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1.
Lancet ; 395(10227): 912-920, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112714

RESUMO

The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Financiamento Pessoal , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/psicologia , Condições Sociais , Estigma Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 189-197, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141597

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to violence is a significant risk factor for the development of psychopathology in young people. Research on the mental health consequences of violence exposure in youth has focused mostly on post-traumatic stress disorder, however, the association with depression and anxiety has also been established. As a result of the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict, young Palestinians are vulnerable to exposure to various types of violence. Aims: We examined psychiatric symptomatology and its relationship to direct and indirect forms of violence exposure. Methods: A representative household survey of 2481 Palestinian youth was conducted in 2014. Self-report measures included psychiatric symptomatology (global distress, depression, anxiety) and violence exposure (personal victimization, witnessed, vicariously heard about). Results: The proportion of elevated symptoms of global distress (46%), depression (55%), and (37%) anxiety was high; 47% had been a personal victim, 71% had witnessed violence, and 69% had heard about violence experienced by someone close to them. In logistic regression analysis, controlling for other bivariate correlates, exposure to any violence event, as well as any of the 3 types of violence exposure, were independently associated with each of the 3 measures of elevated psychiatric symptomatology. Females were 4 times more likely to report elevated psychopathology, despite being less likely to experience each type of violence. Conclusions: These findings suggest the need for services that cater to the mental health needs of youth in settings of high violence exposure, and that gender-specific strategies may be useful.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição à Violência , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 209-212, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187924

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the psychological state and affected factors of elderly patients with hip fractures. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 156 elderly hip fracture patients(>65 years) admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from January 2016 to August 2019 was performed. General and psychological information were collected by questionnaire.General information included age, gender, education, whether surgery, length of stay.SCL-90, a self-assessment scale, was chosen as the psychological test to analyzed the elderly hip fracture patients' psychological status during hospitalization and the norms of SCL-90 in Chinese which were established in 1986 were used as the control group. The prognostic factors were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoid factor scores, and total scores of the elderly hip fracture patients were significantly higher than control group(all P=0.00).Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis showed that non-surgery treatment and more than 10 days of hospitalization were independent prognostic factors that affected the psychological state of elderly hip fracture patients (all P=0.00). Conclusion: Elderly patients hospitalized with osteoporosis and hip fractures are prone to have negative emotional and psychological changes.The length of hospitalization and the choice of treatment can affect patients' psychological state, suggesting that effective psychological intervention is necessary.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/psicologia , Osteoporose , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Idoso , China , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 492-501, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800175

RESUMO

The study involving 317 former combatants aged 24 to 69 years was conducted. The aim of the study was to determine the regularities of the age dynamics of stress-induced pathology of combatants to develop the concept of their accelerated aging as a final component of the consequences of combat stress. It turned out that in relation to the period of influence of factors of combat stress and age, first manifests the pathology of the musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract and arterial hypertension, then-cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The formation of post-traumatic stress disorder occurred in 289 (91,2%) cases, and the chronic pain syndromes of different localization and different origin - in 192 (60,6%) at different times of the post-war period. But it is post-traumatic stress disorder in combination with chronic pain were decisive in the overall severity of the state of combatants, changes in indicators of free radical oxidation and an increase in biological age. It is proposed to consider accelerated aging, which is formed on the basis of the consequences of severe stress effects, as an independent disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença Crônica , Distúrbios de Guerra , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 84, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was a major traumatic event affecting nearly all Rwandans. Significant psychological sequels continue to occur in the population 25 years after, with a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found in women. Three groups are typically designated with regard to the Genocide against the Tutsi: those who were targeted and categorized as genocide "survivors," those who were in the country during the genocide and were the "non-targeted" group, and those who were outside of the country, referred to as the "1959 returnees." Each group experienced various traumatic events during and in the aftermath of the genocide. Offspring of the designated groups, currently exhibit symptoms of PTSD disregarding of being born in the years following the genocide. A number of studies have described the prevalence of PTSD in the general adult population. There is a lack of research comparing the prevalence of PTSD in women and their offspring among these three target groups, therefore, this study aimed to bridge the gap. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study with a sample of 432 mothers and 432 children in three categories: genocide survivors, in country non-targeted and 1959 returnees. Participant ages for children were between 14 to 22 years and for mothers, between the ages of 32 to 87 years. The UCLA-PTSD DSM-5, PTSD Check list-5 and Life events Checklist-5 were translated from English to Kinyarwanda and were used to assess exposure to trauma and the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in Rwandan mothers and their offspring. RESULTS: Key Results yield a PTSD rate of 18.8, 6.2, 5.2% within survivors, in country non-targeted, and returnees respectively with an average PTSD rate of 43.8% for parents, and 16.5% for offspring. CONCLUSION: PTSD among the mothers' groups and their offspring have been found, specifically in the offspring of genocide survivors. Considering these adolescents were not born at the time of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, the results suggest future studies should explore the precipitating factors contributing to the PTSD symptoms within this specific group.


