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1.
Animal ; 15(2): 100106, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712219

RESUMO

High environmental temperatures are a foremost concern affecting poultry production; thus, understanding and controlling such conditions are vital to successful production and welfare of poultry. In view of this, a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving two local strains (Kirin chicken (KC) and Three-yellow chicken (TYC)) and two temperature groups (normal/control = 30 ±â€¯2 °C and acute heat stress (AHS) = 35 ±â€¯1 °C for 8-h with 70% humidity) was used to assess the main regulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP70) gene, cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10), muscle development gene (IGF-1) and tissue histopathological changes. At 56 days old, the temperatures of the comb (CT), feet (FT), eyelid (ET) and rectal (RT) from each group were taken thrice at 0, 2, 4 and 8-h during AHS, and 1 and 3-h recovery period after AHS. At 80 days old, the slaughter weight was also analyzed. The CT and ET of the AHS groups increased during the 8-h trial, while the RT of both strains decreased significantly at 4 h but increased at 8 h in the TYC group. All temperature recordings dropped in the AHS groups of both strains during the recovery period. The results revealed that the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the liver was higher in the heat-stressed group of both strains compared to the control. The expression of HSP70 was shown in the AHS-KC group to be significantly high compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the IGF1 gene in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle was downregulated in the AHS-TYC group compared to the control (P < 0.05), although that in the AHS-KC was downregulated in the breast muscle. The mRNA expression of spleen IL-1ß significantly decreased in the AHS-TYC group (P < 0.01), whereas that of the AHS-KC had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of spleen IL-6 and IL-10 was increased in the AHS-KC group but did not exhibit obvious changes in the AHS-TYC. Correspondingly, the histopathological examinations revealed tissue injury in the AHS groups of both strains, with the TYC strain experiencing more severe changes. The final live and carcass weights showed a significant enhancement in the treatments (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and treatment×strain interaction (P < 0.05) with breast muscle rate significantly reducing among the treatments (P < 0.01) at 80 days. In conclusion, the differential response to AHS after physiological, molecular and immune response portrays KC to have better thermal tolerance than the TYC.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677551

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate whether cooled floor pads combined with chilled drinking water could alleviate negative impacts of heat stress on lactating sows. Thirty sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, Parity = 1 to 6) were housed in individual farrowing stalls in two rooms with temperatures being controlled at 29.4°C (0700-1900 hours) and 23.9°C (1900-0700 hours). Sows in one room (Cool), but not in the other room (Control) were provided cooled floor pads (21-22°C) and chilled drinking water (13-15°C). Behavior of sows (15 sows/treatment) was video recorded during farrowing, and days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after farrowing. Videos were viewed continuously to register the birth time of each piglet, from which total farrowing duration and birth intervals were calculated. The number of drinking bouts and the duration of each drinking bout were registered for each sow through viewing videos continuously for 2 h (1530-1730 hours) each video-recording day. Postures (lying laterally, lying ventrally, sitting, and standing) were recorded by scanning video recordings at 5-min intervals for 24 h each video-recording day, and time budget for each posture was calculated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured for all sows the day before and after farrowing, and then once weekly. Sow and litter performance was recorded. Data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure of SAS. The cooling treatment did not affect sow behavior or litter performance. Sows in the Cool room had lower rectal temperature (P = 0.03) and lower respiration rate (P < 0.001), consumed more feed (P = 0.03), tended to have reduced weight loss (P = 0.07), and backfat loss (P = 0.07) during lactation than sows in the Control room. As lactation progressed, sows increased drinking frequency (P < 0.001) and time spent lying ventrally (P < 0.0001), standing (P < 0.001), and sitting (P < 0.0001), and decreased time spent lying laterally (P < 0.0001) in both Cool and Control rooms. While cooled floor pads combined with chilled drinking water did not affect sow behavior, they did alleviate heat stress partially, as indicated by decreased rectal temperature, respiration rate, weight, and backfat loss, and increased feed intake in lactating sows.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Suínos
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4970-4979, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551154

