforts targeting those with mental and physical health conditions, and postdisaster mental health services addressing preexisting vulnerabilities in addition to disaster-related PTSS.


Assuntos
Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pobreza , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Chron Respir Dis ; 17: 1479973120962800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID pandemic has had a high psychological impact on healthy populations. Increased levels of perceived stress, depression, and insomnia are expected, especially in people with pre-existing medical conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who seem to be particularly vulnerable. However, the difference in psychological distress frequency between asthma and COPD patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of depression, perceived stress related to COVID, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia in asthma and COPD patients at a pulmonology clinic in Santa Marta, Colombia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed. The patients were contacted by telephone. An electronic link was sent to those who accepted. The questionnaire asked for perceived stress related to COVID-19, post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and insomnia risk. RESULTS: 148 asthma patients and 144 COPD patients participated in, between 18 and 96 years. The prevalence of high COVID-19 perceived stress was 10.6% (n = 31); post-traumatic stress risk, 11.3% (n = 33); depression risk, 31.5% (n = 92); and insomnia risk, 57.7% (n = 169). No significant differences were found between asthma and COPD in indicators of psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma and COPD patients present similar frequencies of depression risk, COVID-19 perceived stress, post-traumatic stress risk, and insomnia risk during the Colombian lockdown. It is essential to evaluate and manage psychological distress among asthma and COPD patients. It can reduce the risk of exacerbation and improve the quality of life.


Assuntos
Asma , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
6.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(5): 864-865, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007131

RESUMO

A recent study published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates in Ireland are as high as 17.7% and that this could be related to the COVID-19 pandemic (Karatzias et al., 2020). However, this number is probably skewed, as the fundamental requirement for a PTSD diagnosis-namely, a life-threatening or severely stressful event-was not fulfilled. In this comment, the consideration of COVID-19-related PTSD to represent a diagnosis is questioned based on the definitions of PTSD in the ICD-11 and DSM-5.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Humanos , Irlanda , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychological complaints is known to be very high in populations of asylum seekers. Despite this, data on the health care system's ability to adequately meet these high-risk populations' mental health needs are scarce. This article investigates how well the German outpatient health care system is able to detect and adequately treat them. METHODS: To this end, we combined data from a cross-sectional survey with billing data from the local social welfare office from the year 2015. Using descriptive statistics, the data of the cross-sectional study are used to quantify the psychological health care needs of asylum seekers while the secondary data analysis indicates the actual access to and extent of psychological treatment. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, 54% of patients were screened positive for symptoms of depression, 41% for symptoms of anxiety disorder and 18% for symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In total, 59% were screened positive for at least one of these three disorders. However, when contrasting these screening-based prevalences with the prevalences based on data from the health care system, a mismatch becomes apparent: According to the social welfare office's billing data, only 2.6% of asylum seekers received the diagnosis of depression, 1.4% were diagnosed with anxiety disorder and 2.9% with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In combination, 4.9% were diagnosed with at least one of these three disorders. Overall, less than one tenth of asylum seekers with symptoms of depression, anxiety or PTSD received the corresponding diagnosis by the health care system. Among those who were diagnosed, about 45% received no treatment at all, while 38% were treated with drugs alone. Only 1% of all patients received psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological complaints are very common among asylum seekers, yet only a small proportion of this population receives the corresponding diagnoses and treatment. While various factors can contribute to these shortcomings, there is an urgent need to systematically address this deficit and introduce measures to improve mental health care for this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia , Seguridade Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 206-213, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892702

RESUMO

Over-integration of HIV-related trauma into the client's memory in a negative emotional valence could be a serious health debilitating process which may result in negative post-traumatic health outcomes, affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people living with HIV (PLWH). We hypothesized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are the mediating link between negative event centrality (NEC) and HRQoL among PLWH. Nine hundred and sixty-nine PLWH in Nigeria completed measures of NEC, PTSD symptoms and HRQoL. Model 4 of Hayes' regression-based PROCESS macro version 3.0 for SPSS was employed to investigate relationships between variables of interest. NEC was positively associated with all domains of HRQoL. PLWH who had high negatively centralized identity on HIV also had high scores on PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with all domains of HRQoL. PTSD symptoms also mediated the relationship between NEC and all domains of HRQoL. Assessing and treating PTSD symptoms among PLWH by clinicians could be helpful in enhancing HRQoL.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Negativismo , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906590

