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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 442, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) have high comorbidity. Although prior research indicated that PTSD can effectively be treated with Prolonged Exposure (PE) in these patients, reported effects are small and treatment dropout rates high. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) are other promising treatment options for PTSD, that have not yet been examined in this patient group. Furthermore, it is unclear whether PTSD treatment is most effective when offered simultaneous to or after SUD treatment. METHODS: In this article, the Treatment Of PTSD and Addiction (TOPA) study is described: a Dutch randomized controlled trial (RCT) that studies the effectiveness of PTSD treatment as an add-on to regular SUD treatment in patients with SUD and co-occurring PTSD. Effects of PE, EMDR, ImRs, and a 3-month SUD treatment only condition will be compared, as well as simultaneous SUD/PTSD treatment to sequential SUD/PTSD treatment. The primary outcome measure is PTSD symptoms. Secondary outcomes are: treatment completion, psychological distress, substance use, interpersonal problems, emotion dysregulation, and trauma-related emotions guilt, shame, and anger. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to compare effects of PE, EMDR, and ImRs in one study and to compare simultaneous SUD/PTSD treatment to sequential SUD/PTSD treatment as well. This RCT will provide more knowledge about the effectiveness of different treatment strategies for PTSD in patients with co-occurring SUD and will ultimately improve treatment outcomes for patients with this common co-morbidity worldwide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), Identifier: NL7885 . Registered 22 July 2019.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comorbidade , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 516-521, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and post-traumatic stress in a sample of Brazilians and their relationship with sex, age, and work situation, and compare if these symptoms change with 8 weeks of quarantine. METHODS: Online survey to collect epidemiological data and apply the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Eight weeks later, the researchers requested the same requirements to complete the BAI and IES-R and compare the results. RESULTS: The sample of 287 answered the first and second questionnaires, being 72.8% women, with a median age of 22 years. In the first interview, the median BAI was 12 (7-19) and the median IES-R was 27.0 (15-40); in the second, the median BAI was 11 (6-22) and the IES-R was 30 (15-41) with p<00001 and 0.09, respectively. Anxiety levels were worse in females (p<0.0001 for both BAI and IES-R) and in those who worked/studied in the area of health (p=0.001 for BAI and 0.01 for IES-R). There was a negative correlation between age and anxiety (p<0.0001 for BAI and IES-R). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of anxiety that lowered after 8 weeks were found. Anxiety was worse in females, in younger people, and in those who worked/studied in the area of health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 135, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Offspring of the parents with mental disorders are at higher risk to have the mental diseases throughout the world. This study examined the association between psychopathology of parents and the mental health of their offspring in Neuropsychiatric Hospital of Rwanda, Butare Branch. METHODS: A cross-sectional study made up of case and control offspring was conducted on the case group made up of 80 offspring born to parents with mental diseases and a control group of 80 offspring from parents without mental disease. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, α = 0.82), Posttraumatic stress disorders scale (PTSD, α = 0.73) and the Test of Psychological Problems (TPP, α = 0.93) were used. STATISTICA version 8 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Results indicated a significance difference between the two groups on depressive symptoms, psychological problems and PTSD symptomatology. The case group seemed to experience high level symptoms than the control group. Results indicated that, among the offspring born to parents with mental disease, there was a significant correlation between anxiety and depression symptoms (r = 0.71, p < .001), PTSD and eating disorder (r = 0.75, p < .001), domestic violence and PTSD (r = 0.78, p < .001), aggressive behavior and PTSD (r = 0.79, p < .001), somatoform disorders and PTSD (r = 0.98, p < .001). No significant association between the low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, mental disorders induced drug abuse and PTSD was found. CONCLUSION: Offspring of the parents with mental disorders had higher risk to develop mental diseases than the offspring born to the parents without mental diseases. Taking into account the assessment of parents' mental illness when taking care of the offspring's psychological disorders is needed in the neuropsychiatric hospital.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Pais , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488264