Assuntos
Genocídio , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Prevalência , Ruanda , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 579-584, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency medical system (EMS) workers are exposed to traumatic events that may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore and discuss the relationship between peritraumatic distress (PD) and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in EMS employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 100 EMS employees was conducted. Demographic and occupational data were collected for each subject. The Polish version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to evaluate PTSS and the Polish version of the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) was used to determine the level of PD experienced during and immediately after a traumatic event. RESULTS: The highest scores indicative of distress were obtained on the negative emotions subscale, and the lowest on the loss of control and arousal (LCA) subscales. A strong positive correlation was found between the severity of PD and PTSS. Among the PDI subscales, the severity of PTSS was most strongly correlated with LCA, and had the weakest correlation with sense of threat. The optimal PDI cut-off score for predicting elevated PTSS was 19. CONCLUSIONS: PD is strongly related to elevated PTSS and serves as a useful tool for screening EMS workers at risk of developing PTSD. Individuals with PDI scores of 19 or higher are good candidates for specialist consultations aimed at detecting and treating elevated PTSS.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 172, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of psychosocial problems post-injury may prevent them from becoming chronic. Currently, there is no psychosocial screening instrument that can be used in patients surviving a physical trauma or injury. Therefore, we recently developed a psychosocial screening instrument for adult physical trauma patients, the PSIT. The aim of this study was to finalize and psychometrically examine the PSIT. METHODS: All adult (≥ 18 years) trauma patients admitted to a Dutch level I trauma center from October 2016 through September 2017 without severe cognitive disorders (n = 1448) received the PSIT, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref). After 2 weeks, a subgroup of responding participants received the PSIT a second time. The internal structure (principal components analysis, PCA; and confirmatory factor analysis, CFA), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, α), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC), construct validity (Spearman's rho correlations), diagnostic accuracy (Area Under the Curve, AUC), and potential cut-off values (sensitivity and specificity) were examined. RESULTS: A total of 364 (25.1%) patients participated, of whom 128 completed the PSIT again after 19.5 ± 6.8 days. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.86). Based on PCA, five items were removed because of cross-loadings ≥ 0.3. Three subscales were identified: (1) Negative affect (7 items; α = 0.91; AUC = 0.92); (2) Anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms (4 items; α = 0.77; AUC = 0.88); and (3) Social and self-image (4 items; α = 0.79; AUC = 0.92). CFA supported this structure (comparative fit index = 0.96; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; standardized rood mean square residual = 0.04). Four of the five a priori formulated hypotheses regarding construct validity were confirmed. The following cut-off values represent maximum sensitivity and specificity: 7 on subscale 1 (89.6% and 83.4%), 3 on subscale 2 (94.4% and 90.3%), and 4 on subscale 3 (85.7% and 90.7%). CONCLUSION: The final PSIT has good psychometric properties in adult trauma patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1003-1018, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined how severity of disaster exposure and predisaster individual and family characteristics predicted trajectories of disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in children over 4 years following a devastating EF-4 tornado. METHOD: Participants (n = 346; 65% male; 77.5% African American) were 4th-6th-graders and their caregivers, from predominantly low-income households, who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Latent class trajectory analyses were used to identify disaster-related PTSS trajectory groups across the 4-year postdisaster period. RESULTS: Three groups were identified: (1) a group that declined (recovery) in PTSS over time (15.90%); (2) a group that was stable and low in PTSS over time (76.87%); and (3) a group that was stable and high (chronic) in PTSS over time (7.23%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that greater tornado exposure predicted membership in the declining trajectory group relative to the low-stable group. Positive parenting and pretornado caregiver trauma exposure also moderated how disaster exposure, particularly