RESUMO

Heat stress is detrimental during gestation; however, the effects of heat stress on goat placental characteristics and kid survival remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress at final gestation on cortisol concentration, placenta characteristics, and the expression of genes related to placenta. Forty-six primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats were subjected to control (CT; under a thermoneutral environment: air temperature between 12°C and 25°C and the relative humidity from 45 to 73%, n = 23) or heat stress (HS; under a climatic chamber: air temperature at 37°C and the relative humidity at 60 to 70% from 0800 to 1600 h, n = 23) from the last 60 d of pregnancy until the first colostrum suckling. The heat challenge imposed on HS goats during the prepartum period increased their rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and cortisol levels in plasma and amniotic fluid versus CT goats. In the placenta, HS treatment also increased the expression of the HSPA1A gene. Heat-stressed goats also showed significantly lower expression of HSD11B2 and greater expression of MC2R and NR3C1 than CT goats, suggesting that heat stress decreased the effectiveness by which the HSD11B2 enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and increased placental responsiveness to cortisol. The HS goats took longer to release the placenta with lighter placental cotyledons, and HS goats had a lower ratio between the kid's weight at birth and placenta weight than CT goats. There was no treatment effect on the kids' survival or weights at birth, but the kids from goats subjected to HS presented lesser cortisol concentration and greater mortality rates at weaning than kids from CT goats. Finally, the overexpression of HSPA1A by HS goats suggests a protective response of placenta. However, the heat stress negatively affected the placenta's expulsion length, placental cotyledons number, weight and area, the ratio between kid's weight and placenta weight, and cortisol signaling. Indeed, the upregulation of MC2R and NR3C1 and downregulation of HSD11B2 on placenta caused by heat stress were associated with greater cortisol concentrations in the amniotic fluid of HS goats. Although HS and CT kids had adequate weights and survival rate during the first weeks of life, the heat stress increased the mortality at weaning of HS kids versus CT kids, suggesting that the heat stress effect persists and can change the ability of kids to respond to weaning challenge.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Feminino , Cabras , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Parto , Placenta , Gravidez
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5755-5767, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612212

RESUMO

Sheep milk production in the Northern Mediterranean countries heavily relies on local breeds subject to selection schemes to improve milk production. Climate change may shift the range of thermal loads on the animals and challenge their adaptation to the new thermal gradient. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic component of thermal tolerance of 2 local breeds from the Iberian Peninsula, Latxa and Manchega, belonging to different genetic types that have evolved under different climatic environments (Oceanic for Latxa and Continentalized Mediterranean for Manchega). A total of 79,243 and 2,388,853 test day monthly records of milk, fat and protein yields from 12,882 and 277,904 ewes of Latxa and Manchega breeds, respectively, along a 12-yr period, were matched with the value of the average temperature-humidity index (THI) on the day of milk recording of the closest weather station to the flocks. These data were used to fit individual reaction norms (Legendre polynomials) describing changes in yields along the THI gradient. Genetic values for thermal tolerance were obtained from the slopes of those reaction norms under cold or heat stress and variances and covariances between yield and thermal tolerance were derived from the (co)variance matrices of the polynomial random regression coefficients. Results showed differing patterns in the 2 breeds. The Latxa breed showed clearer signs of genotype by environment interaction than did Manchega. Estimated correlations between yields under extremes of cold and heat were always above 0.8 for Manchega and around 0.4 for Latxa for all traits. Estimates of correlations between comfort and thermal stress were again over 0.8 for Manchega and lower for the higher (hot end) values (down to 0.6) than for the lower (cold end) values (down to 0.84) of the THI gradient for Latxa, indicating greater thermal stress expected from high than from low temperatures in this breed. Substantial variability in thermal tolerance under the more extreme THI values was found in both breeds. Estimated genetic correlations between yield and thermal tolerance were close to 0 and 0.2 for Latxa and Manchega in the cold and down to -0.6 and -0.3 in the heat end, although small variation was observed for fat in Latxa. Estimated realized trends from the average estimated breeding value, by year of birth, showed a positive response for yields in both breeds [around 0.1 standard deviation (SD) unit], but a detrimental correlation for thermal tolerance (down to -0.03 SD units for heat tolerance in Latxa). These results can be used to design optimal selection strategies for sustainable improvement of productivity under a rising-temperature scenario associated with climate change.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Ovinos , Termotolerância , Animais , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Umidade , Lactação/genética , Leite , Ovinos , Termotolerância/genética
6.
Animal ; 15(2): 100093, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518489

RESUMO

Technological progress enables individual cow's temperatures to be measured in real time, using a bolus sensor inserted into the rumen (reticulorumen). However, current cooling systems often work at a constant schedule based on the ambient temperature and not on monitoring the animal itself. This study hypothesized that tailoring the cooling management to the cow's thermal reaction can mitigate heat stress. We propose a dynamic cooling system based on in vivo temperature sensors (boluses). Thus, cooling can be activated as needed and is thus most efficacious. A total of 30 lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of two groups; the groups received two different evaporative cooling regimes. A control group received cooling sessions on a preset time-based schedule, the method commonly used in farms; and an experimental group, which received the sensor-based (SB) cooling regime. Sensor-based was changed weekly according to the cow's reaction, as reflected in the changes in body temperatures from the previous week, as measured by reticulorumen boluses. The two treatment groups of cows had similar milk yields (44.7 kg/d), but those in the experimental group had higher milk fat (3.65 vs 3.43%), higher milk protein (3.23 vs 3.13%), higher energy corrected milk (ECM, 42.84 vs 41.48 kg/d), higher fat corrected milk 4%; (42.76 vs 41.34 kg/d), and shorter heat stress duration (5.03 vs 9.46 h/day) comparing to the control. Dry matter intake was higher in the experimental group. Daily visits to the feed trough were less frequent, with each visit lasting longer. The sensor-based cooling regime may be an effective tool to detect and ease heat stress in high-producing dairy cows during transitional seasons when heat load can become severe in arid and semi-arid zones.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Lactação , Leite
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2410-2421, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358164