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mental health status and influencing factors of geriatric nurses after workplace violence. Methods: From February 2019 to January 2020, 102 geriatric nurses who suffered workplace violence in three hospitals in Shaoxing were collected as the observation group and 100 geriatric nurses who did not suffer workplace violence in the same period as the control group. The general data of nurses in the two groups were investigated, the workplace violence was investigated with the hospital workplace violence questionnaire, the mental disorders and mental diseases were investigated with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) , the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were investigated with the symptom checklist of post-traumatic stress disorder (pcl-c) , and the psychological elasticity was investigated with the psychological elasticity scale, Social support was investigated with social support scale (SSRs) . Results: The total average score of symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) of nurses with workplace violence was (1.49 ± 0.48) . Compared with the control group, the total average score of SCL-90, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, anxiety and fear factors in the observation group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The total score of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom list (pcl-c) in the observation group was (34.51±9.87) . Compared with the control group, the total average score of pcl-c, re experience, avoidance and vigilance factors in the observation group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The total average score of SCL-90 of nurses with workplace violence was positively correlated with psychological elasticity and social support (P<0.05) . Multivariate linear analysis showed that psychological elasticity, tenacity and control, optimism, social support and subjective support were the main factors affecting nurses'mental health. Conclusion: Geriatric nurses suffering from workplace violence are prone to mental health problems and post-traumatic stress disorder, which should be improved by improving their psychological elasticity and social support.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Violência no Trabalho , Idoso , Ansiedade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488280

RESUMO

Emergency rescue workers are the high risk group of traumatic stress disorder. A large number of intervention studies on traumatic stress disorder have been carried out at home and abroad, but there are few applied researches on the emergency rescue population. As an occupational hazard faced by the emergency rescue population, traumatic stress disorder has not attracted enough attention. In this paper, the psychological intervention, drug intervention, psychological training and social support were reviewed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Trabalho de Resgate , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
6.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 449-456, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dental symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients include a majority of painful temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscle findings, restricted mouth opening, and pronounced attritions. Traumatic occlusal force resulting in injury of the teeth and/or the periodontal attachment apparatus may exceed the adaptive capacity of the individual person or site. This observational cross-sectional study in soldiers with PTSD and a non-PTSD control group after military deployments aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between bruxism and periodontal diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six in-patients and 27 out-patients (21 women, 102 men) with specialist-confirmed PTSD and bruxism after up to 17 foreign assignments, and 36 male non-PTSD controls with up to 15 foreign assignments underwent general dental, functional, and periodontal examinations. RESULTS: All three groups showed no statistically significant differences in terms of age (34.8 ± 8.6 years), number of teeth (n: 26.3 ± 3.4), status of dentition (DMFT 9.7 ± 6.6), incidence of periodontitis (36%) and recessions (n: 5.8 ± 5.7). From the control group to the out-patient group to the in-patient group, the proportion of smokers and tobacco use increased statistically significantly, as did the extent of attrition. In the in-patient group, with statistically significantly lower educational levels, the number of perceived prophylaxis sessions was statistically significantly reduced in the last two years. CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the retrospective recording of the last traumatic event, the average time of five years until therapy does not seem to have any consequences for the frequency and severity of inflammatory periodontal disease, recession, and wedge-shaped defects in soldiers with bruxism in PTSD, regardless of the need for in-patient or out-patient treatment.


Assuntos
Militares , Doenças Periodontais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Desgaste dos Dentes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
7.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501726

RESUMO

The early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic presented the characteristics of a traumatic event that could trigger post-traumatic stress disorder. Emergency Medical Services workers are already a high-risk group due to their professional development. The research project aimed to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on EMS professionals in terms of their mental health. For this purpose, we present a descriptive crosssectional study with survey methodology. A total of 317 EMS workers (doctors, nurses, and emergency medical technicians) were recruited voluntarily. Psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and insomnia were assessed. The instruments were the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS-8), and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8). We found that 36% of respondents had psychological distress, 30.9% potentially had PTSD, and 60.9% experienced insomnia. Years of work experience were found to be positively correlated, albeit with low effect, with the PTSD score (r = 0.133). Finally, it can be stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has been a traumatic event for EMS workers. The number of professionals presenting psychological distress, possible PTSD, or insomnia increased dramatically during the early phases of the pandemic. This study highlights the need for mental health disorder prevention programmes for EMS workers in the face of a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501747