perceived life threat, predicted PTSS trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Some youth reported elevated disaster-related PTSS repeatedly for 4 years following a devastating tornado. Consistent with the concept of equifinality, results suggest that there are several pre-exposure risk factors that may increase risk for a chronic PTSS trajectory following disaster exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tornados , Criança , Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 870, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma- and stressor-related disorders pose an important threat for patients with medical conditions by negatively affecting the outcomes of the underlying somatic disease. Nevertheless, research on distress in the course of hematological cancer is sparse to date. For this patient group, however, treatment is often more toxic and invasive than for other cancer populations. A subgroup of these patients is treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT) which is associated with many stressors including spatial isolation or fear of life-threatening complications. Existing results are inconsistent and primarily based on self-report questionnaires and small samples. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of trauma- and stressor-related disorders have recently been updated. METHODS: This German cross-sectional study will recruit at total of 600 hematological cancer patients, of which 300 will have undergone either autologous or allogeneic SCT. Participants will be assessed for trauma- and stressor-related disorders (adjustment disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder) using a structured clinical interview (SCID-5) based on updated diagnostic criteria. Qualitative investigation of the reported stressors will be used for differential diagnostic investigations and to examine which stressors are experienced as most distressing. Additionally, severity of distress (i.e., general distress as well as anxious, depressive and stressor-related symptomatology) will be assessed by validated questionnaires. We will (i) provide the prevalence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders, (ii) investigate medical and sociodemographic risk factors and (iii) compare the levels of distress within the patient group (SCT vs. non-SCT) and between patients and age- and gender-matched reference groups from the German general population. DISCUSSION: This study will assess the prevalence of stressor-related disorders and the level of distress among hematological cancer patients across different treatment settings. Identification of medical and sociodemographic risk factors will help to closely monitor patients with a high risk of distress and to deliver psycho-oncological treatment as soon as possible. Comparisons between patients and norm values will be used to identify the need for psycho-oncological treatment in subgroups of hematological patients and thus help to further develop and implement tailored psycho-oncological interventions.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 276, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are common in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors. Brief screening instruments are needed for clinical and research purposes. We evaluated internal consistency, external construct, and criterion validity of the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6; 6 items) compared to the original Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R; 22 items) and to the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) reference standard evaluation in ARDS survivors. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis from two independent multi-site, prospective studies of ARDS survivors. Measures of internal consistency, and external construct and criterion validity were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1001 ARDS survivors (51% female, 76% white, mean (SD) age 49 (14) years) were evaluated. The IES-6 demonstrated internal consistency over multiple time points up to 5 years after ARDS (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 to 0.91) and high correlation with the IES-R (0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94 to 0.97). The IES-6 demonstrated stronger correlations with related constructs (e.g., anxiety and depression; |r| = 0.32 to 0.52) and weaker correlations with unrelated constructs (e.g., physical function and healthcare utilization measures (|r| = 0.02 to 0.27). Criterion validity evaluation with the CAPS diagnosis of PTSD in a subsample of 60 participants yielded an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% CI) of 0.93 (0.86, 1.00), with an IES-6 cutoff score of 1.75 yielding 0.88 sensitivity and 0.85 specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The IES-6 is reliable and valid for screening for PTSD in ARDS survivors and may be useful in clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(3): 97-108, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282489