RESUMO

Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing 40 mg/kg of dietary Zn from Zn sulfate (ZS) with Zn amino acid complex (ZA; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) on inflammation and intestinal integrity in heat-stressed and pair-fed (PF) ruminants. Forty Holstein steers (173.6 ± 4.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary-environmental treatments: (1) thermoneutral (TN) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) ZS (ZSCON); (2) TN pair-fed with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSPF); (3) TN pair-fed with 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAPF); (4) heat stress (HS) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSHS); and (5) HS ad libitum 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAHS). Before study initiation, calves were fed their respective diets for 21 d. Following the pre-feeding phase, steers were transferred into environmental chambers and were subjected to 2 successive experimental periods. During period 1 (5 d), all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and housed in TN conditions (20.2 ± 1.4°C, 30.4 ± 4.3% relative humidity). During period 2 (6 d), ZSHS and ZAHS steers were exposed to cyclical HS conditions (27.1 ± 1.5°C to 35.0 ± 2.9°C, 19.3 ± 3.5% relative humidity), whereas the ZSCON, ZSPF, and ZAPF steers remained in TN conditions and were fed ad libitum or pair-fed relative to their ZSHS and ZAHS counterparts. Overall, steers exposed to HS had markedly increased rectal temperature (0.83°C), respiration rate (26 breaths per min), and skin temperature (8.00°C) relative to TN treatments. Rectal temperature from ZAHS steers was decreased (0.24°C) on d 4 to 6 of HS relative to ZSHS steers. Regardless of diet, HS decreased DMI (18%) relative to ZSCON steers. Circulating glucose from HS and PF steers decreased (16%) relative to ZSCON steers. Heat stress and nutrient restriction increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids 2- and 3-fold, respectively, compared with ZSCON steers. Serum amyloid A increased ~2-fold in PF relative to ZSCON and HS steers. We detected no treatment effect on blood pH; however, ZAHS steers had increased HCO3 relative to ZSHS. Relative to ZSHS, ZAHS steers had increased jejunum villi height (25%), a tendency for increased ileum villi height (9%), and decreased duodenal villi width (16%). In summary, ZA supplementation has some beneficial effects on thermal indices, intestinal architecture characteristics, and biomarkers of leaky gut in heat-stressed steers, indicative of an ameliorated heat load, and thus may be a nutritional strategy to minimize negative consequences of HS.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Cutânea
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141779, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890800

RESUMO

Climate change is a major world-wide challenge to livestock production because food security is likely to be compromised by increased heat stress of the animals. The objective of this study was to characterize, using bioclimatic indexes, two livestock regions located in an arid zone of México, and to use this information to predict the impact of global warming on animal production systems of these regions located in the state of Baja California (México). A 5-year database (i.e., 2011 to 2015) consisting of about one million data points from two zones (i.e., coast, valley) from four meteorological stations in the north of Baja California were used. Bioclimatic indexes were constructed for the four types of livestock production systems most common in this region, being: dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, pigs. The temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds used to classify heat stress were determined and scaled for each livestock species as: THIbeef and THIpig 74 units; THImilk 72 units; and THIsheep 23 units. Statistical differences between indices were detected (P < 0.01) during summer for the valley and coast zones as (THIbeef = 72.9 and 51.8; THImilk = 80.6 and 67.4; THIpigs = 83.9 and 65.2; THIsheep = 29.5 and 20.1 units). Coast zone weather did not suggest vulnerability of livestock production systems to heat stress at any time of the year, but heat stress risk during summer for valley zone dairy cattle, sheep and pigs was classified as severe, but lower for feedlot cattle. Prediction models showed significant adjustment just in the coastal zone for THImilk, THIsheep, and THIsheep, suggesting more impact of global warming during summer in the coastal zone. Use of management strategies to reduce heat load of domestic animals during summer in northern Baja California is essential to maintain their productivity, with more emphasis in the valley zone.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Gado , México , Ovinos , Suínos
9.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(12): 2077-2091, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851452