RESUMO

COVID-19 has impacted people psychologically globally, including healthcare providers. Anxiety, depression, and stress are the most common impacts that have affected these people. Thus, this study was aimed to ascertain the estimated prevalence of psychological impacts among healthcare providers in the Asian region. A systematic search was performed in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for original research articles published between 2020 and April 2021. Only studies published in English were included. The quality of data was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis, and the analysis was performed using generic inverse variance with a random-effects model by Review Manager software. A total of 80 studies across 18 countries in Asia region were pooled to assess the data prevalence on anxiety (34.81% (95% CI: 30.80%, 38.83%)), depression (34.61% (95% CI: 30.87%, 38.36%)), stress (31.72% (95% CI: 21.25%, 42.18%)), insomnia (37.89% (95% CI: 25.43%, 50.35%)), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15.29% (95% CI: 11.43%, 19.15%)). Subgroup analyses were conducted across regions, type of healthcare providers, sex, and occupation. This review has identified a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, and insomnia but a low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among healthcare providers in Asia regions. Effective intervention support programs are urgently needed to improve psychological health of healthcare providers and maintaining the health system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049651, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although there is evidence that work-related exposures cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few quantitative studies assessing the degree to which these factors contribute to PTSD. This systematic review with meta-analysis identified work-related exposures associated with PTSD, and quantified their contribution to this disorder. METHODS: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, PILOTS and Web of Science (2005-10 September 2019) for longitudinal studies on work-related exposures and PTSD. We described included articles, and conducted meta-analyses for exposures with sufficient homogeneous information. We performed subgroup analyses for risk of bias, study design and PTSD ascertainment. We assessed evidence quality using Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation, and estimated population attributable fractions. RESULTS: After screening 8590 records, we selected 33 studies (n=5 719 236). From what was moderate quality evidence at best, we identified various work-related exposures that were associated with PTSD, mainly involving individuals in the military and first responder (eg, police or fire brigade) occupations. These exposures included the number of army deployments (OR: 1.15 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.16)), combat exposure (OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.46 to 2.45)), army deployment (OR 1.79 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.21)) and confrontation with death (OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.90)). Effects were robust across subgroups and exposures attributed modestly (7%-34%) to PTSD. We identified additional exposures in other occupations, including life threats, being present during an attack, and hearing about a colleague's trauma. CONCLUSIONS: We identified various work-related exposures associated with PTSD and quantified their contribution. While exposure assessment, PTSD ascertainment and inconsistency may have biased our findings, our data are of importance for development of preventive interventions and occupational health guidelines.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 176, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the "Impact of Event Scale - Revised" (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of thirty mothers (mean age 43.0 ± 4.2 years) and 25 fathers (mean age 45.6 ± 5.9 years) participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires. 29.1% of parents had a score that allows to define a clinically relevant level of PTSD; ten mothers and 6 fathers had a PTSD clinically relevant score, corresponding, respectively, to 28.4 and 24% of total mothers and fathers. Finally, mothers and fathers, both express PTSD symptoms mainly in the form of intrusion and hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms a high prevalence symptoms related to PTSD in mothers and fathers of children with Type 1 Diabetes. We believe that psychosocial outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic should be taken into account in the planning of the next future assistance for children with T1D.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395359

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among frontline medical staff during the lockdown in Wuhan city, China, due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: The study was conducted in August 2020, which included 516 medical staff between 21 to 65 years. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian, Perceived Stress Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Compassion Fatigue Short Scale were used. Results: The results indicated that 10.5% of the medical staff experienced PTSD symptoms, and insomnia severity mediated the effect of perceived stress on PTSD. In addition, compassion fatigue moderated the association between perceived stress and PTSD. Conclusion: The study elucidated the mechanisms underlying the association between perceived stress and PTSD. Moreover, it emphasized the importance of long-term monitoring of the mental health status of frontline medical staff who supported Wuhan. The results can serve as reference for relevant medical and health departments to formulate active interventions and preventive measures against PTSD for unsung heroes who put their lives on the line during difficult times.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 63: 102800, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340165