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic can not only affect physical health, but also mental health, resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of this new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomenon. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviews were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years and working throughout Poland joined the study. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the "avoidance" dimension was 1.86 ± 0.73. Amongst participating nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22). Higher average scores were noted among participants in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale "presence" (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, their current sense of meaning in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses received individual support mostly from significant others (i.e., other than family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of post-traumatic growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia , Senso de Coerência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 319, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950999

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16-0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestantes/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos Somatoformes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
12.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 74-79, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965253

RESUMO

The problem of studying, diagnosing and correcting stress-associated disorders resulting from exposure to psychogenic factors, the sources of which are various traumatic events, is one of the most relevant.; The purpose of the work is to create a psychological portrait of a combat participant for the subsequent development of preventive measures for stress-associated disorders. To study the psychological characteristics and psycho-emotional state, a comprehensive clinical and psychological examination of 147 military personnel was carried out after mostly mine-blast injuries received while performing official duties in the ATO zone.; The state of mental functions, and the emotional-volitional sphere and personality traits were evaluated. The points and characteristics of the test methods were analyzed, the total number of points was calculated separately on each scale.; A generalization of the results of the study allowed us to determine the main aspects of the psychological portrait of a military man. The essence of the portrait consists in harmonious restructuring from conscious to unconscious psychological attitudes and vice versa, in changing the subjective hierarchy of values and also to note that the character of the traumatic situation is not important in the portrait of the ATO participant, but the personal attitude of the participant and his environment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012417, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living in 'humanitarian settings' in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of physical and psychological stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. A range of psychological and social interventions have been implemented with the aim to prevent the onset of mental disorders and/or lower psychological distress in populations at risk, and it is not known whether interventions are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of psychological and social interventions versus control conditions (wait list, treatment as usual, attention placebo, psychological placebo, or no treatment) aimed at preventing the onset of non-psychotic mental disorders in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), and ProQuest PILOTS database with results incorporated from searches to February 2020. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies. We checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychological and social interventions versus control conditions to prevent the onset of mental disorders in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous data, using a random-effects model. We analysed data at endpoint (zero to four weeks after therapy) and at medium term (one to four months after intervention). No data were available at long term (six months or longer). We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In the present review we included seven RCTs with a total of 2398 participants, coming from both children/adolescents (five RCTs), and adults (two RCTs). Together, the seven RCTs compared six different psychosocial interventions against a control comparator (waiting list in all studies). All the interventions were delivered by paraprofessionals and, with the exception of one study, delivered at a group level. None of the included studies provided data on the efficacy of interventions to prevent the onset of mental disorders (incidence). For the primary outcome of acceptability, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social interventions and control at endpoint for children and adolescents (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 5 studies, 1372 participants; low-quality evidence) or adults (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.50; 2 studies, 767 participants; very low quality evidence). No information on adverse events related to the interventions was available. For children's and adolescents' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social intervention groups and control groups for reducing PTSD symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, by risk of bias in the studies, and by substantial levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, it is possible that random error had a role in distorting results, and that a more thorough picture of the efficacy of prevention interventions will be provided by future studies. For this reason, prevention studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in children and adults, with extended periods of follow-up.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Viés , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
15.
FP Essent ; 495: 23-30, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757563

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a lifetime incidence of approximately 6.1% in the US population. However, studies of patients receiving regular primary care have shown a higher point prevalence, ranging from 11.1% to 24.5%. Multiple factors have been implicated in the etiology of PTSD, including genes, epigenetic regulation, neuroendocrine factors, inflammatory markers, autonomic risk and resilience, and sleep disturbances. There are many risk factors for PTSD, including exposure to trauma at a younger age, a high number of adverse childhood experiences, and a previous diagnosis of a mental disorder. Military personnel, police officers, and first responders who experience repeated or extreme exposure to traumatic events are at increased risk of PTSD. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that clinicians in the primary care setting consider screening for PTSD in patients with unexplained physical symptoms that may be associated with PTSD. Multiple evidence-based screening tools are available. If the patient is willing, psychotherapy is the treatment of choice, followed by combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. PTSD is associated with many significant comorbidities and mortality.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Comorbidade , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
16.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 34(5): 208-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796381