RESUMO

Thermal indices as environmental risk indicators have been used to assess heat stress of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of the typical cattle-related thermal indices by comparing their prediction to heat stress levels and associations with some physiological responses. The study was conducted from August to September 2019 in a naturally ventilated barn in Jiangsu, China. Nine typical cattle-related thermal indices, i.e., temperature-humidity index (THI), black globe temperature index (BGHI), equivalent temperature index, effective temperature (ET) for dairy cows, respiratory rate predictor (RRP), adjusted temperature-humidity index (THIadj), heat load index (HLI), comprehensive climate index (CCI), and equivalent temperature index for cattle (ETIC), were evaluated. Respiration rate (RR) and body surface temperature (BST) were collected twice per day from a total of 287 lactating cows, 18 of which were continuously measured vaginal temperature (VT). Over the experimental period, the average daily RR, VT, and BST were 55.8 breaths/min, 38.7 °C, and 32.3 to 36.4 °C that depend on body positions, respectively. The study found that the prediction of THI, BGHI, THIadj, and CCI was closer to the actual heat stress conditions which were mild to moderate heat stress. Correlation analyses showed that RR, VT, and BST correlated most closely with effective temperature (r = 0.580; P < 0.05), BGHI (r = 0.642; P < 0.05), and CCI (r = 0.849; P < 0.05). In this evaluation, based on the comprehensive performance of CCI in the relatively accurate prediction to heat stress level and duration, detection on environmental differences between standing and lying zone, and correlations with some physiological responses, CCI is seemingly the promising thermal index to assess heat stress of housed dairy cows.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Lactação , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , China , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835367

RESUMO

In utero heat stress (IUHS) increases the energy requirements of pigs during postnatal life, and this may compound weaning and transport stress. The study objective was to evaluate and mitigate the negative effects of IUHS following weaning and transport through the provision of a nutrient-dense (ND) nursery diet formulated to meet the greater energy requirements of IUHS pigs during the first 14 d postweaning and transport. Twenty-four pregnant gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; n = 12; 17.5 ± 2.1 °C) or heat stress (HS; n = 12; cycling 26 to 36 °C) conditions for the first half of gestation (day 6 to 59) and then TN conditions (20.9 ± 2.3 °C) until farrowing. Nine TN gilts and 12 HS gilts produced litters. At weaning (16.2 ± 0.4 d), mixed-sex piglets (N = 160; 4.78 ± 0.15 kg body weight [BW]) were transported (loading + transport + unloading) for 11 h 40 min. Following transport, piglets were blocked into pens (n = 4 pigs/pen) by in utero and dietary treatments: in utero thermoneutral (IUTN) + control (C) diet (n = 10 pens), IUTN + ND (n = 10 pens), IUHS + C (n = 10 pens), and IUHS + ND (n = 10 pens). Treatment diets were fed from day 1 to 14 postweaning and transport (period 1), and the C diet was fed to all pigs from day 14 to 35 postweaning and transport (period 2). Production measures were taken in 7 d intervals to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily net energy intake (ADEI), gain:feed, and gain:net energy intake. Blood samples were collected prior to transport, following transport, and on days 2, 7, 14, 28, and 35 postweaning and transport to analyze cortisol, glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids. Behavior was assessed through video-recording on days 3, 5, 8, 11, and 13 postweaning and transport. In period 1, ADG was reduced (P = 0.04; 20.0 g/d) in IUHS vs. IUTN pigs. Pigs fed ND diets had reduced ADFI (P = 0.02; 9.3%) compared with C diet-fed pigs during period 1, which resulted in similar ADEI (P = 0.23; 1,115 ± 35 kcal/d). During transport, cortisol was decreased (P = 0.03; 25.8%) in IUHS vs. IUTN pigs. On day 2, glucose was decreased (P = 0.01; 13.8%) in IUHS vs. IUTN pigs. No in utero treatment-related behavior differences were observed but lying was reduced (P = 0.03; 6.5%) and standing was increased (P = 0.04; 14.1%) in ND vs. C pigs overall. In summary, IUHS reduced growth performance in pigs following weaning and transport, and providing an ND diet did not rescue the lost performance.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Suínos , Desmame , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Gravidez , Doenças dos Suínos
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 428-437, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603417

RESUMO

Commonly found in backyard and commercial poultry production, coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, presents a self-limiting intestinal infection based on the number of ingested oocysts. Heat stress (HS) is one of the major environmental stressors in poultry, predisposing broiler chickens to immunosuppression and rendering them susceptible to diseases. There are suggestions that HS reduces Eimeria oocyst shedding in chickens; however, the relationship between HS and coccidiosis is not well elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on viability, morphology, infectivity, and development of Eimeria tenella in vitro, and merozoite production and oocyst shedding in vivo. In vitro exposure of sporozoites to 55 C for at least 60 min reduced sporozoites viability as shown by morphological changes and rendering them unable to invade Mardin-Darbi bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Intracellular development of merozoites was significantly reduced by an increase in 2 C in the optimal temperature of incubation in vitro. Most importantly, the induction of HS in the live chickens caused significantly lower lesion scores, reduced merozoite production, and oocyst shedding, resulting in a much less severe disease outcome.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ceco/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Temperatura Alta , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/fisiologia , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 985-992, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129704