RESUMO

Lebanon has been under continuous conflict for more than four decades, putting millions of Lebanese at a high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and creating a complex collective trauma. This paper aimed to review all studies from Lebanon reporting on PTSD in order to describe the prevalence of PTSD and its associated risk factors among Lebanese adults. A search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted in February/March 2021 to identify research articles on PTSD in Lebanese adults. A total of 1064 articles were identified, out of which 11 articles (5875 participants) published between 2003 and 2020 were included. PTSD prevalence estimates were highly variable across the individual studies, ranging from 2 % to 98 %. Female sex, economic hardship, lower educational level, being unemployed, number of witnessed/experienced traumatic events, and presence of comorbid psychological disorders were associated with higher PTSD rates. In light of the increasing PTSD risk in the Lebanese population as a result of the recent Beirut blast and ongoing social and economic crises, further culturally competent research is needed to provide rigorous evidence on the prevalence, course, and severity of PTSD in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444284

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has resulted in many journalists repeatedly covering stories related to human suffering. This study investigates whether these journalists experienced higher rates of psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms than those who have been working during the pandemic yet covering stories other than COVID-19 and aims to identify what factors may protect journalists from developing trauma-related symptoms. We assessed journalists (n = 120) working during the COVID-19 pandemic using self-report measures. Journalists repeatedly covering COVID-19 stories had significantly higher psychological distress (η2 = 0.04) and PTSD symptoms (η2 = 0.08), but not depression, compared to journalists who did not report on COVID-19. Rumination and numbing in response to unwanted memories predicted PTSD symptoms (R2 = 0.53) and may be risk factors for PTSD in this population. Unhelpful resilience appraisals distinguished journalists who reported on COVID-19 and who developed distressing re-experiencing symptoms from those who similarly reported on distressing material and who did not develop symptoms. Targeting resilience appraisals may be helpful in reducing re-experiencing symptoms after trauma exposure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1546, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of and factors associated with PTSD among adult females in Nigeria, particularly those who live in slums. PTSD is a mental health condition that develops among some individuals who experience or witness a traumatic event. Several other factors could place individuals at heightened risk of PTSD including stress and comorbid mental disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors associated with PTSD among female urban slum dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey using multistage sampling of 550 women aged 18 and above from selected slums. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit information on experience of childhood trauma, recent stressors, intimate partner violence, other mental disorders, sociodemographic characteristics and PTSD. PTSD was measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) which is based on DSM IV. A multivariable linear regression model was built to test associations between PTSD and independent variables. RESULTS: The prevalence for PTSD was found to be 4.18% and the mean PTSD score was 5.80 ± 7.11. Sexual abuse in childhood, past year intimate partner violence and anxiety were significantly associated with higher PTSD scores. PTSD was not significantly associated with a history of recent stressors. Education, employment and marital status were not associated with PTSD however, age and wealth index showed marginal association with PTSD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PTSD among women living in Ibadan slums was relatively low. Both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence can be prevented. We also recommend longitudinal studies to better understand risk and protective factors.