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PCL-5) with Criterion A was universally used in admission screening to pilot a trauma-informed care process for quality improvement. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT: All adult inpatient behavioral health patients at a Mid-Atlantic county hospital were screened for trauma exposure on admission. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition with Criterion A was provided to all adults admitted to a 27-bed inpatient behavioral health unit for 8 weeks. Quantitative descriptive statistics were calculated based on self-report PCL-5 scores; qualitative data were gathered from staff and stakeholders. OUTCOME: During the pilot period, there was a 49.2% response rate. Fifty respondents (53.8%) screened positive for trauma as recorded on the Criterion A portion. Seventeen (18.3%) were negative for trauma self-report, and 26 (30.0%) did not complete this portion. Fifty-six (60.2%) completed screens scored 33 or greater on the PCL-5 portion. Staff found the timing of administration convenient but expressed concern over emotional cost to patient. CONCLUSIONS: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition with Criterion A served as guidepost for trauma-informed assessment, treatment, and referrals. Future considerations may include timing of presentation to patient, electronic translation of the tool to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration, and tracking of screening completion.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/enfermagem , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Unidades Hospitalares , Hospitalização , Humanos , Mid-Atlantic Region , Enfermeiras Clínicas , Projetos Piloto , Melhoria de Qualidade
17.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 59(4): 480-502, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether levels of perfectionism, organization, and intolerance of uncertainty predispose women to more negative birth experiences and post-partum post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Birth experience was also examined as a potential moderator of the relationship between levels of the personality traits and post-natal PTSS. DESIGN: Prospective survey. METHOD: First-time expectant mothers (N = 10,000) were contacted via Emma's Diary during the perinatal period. At 32-42 weeks' gestation, participants completed measures examining the three personality traits and prenatal mood. At 6-12 weeks' post-partum, instruments assessing childbirth experience, birth trauma, PTSS, and post-natal mood were completed. Data from 418 women were analysed. RESULTS: Higher perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with more negative birth appraisals and PTSS. Organization was unrelated to birth experience or PTSS. In a regression, higher intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism statistically predicted more negative birth appraisals. Only perfectionism predicted PTSS. Birth experience did not moderate the relationship between perfectionism or intolerance of uncertainty and PTSS. CONCLUSIONS: Personality risk factors for negative birth experiences and post-natal PTSS are identifiable prenatally. Maternity care providers could educate women about the unique roles of high perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty during antenatal birth preparation. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Women who expect themselves to be more perfect or who find it more difficult to cope with uncertainty had more negative experiences of childbirth. Women with higher levels of perfectionism were more likely to experience more symptoms of post-traumatic stress during the early post-natal period. Being more perfectionistic continued to have a more negative effect on women's well-being after birth, regardless of whether they had a positive or negative experience of birth. Integrating these findings into antenatal discussion around birth preferences would increase women's awareness of predisposing and obstetric risk factors that partially explain experiences of unsatisfactory births and post-partum post-traumatic stress.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Parto/psicologia , Personalidade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Incerteza , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1498-1514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847484