RESUMO

Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a diversidade genética do gene HSP-70.1 e associar os polimorfismos encontrados com a performance de vacas leiteiras das raças Holandesa, Girolando (5/8H-G) e Sindi criadas em região do semiárido brasileiro. Os polimorfismos foram identificados e avaliados pela técnica de PCR-RFLP, usando-se a enzima de restrição EcoRII. Avaliou-se a variabilidade genética por meio do índice de diversidade padrão e da análise de variância molecular (AMOVA). Os polimorfismos identificados foram avaliados sobre as características de produção de leite. Foram identificados sete alelos, os quais demonstraram que houve polimorfismo para a região gênica analisada, e alguns alelos foram compartilhados entre os rebanhos. As raças bovinas Holandesa e Sindi foram similares geneticamente para o gene analisado. A AMOVA demonstrou que há variação genética entre os rebanhos e dentro deles, com a maior parte da variação ocorrendo dentro dos rebanhos para todos os grupos avaliados. Houve efeito dos alelos identificados sobre a produção de leite dos rebanhos das raças Holandesa (P<0,0001) e Girolando (P<0,0117). O gene HSP-70.1 foi polimórfico na população de bovinos leiteiros estudada, sendo, portanto, um marcador molecular promissor para avaliar a produção de leite de raças criadas em região semiárida.(AU)


The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity of the HSP-70.1 gene and to associate the polymorphisms found with the performance of Holstein, Girolando (5/8H-G) and Sindi dairy cows raised in region of the Brazilian semiarid. Polymorphisms were identified and evaluated using the PCR-RFLP technique using the EcoRII restriction enzyme. Genetic variability was evaluated using the standard diversity index and molecular variance analysis (AMOVA). The identified polymorphisms were evaluated on the characteristics of milk production. They were identified from the seven alleles, demonstrating that there was polymorphism for the analyzed gene region and some alleles were shared among the herds. The Holstein and Sindi bovine breeds were genetically like the analyzed gene. AMOVA demonstrated that there is genetic variation between and within the herds, with most of the variation occurring within the herds for all groups evaluated. There was effect of the alleles identified on the production of milk herds of Holstein and (P<0.0001) Girolando (P<0.0117) breeds. The HSP-70.1 gene was polymorphic in the population of dairy cattle studied, and therefore a promising molecular marker to evaluate milk production of breeds created in semiarid regions.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/análise , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Variância , Zona Semiárida , Termotolerância
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428228

RESUMO

Heat stress hinders growth and well-being in livestock, an effect that is perhaps exacerbated by the ß1 agonist ractopamine. Heat stress deficits are mediated in part by reduced feed intake, but other mechanisms involved are less understood. Our objective was to determine the direct impact of heat stress on growth and well-being in ractopamine-supplemented feedlot lambs. Commercial wethers were fed under heat stress (40 °C) for 30 d, and controls (18 °C) were pair-fed. In a 2 × 2 factorial, lambs were also given a daily gavage of 0 or 60 mg ractopamine. Growth, metabolic, cardiovascular, and stress indicators were assessed throughout the study. At necropsy, 9th to 12th rib sections (four-rib), internal organs, and feet were assessed, and sartorius muscles were collected for ex vivo glucose metabolic studies. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) rectal temperatures and respiration rates throughout the study and reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed efficiency over the first week, ultrasonic loin-eye area and loin depth near the end of the study, and four-rib weight at necropsy. Fat content of the four-rib and loin were also reduced (P < 0.05) by heat stress. Ractopamine increased (P < 0.05) loin weight and fat content and partially moderated the impact of heat stress on rectal temperature and four-rib weight. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) spleen weight, increased (P < 0.05) adrenal and lung weights, and was associated with hoof wall overgrowth but not organ lesions. Ractopamine did not affect any measured indicators of well-being. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen and increased (P < 0.05) circulating monocytes, granulocytes, and total white blood cells as well as epinephrine, TNFα, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Cortisol and insulin were not affected. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.05) blood pressure and heart rates in all lambs and increased (P < 0.05) left ventricular wall thickness in unsupplemented but not ractopamine-supplemented lambs. No cardiac arrhythmias were observed. Muscle glucose uptake did not differ among groups, but insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in muscle from heat-stressed lambs. These findings demonstrate that heat stress impairs growth, metabolism, and well-being even when the impact of feed intake is eliminated by pair-feeding and that systemic inflammation and hypercatecholaminemia likely contribute to these deficits. Moreover, ractopamine improved muscle growth indicators without worsening the effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Fenetilaminas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenetilaminas/efeitos adversos , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Animal ; 14(10): 2014-2022, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423518