Assuntos
Áreas de Pobreza , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16496, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389793

RESUMO

COVID-19 has brought considerable changes and caused critical psychological responses, especially among frail populations. So far, researchers have explored the predictive effect of diverse factors on pandemic-related psychological distress, but none have focused on the impact of prior depression and anxiety symptomatology adopting an extended (10-year) longitudinal design. 105 patients aged over 60, affected by hypertension who participated in a previous longitudinal study were assessed through a follow-up telephone structured interview. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were used for assessing depression and anxiety symptoms and the psychological impact of COVID-19, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. At the assessment, participants did not report clinically relevant depression, anxiety, and psychological pandemic-related distress symptoms. However, significant mean differences between baseline and current follow-up evaluations for both depression and anxiety were found, reflecting a decrease in symptomatology over time (p < .001). Baseline depression symptoms (ß = 1.483, p = .005) significantly predicted the psychological impact of COVID-19 after 10 years. Conversely, their decrease (ß = -1.640, p < .001) and living with others (ß = -7.274, p = .041) significantly contributed to lower psychological distress scores. Our findings provide insight into the predisposing influence of depressive symptoms on pandemic-related psychological distress ten years later. Preventive interventions and strategies considering these factors are needed to better pre-empt the severe mental consequences of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444576

RESUMO

The Syrian conflict has led to a mass migration of Syrians to other countries and exposed them to many possible traumatic events and stressors in their country of origin and in the resettlement process. The possibility of positive psychological effects of adverse life events is less documented among Syrian refugees. Thus, the current study aimed to develop preliminary evidence for the identifying factors: traumatic experiences, post-migration stressors and coping strategies that are associated with post-traumatic growth (PTG) of Syrian refugees residing in Turkey. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in the current study to assess the associations among these factors. Data were obtained from Syrian refugees residing in the governorates of Hatay and Mardin. A total of 528 Syrians, aged between 18-77 years (M = 35.60, SD = 11.65) participated in this cross-sectional study. Results from the SEM indicated that past traumatic experiences and post-migration stressors were indirectly related to PTG. The results from the current study provide support for that the association between refugees' traumatic experiences, post-migration stressors and PTG appear to be explained through the presence of coping strategies which could be addressed in the psychotherapies and psychosocial interventions for refugees to promote positive psychological change. Future studies should address the effects of post-migration stressors on PTG in detail.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Síria , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1499, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a major virus outbreak in the twenty-first century, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study based on the results of an online survey. The survey was conducted 1 month after the outbreak (February 18-29, 2020) and repeated at the time of resuming activity (April 8-14, 2020). The 15-item Death Anxiety Scale (T-DAS) was used to assess the degree of death anxiety, and the Chinese version of PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C), for PTSD symptom clusters. Through convenient sampling, a total of 7678 cases were collected. RESULTS: Our findings showed that even after the lockdown was lifted, the prevalence of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and death anxiety remained significantly high in the general population affected by the outbreak. Regression model analysis showed that PTSD was significantly associated with age > 50 years, contact history/living community, poor health status of participants, past traumatic experience (PTE), and medical occupation. Moreover, death anxiety mediated the relationship between life-threatening PTE and PTSD, indicating that reducing death anxiety could buffer the negative effects of PTE on PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lifting of the lockdown, long-term adverse psychological effects remain in the affected general population. The management of mental health after major public health events is important, and high-risk groups such as the elderly and healthcare workers should receive targeted interventions. In addition, the study suggests that methods for alleviating death anxiety must be included in plans to manage the psychological impact of public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360211

RESUMO

Prior to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, the South African healthcare system was already under severe strain due to amongst others, a lack of human resources, poor governance and management, and an unequal distribution of resources among provinces and between the public and private healthcare sectors. At the center of these challenges are nurses, the backbone of the healthcare system, and the first point of call for most patients in the country. This research investigated post-traumatic stress and coping strategies of nurses during the second wave of COVID-19 in the country. A structured self-administered questionnaire captured the biographic characteristics, perceived risk factors for COVID-19, and views on infection control of 286 nurses Data were subjected to descriptive and binomial logistic regression analyses. More than four in every 10 nurses screened positive for higher levels of post-traumatic disorder (PTSD). Self-reported risk for contracting COVID-19 mainly centered on being a health worker and patients' non-adherence to infection prevention guidelines. Unpreparedness to manage COVID-19 patients, poorer health, and avoidant coping were associated with PTSD. Nurses voiced a need for emotional support and empathy from managers. Emotional, psychological, and debriefing intervention sessions that focus on positive coping strategies to actively address stress are recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
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