RESUMO

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 infection and its oft-associated illness COVID-19 may lead to neuropsychological deficits, either through direct mechanisms (i.e., neurovirulance) or indirect mechanisms, most notably complications caused by the virus (e.g., stroke) or medical procedures (e.g., intubation). The history of past human coronavirus outbreaks resulting in similar health emergencies suggests there will be a substantial prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among COVID-19 survivors. To prepare neuropsychologists for the difficult task of differentiating PTSD-related from neuropathology-related deficits in the oncoming wave of COVID-19 survivors, we integrate research across a spectrum of related areas.Methods: Several areas of literature were reviewed: psychiatric, neurologic, and neuropathological outcomes of SARS and MERS patients; neurological outcomes in COVID-19 survivors; PTSD associated with procedures common to COVID-19 patients; and differentiating neuropsychological deficits due to PTSD from those due to acquired brain injuries in other patient groups.Conclusions: Heightened risk of PTSD occurred in MERS and SARS survivors. While data concerning COVID-19 is lacking, PTSD is known to occur in patient groups who undergo similar hospital courses, including ICU survivors, patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated, and those that experience delirium. Research with patients who develop PTSD in the context of mild traumatic brain injury further suggests that PTSD may account for some or all of a patient's subjective cognitive complaints and neuropsychological test performance. Recommendations are provided for assessing PTSD in the context of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 66: 96-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological morbidity in both patients and family members related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience is an often overlooked, and potentially persistent, healthcare problem recognized by the Society of Critical Care Medicine as Post-intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). ICU diaries are an intervention increasingly under study with potential to mitigate ICU-related psychological morbidity, including ICU-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. As we encounter a growing number of ICU survivors, in particular in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, clinicians must be equipped to understand the severity and prevalence of significant psychiatric complications of critical illness. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of the ICU diary, written by family and healthcare workers during the patient's intensive care course, versus education alone in reducing acute PTSD symptoms after discharge. Patients with an ICU stay >72 h, who were intubated and mechanically ventilated over 24 h, were recruited and randomized to either receive a diary at bedside with psychoeducation or psychoeducation alone. Intervention patients received their ICU diary within the first week of admission into the intensive care unit. Psychological symptom screening with IES-R, PHQ-8, HADS and GAD-7 was conducted at baseline within 1 week of ICU discharge and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after ICU discharge. Change from baseline in these scores was assessed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. RESULTS: From September 26, 2017 to September 25, 2018, our team screened 265 patients from the surgical and medical ICUs at a single large academic urban hospital. 60 patients were enrolled and randomized, of which 35 patients completed post-discharge follow-up, (n = 18) in the diary intervention group and (n = 17) in the education-only control group. The control group had a significantly greater decrease in PTSD, hyperarousal, and depression symptoms at week 4 compared to the intervention group. There were no significant differences in other measures, or at other follow-up intervals. Both study groups exhibited clinically significant PTSD symptoms at all timepoints after ICU discharge. Follow-up phone interviews with patients revealed that while many were interested in getting follow-up for their symptoms, there were many barriers to accessing appropriate therapy and clinical attention. CONCLUSIONS: Results from psychological screening tools demonstrate no benefit of ICU diaries versus bedside education-alone in reducing PTSD symptoms related to the intensive care stay. However, our study finds an important gap in clinical practice - patients at high risk for PICS are infrequently connected to appropriate follow-up care. Perhaps ICU diaries would prove beneficial if utilized to support the work within a program providing wrap-around services and close psychiatric follow up for PICS patients. This study demonstrates the high prevalence of ICU-related PTSD in our cohort of survivors, the high barrier to accessing care for appropriate treatment of PICS, and the consequence of that barrier-prolonged psychological morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04305353. GRANT IDENTIFICATION: GH-17-022 (Arnold P. Gold Foundation).


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Ansiedade , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Depressão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Assistência ao Convalescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Sobreviventes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858916

RESUMO

Rescue workers present an elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and recently, research has begun to focus on coping styles and social support as protective factors in this population. Associations in the particular group of search and rescue dog handlers still lack evidence. The aim of the study is to investigate if functional cognitions and social support also decrease the risk for PTSD. Active voluntary rescue dog handlers (n = 116) rated levels of resilience, sense of coherence, and social acknowledgment (SAQ; subscales general disapproval, familial disapproval, recognition), in addition to a trauma checklist and PTSD symptoms. Linear regression analyses and two different graph models were calculated to explore associations, as well as potential pathways. Controlling for trauma exposure, the SAQ general disapproval emerged as the only significant predictor in the regression model. In the graph models, SAQ familial disapproval was linked to SAQ recognition and SAQ general disapproval. The latter, together with a sense of coherence manageability, affected PTSD re-experiencing symptoms through resilience. The findings are in line with earlier work. The study underlines the importance of targeting resilience and manageability, as well as enhancing social support in prevention programs for PTSD in canine search and rescue teams. Future research is warranted to further investigate model stability and replicate findings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Trabalho de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
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