RESUMO

Remarkable increases in the production of dairy animals have negatively impacted their tolerance to heat stress (HS). The evaluation of the effect of HS on milk yield is based on the direct impact of HS on performance. However, in practical terms, HS also exerts its influence during gestation (indirect effect). The main purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to HS during the last 60 days of gestation (THI_g) and also the HS postpartum (THI_m) over first lactation milk production of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A total of 389 127 test day milk yield (TD) records from 1572 first lactation Holstein cows born in Brazil (daughters of 1248 dams and 70 sires) and the corresponding temperature-humidity index (THI) obtained between December 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed using different random regression models. Cows in the cold environment (THI_g = 64 to 73) during the last 60 days of gestation produced more milk than those cows in a hot environment (THI_g = 74 to 84), particularly during the first 150 days of lactation (DIM). The heritabilities (h2) of TD were similar throughout DIM for cows in THI_g hot (0.11 to 0.20) or (0.10 to 0.22), while the genetic correlations (rg) for TD between these two environments ranged from 0.11 to 0.52 along the first 250 DIM. The h2 estimates for TD across THI_m were similar for cows in THI_g hot (0.07 to 0.25) and THI_g cold (0.08 to 0.19). The rg estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.42 along THI_m between TD of cows in cold and hot THI_g. The results were consistent in demonstrating the existence of an additional source of G × E for TD due to THI_g and THI_m. The present study is probably the first to provide evidence of this source of G × E; further research is needed because of its importance when the breeding objective is to select animals that are more tolerant to HS.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Lactação , Leite
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415838

RESUMO

Postnatal heat stress (HS) effects on pig physiology and performance are widely studied but prenatal HS studies, albeit increasing, are still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chronic prenatal HS effects in growing pigs raised in postnatal thermoneutral (TN) or in HS environment. For prenatal environment (PE), mixed-parity pregnant sows were exposed to either TN (PTN; cyclic 18 to 24 °C; n = 12) or HS (PHS; cyclic 28 to 34 °C; n = 12) conditions from day 9 to 109 of gestation. Two female offspring per sow were selected at 10 wk of age and allotted to one of two postnatal growing environments (GE): GTN (cyclic 18 to 24 °C; n = 24) and GHS (cyclic 28 to 34 °C; n = 24). From 75 to 140 d of age, GTN pigs remained in GTN conditions, while GHS pigs were in GTN conditions from 75 to 81 d of age and in GHS conditions from 82 to 140 d of age. Regardless of PE, postnatal HS increased rectal and skin temperatures (+0.30 and +1.61 °C on average, respectively; P < 0.01) and decreased ADFI (-332 g/d; P < 0.01), resulting in lower ADG and final BW (-127 g/d and -7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). The GHS pigs exhibited thicker backfat (P < 0.01), lower carcass loin percentage (P < 0.01), increased plasma creatinine levels (P < 0.01), and decreased plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, T3, and T4 levels (P < 0.05). Prenatal HS increased feed intake in an age-dependent manner (+10 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1 for PHS pigs in the last 2 wk of the trial; P = 0.02) but did not influence BW gain (P > 0.10). Prenatal HS decreased the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase on day 3 of GHS (trend at P = 0.08) and of T4 on day 49 (P < 0.01) but did not affect T3 on day 3 nor 49 (P > 0.10). Prenatal HS increased rectal and skin temperatures and decreased temperature gradient between rectal and skin temperatures in GTN pigs (+0.10, +0.33 and -0.22 °C, respectively; P < 0.05) but not in GHS pigs (P > 0.10). There were also PE × GE interactions found with lower BW (P = 0.06) and higher backfat (P < 0.01) and perirenal adiposity (P < 0.05) for GHS-PHS pigs than the other groups. Overall, increased body temperature and altered thyroid functions and physiological stress responses suggest decreased heat tolerance and dissipation ability of pigs submitted to a whole-gestation chronic prenatal HS. Postnatal HS decreased growth performance, increased carcass adiposity, and affected metabolic traits and thyroid functions especially in pigs previously submitted to prenatal HS.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Gravidez , Temperatura Cutânea , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Suínos , Vitaminas
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5440-5454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253038