RESUMO

AIM: This review aims to examine the recent literature on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) in order to provide definitions, Italian and international prevalence data, prevalence data in special populations (such as patients with severe mental illness), investigations into risk factors (alcohol, substances, child abuse) and the consequences on general and mental health. METHODS: Free search has been used in Medline/PubMed with key words (("Mental Disorders" [Majr]) AND "Crime Victims" [Majr: NoExp]) AND (("Domestic Violence" [Majr]) OR "Intimate Partner Violence" [Majr]) and in PsychInfo with MJSUB.EXACT.EXPLODE ("Victimization") AND MJSUB.EXACT.EXPLODE ("Mental Disorders") AND (MJSUB.EXACT.EXPLODE ("Intimate Partner Violence") OR MJSUB. EXACT.EXPLODE ("Domestic Violence")). RESULTS: 219 publications in PubMed (during the last 10 years) and 48 in PsychInfo concerning IPV and mental disorders; National websites (e.g. ISTAT, Office for National Statistics) have provided updated epidemiological data. DISCUSSION: In many countries, IPV and domestic violence are subject to national surveys, but scientific research on the topic mainly involves England and the United States, in order to establish the possible correlations between IPV, mental disorders and risk factors. Alcohol and substance use disorders and childhood abuse are the most risk factors related to IPV. This type of violence is a major public health problem, also in economic terms, for its consequences on physical and mental health. The WHO in 2011 developed some guidelines for health professionals on how to respond adequately to violence from an intimate partner and to sexual violence against women. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the importance of violence between partners, the health and academic institutions have the task of framing the phenomenon in epidemiological and clinical terms, providing updated research data to the stakeholders, in order to improve the treatment and prevention practices.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(6): 488-495, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to war and conflict increases the risk of mental health problems. Poor living conditions are known to negatively impact mental health. HYPOTHESIS: It is hypothesized that exposure to negative events after armed conflict interacts with past negative experiences, socioeconomic factors and current mental health problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three contexts of previous internal armed conflict: Nepal, Guatemala and Northern Ireland. Three nationally representative samples were drawn, comprising a net sample of 3,229 respondents. RESULTS: Both recent negative events and past negative events linked to the previous conflicts were found to be associated with elevated risk of post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Economic marginalization and urban residency also contributed to current risk of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the study hypothesis that both past and recent negative events in combination with economic marginalization contribute to explain current risk of PTSD. It is necessary both to improve living conditions more broadly and to establish and develop health services that have the capacity to screen, prevent and treat mental health problems also in poor contexts, in particular against a background of previous armed conflict.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(5): 285-294, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of childhood sexual abuse victims suffer from psychological sequelae in adulthood. Factors that provide a better understanding for the reasons why some victims develop these sequelae remain under-explored. In this context, the main objective is to examine the specific contribution of the contextual characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, multitype childhood maltreatment and adolescent suicide attempts on the development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in adulthood among sexually abused women as children. A secondary objective aimed to establish the prevalence of various forms of childhood maltreatment, adult onset post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among those women. METHODS: The sample included 479 women victims of childhood sexual abuse who participated in two separate surveys taken by women in the province of Quebec. RESULTS: More than half of these women reported at least one other form of childhood maltreatment, 30% of them presented post-traumatic disorder and 40% suffered from depression in adulthood. Regression analysis indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with early onset childhood sexual abuse and intergenerational continuity of sexual victimization, as well as childhood physical maltreatment and negligence. Depression was associated with childhood psychological maltreatment and negligence, a non-supportive response following child sexual abuse related disclosure and suicide attempt in adolescence. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the need to consider the cumulative effects of various childhood adversity factors in the psychosocial assessment of sexually abused women in early life, thus helping to better understand and treat their psychological sequelae.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 440-450, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348404

RESUMO

Traumatic injury affects over 2.6 million U.S. adults annually and elevates risk for a number of negative health consequences. This includes substantial psychological harm, the most prominent being posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with approximately 21% of traumatic injury survivors developing the disorder within the first year after injury. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with deficits in physical recovery, social functioning, and quality of life. Depression is diagnosed in approximately 6% in the year after injury and is also a predictor of poor quality of life. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma suggests screening for and treatment of PTSD and depression, reflecting a growing awareness of the critical need to address patients' mental health needs after trauma. While some trauma centers have implemented screening and treatment or referral for treatment programs, the majority are evaluating how to best address this recommendation, and no standard approach for screening and treatment currently exists. Further, guidelines are not yet available with respect to resources that may be used to effectively screen and treat these disorders in trauma survivors, as well as who is going to bear the costs. The purpose of this review is: (1) to evaluate the current state of the literature regarding evidence-based screens for PTSD and depression in the hospitalized trauma patient and (2) summarize the literature to date regarding the treatments that have empirical support in treating PTSD and depression acutely after injury. This review also includes structural and funding information regarding existing postinjury mental health programs. Screening of injured patients and timely intervention to prevent or treat PTSD and depression could substantially improve health outcomes and improve quality of life for this high-risk population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Review, level IV.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 1967-1971, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350952

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal cancer is the third most common types of cancer in the world which leads to a lot of stress among sufferers. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are used to treat stress induced by serious diseases. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) technique is considered as one of non-pharmacological method for decreasing patient's stress. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of home care using EMDR technique on the stress of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Materials and Methods: The current semi-experimental study was performed on patients with gastrointestinal cancer residing in Ilam, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=30) and control (n=30). Home care was provided for intervention group in patients' homes which included 2 sessions (a total of 60 sessions for all patients). Each session lasted for 45 to 60 minutes according to EMDR protocol. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 16). Results: The findings of this study showed that most of patients were male (36, 60%), had diploma degrees (44, 73.3%), had a monthly income less than 500 thousand (38, 63.3%), were married (39, 65 %). The mean age of the patients was 69.18 ± 11.58 years. No statistically significant difference was observed between two groups before the intervention in terms of patients' perceived stress (P>0.05). However, efficacy and perceived distress of the intervention group significantly was decreased following the intervention (P<0.05). Conclusions: According to the findings regarding the impact of home care using EMDR technique on reducing stress in patients with gastrointestinal cancer, the implementation of this intervention and provision of education for patients are recommended to expand the nursing duty to community health wards as well as to improve the health status of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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