RESUMO

Producers in the western United States commonly use spray water at the feed bunk and fans in the lying area to mitigate heat stress in dairy cows. Often, spray water cycles on and off with fans turning on when a preset air temperature is reached. Although this method can be effective, innovative strategies are needed to reduce water and energy use. We evaluated the effectiveness and resource efficiency of 4 cooling treatments on behavioral and physiological responses in dairy cows housed in a freestall barn: (1) conductive cooling in which mats with recirculating evaporatively cooled water were buried under sand bedding (Mat; activated at 18.9°C); (2) targeted convective cooling in which evaporatively cooled air was directed toward the cows through fabric ducts with nozzles at both the feed bunk and lying areas (Targeted Air; activated at 22°C); (3) evaporative cooling, with spray water in the feed area and fan over the freestalls (Baseline; activated at 22°C); and (4) evaporative cooling with half the amount of spray water used in the Baseline and the fan moved to the feed bunk (Optimized Baseline; activated at 22°C). In a crossover design, 8 groups of cows (4/group) producing an average (± standard deviation) of 37.5 ± 4.5 kg/d of milk were tested for 3 d per treatment. For ethical reasons, beginning at 30°C, the Mat treatment was supplemented with Baseline cooling and the Targeted Air treatment had spray water at the Optimized Baseline rate. We recorded body temperature, posture, and location within the pen every 3 min for 24 h/d, and respiration rates every 30 min daily from 1000 to 1900 h. Daily air temperature averaged (±SD) 26.3 ± 7.1°C during 24 h and 33.3 ± 4°C from 1000 to 1900 h. We used pairwise comparisons of each treatment to Baseline to evaluate response variables. Milk production did not differ across treatments, nor did time spent lying (51 ± 2%/d on average). Respiration rates did not differ across treatments overall (61 ± 3 breaths/min), but on an hourly basis, cows in the Mat treatment had a significantly higher rate than those in Baseline, at h 10 and 11 (70 vs. 58-59 breaths/min). Body temperature averaged 38.7 ± 0.05°C across treatments and was 0.2 to 0.3°C higher in the Mat treatment than in Baseline at h 10, 11, 20, 21, and 22. These results collectively indicate that the Mat treatment did not effectively reduce indicators of heat load compared with Baseline. In contrast, Targeted Air and Optimized Baseline were both effective but differed in aspects of efficiency. Targeted Air used the least amount of water but the most energy of all options tested. In conclusion, more efficient heat abatement options were identified, particularly an Optimized Baseline strategy, which cut water use in half, required the same amount of energy as the Baseline, and maintained similar physiological and behavioral responses in cows.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Animais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Leite , Taxa Respiratória , Água
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315036

RESUMO

Bos taurus indicus cattle have the superior ability for the regulation of body temperature during heat stress due to a number of physiological and cellular level adaptive traits. The objectives of this study were to quantify the change in body temperature in heifers with various proportions of Brahman genes per unit increase in heat stress as measured by temperature-humidity index (THI) and to assess how different breed groups responded to varying intensity and duration of heat stress. A total of 299 two-yr-old heifers from six breed groups ranging from 100% Angus to 100% Brahman were evaluated under hot and humid conditions during 2017 and 2018 summer days. Two strategies were used to estimate the plasticity in body temperature of breed groups in response to environmental challenges: 1) a random regression mixed model was used to estimate reaction norm parameters for each breed group in response to a specified environmental heat stress and 2) a repeated measures mixed model was used to evaluate the response to different environmental heat loads. The reaction norm model estimated an intercept and slope measuring the change in body temperature per unit increase in THI environmental heat stress for different breed groups of animals and allowed the identification of genotypes which are robust, with low slope values indicative of animals that are able to maintain normal body temperature across a range of environments. The repeated measures mixed model showed that Brahman cattle have an advantage under moderate or high heat stress conditions but both Angus and Brahman breed groups are greatly affected when heat stress is severe. A critical factor appears to be the opportunity to cool down during the night hours more than the number of hours with extreme THI. With heat stress conditions predicted to intensify and expand into currently temperate zones, developing effective strategies to ensure sustainable beef production systems are imperative. Effective strategies will require the identification of the genes conferring the superior thermotolerance in Brahman cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Termotolerância/genética , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333770

RESUMO

Pigs exposed to elevated ambient temperatures exhibit reduced daily gain, alterations in muscle and fat deposition, and decreased health. Negative aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function, integrity, and permeability also occur. High-intensity sweeteners can ameliorate the negative effects of heat stress (HS) by increasing GI glucagon-like peptide-2 production while capsicum oleoresin has been shown to reduce inflammatory response. The effects of an artificial high-intensity sweetener and capsicum oleoresin (CAPS-SUC; TakTik X-Hit, Pancosma, Switzerland) on growth performance of pigs were examined. Forty-eight pigs (12 wk of age, 43.2 ± 4.3 kg) were assigned to six treatments: thermoneutral conditions (21 ± 1.1 °C; 40% to 70% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (TN+) or without supplement (TN-), heat stress (35 ± 1 °C; 20% to 40% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (HS+) or without supplement (HS-), and thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS intake with (PFTN+) or without supplement (PFTN-). Supplementation (0.1 g/kg feed) began 2 d prior to the 3-d environmental treatment period. Body weights (BWs) and blood samples were collected on days -1 and 3. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were measured thrice daily and the feed intake (FI) was recorded daily. Intestinal sections were collected for histology. Pigs in HS conditions exhibited increased RT (~1.2 °C) and RR (~2.7-fold) compared with TN and PFTN groups (P < 0.01). HS+ animals had increased RR when compared with HS- animals (P < 0.02). Heat stress decreased FI compared with TN. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain compared with TN. Supplement did not alter the BW gain. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) Gain:Feed compared with TN during environmental treatment. Supplementation with CAPS-SUC increased Gain:Feed by 0.12 (P < 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to decrease in CAPS-SUC vs. non-supplemented HS and PFTN animals (P ≤ 0.1). Circulating insulin concentrations as well as monocyte count increased in HS compared with PFTN (P < 0.04) but did not differ from TN and likely linked to altered FI. CAPS-SUC increased basophil count (P < 0.02), irrespective of environment. Ileal villus height tended to decrease during HS and PFTN compared with TN (P < 0.08), indicating an effect of intake. Overall, CAPS-SUC supplementation increased pig feed efficiency and may improve immune response.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Insulina/sangue , Intestinos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Suínos
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2017-2025, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241486

RESUMO

There is no information regarding the influence of heat stress (HS) on host metabolic profile. In this study, we investigated the effects of different environmental temperatures on oxidative status, hormone levels, HS indicators, and plasma metabolites in broilers. A total of 1,680 yellow-feather broilers (28 D old) were randomly allotted to 4 groups with 6 replicates. The broilers (29-57 D old) were maintained in thermostatic rooms (20°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 30°C) for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that the plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities gradually increased when the temperature increased from 20°C to 30°C. However, the insulin-like growth factor-І level decreased gradually. Furthermore, heat shock protein 70 expression significantly increased in the liver and breast muscle (P < 0.01). As the temperature increased, the total anti-oxidant capacity in the plasma and liver gradually decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde level increased. The activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase in the liver showed a similar increasing trend (P < 0.01). In addition, 15 metabolites were identified at higher (P < 0.05) levels, whereas 2 metabolites were identified at lower (P < 0.05) levels in the 30°C treatment group than those in the 25°C treatment group. Most of these potentially diagnostic biomarkers are involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, or gut microbiome-derived metabolism, indicating that HS affected the metabolic pathways in broilers. Six candidate metabolites (tartronic acid, l-bethreine, tartaric acid, allose, glutaric acid, and neohesperidin) were selected as biomarkers, as they showed high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing broilers under HS (P < 0.01). In conclusion, in the final stage of growth, we identified 6 plasma differential metabolites as potential biomarkers of HS-induced metabolic disorders in yellow-feathered broilers. This work offers new insights into the metabolic alterations of broilers exposed to HS and provides a new perspective for further study.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Metaboloma , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 505-516, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128387

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da manipulação da temperatura de incubação sobre a resposta imune de codornas desafiadas termicamente após eclosão. Para isso, foram utilizados 540 ovos, distribuídos em três incubadoras, com temperatura de 37,8°C e umidade de 60%. A partir do sexto dia de incubação até a eclosão, as temperaturas foram ajustadas em 37,8°C (padrão), 38,5°C (intermediária) e 39,5°C (alta). Após a eclosão as codornas foram pesadas e distribuídas, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três temperaturas de incubação (37,8, 38,5 e 39,5°C) e duas temperaturas de ambiente (estresse e termoneutro). Aos 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias, quatro codornas por tratamento foram eutanasiadas para coleta da bolsa cloacal, do fígado e do coração, para se determinar o peso absoluto (g), o peso relativo (%) e a área dos folículos bursais. Sangue foi coletado para realização do hemograma, do leucograma e da bioquímica sérica. Os dados foram analisados e as diferenças entre as médias foram determinadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. O estresse térmico por calor, a partir dos 20 dias, promove redução no peso absoluto do fígado, do coração, da bolsa cloacal e na área dos folículos bursais, além de heterofilia, linfopenia e aumento da relação heterófilo/linfócito. Em conclusão, o estresse térmico por calor após 10 dias de idade pode causar imunossupressão.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulation of the incubation temperature on the immune response of quails challenged thermally after hatching. For this, 540 eggs were distributed in three incubators, with temperature of 37.8°C and 60% humidity. From the 6th day of incubation to hatching the temperatures were adjusted to 37.8°C (standard), 38.5°C (intermediate) and 39.5°C (high). After hatching the quails were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized design with three incubation temperatures (37.8, 38.5 and 39.5°C) and two ambient temperatures (stress and thermoneutral). At 10, 20, 30 and 40 days four quail per treatment were euthanized to collect the cloacal burse, liver and heart to determine the absolute weight (g), relative weight (%) and area of the bursal follicles. Blood was sampled for determination of hemogram, leukogram and serum biochemistry. The data were analyzed and the differences between the means were determined by the Tukey test at 5%. Heat stress from 20 days onwards promotes a reduction in the absolute weight of the liver, heart, cloacal sac and in the area of the follicles. In addition, there was heterofilia, lymphopenia and increased heterophile/lymphocyte ratio. In conclusion, heat stress after 10 days of age can cause immunosuppression.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cloaca/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Coturnix/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Tolerância Imunológica , Incubadoras , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária
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