Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.783
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23272, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327250

RESUMO

School sandplay group therapy is a useful clinical treatment method for adolescents who cannot adapt to school due to various emotional and behavioral problems. In this study, we conducted 10 weeks of group therapy in 70 adolescents referred to as maladjustment behavior problem in the school. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of sandplay therapy on the emotions and behaviors objectively through minnesota multiphasic personality test -2. There was a statistically significant difference in clinical scales such as depression, masculinity- femininity, social introversion, anger, subjective depression, need for affection, somatic complaint, and internal/external alienation after school sandplay group therapy. Sandplay therapy is estimated to have clinical effects not only on the emotional problems of maladapted high school students but also on physical problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , MMPI , Ludoterapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Adolescente , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ludoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(87): 273-281, jul.-sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194299

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: los niños muestran sentimientos y vivencias que no saben o no se atreven a expresar y que se pueden conocer a través de sus dibujos e imaginación. La Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AEPap) se ha propuesto conocer cómo han vivido los niños el confinamiento. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se ha organizado un concurso en la página web Familia y Salud. Sujetos: niños o niñas de todo el territorio nacional con edades comprendidas entre los 3 y 16 años. Trabajos: dibujos, cuentos y vídeos breves. RESULTADOS: hemos recibido 53 trabajos procedentes de diferentes comunidades autónomas y entregado cinco premios. Los elementos que más se repiten son: el coronavirus, figuras de niños dentro de las casas, el arco iris entre las nubes y los sanitarios. El aburrimiento, la tristeza de no poder ver a abuelos y amigos, la confianza en los sanitarios, la valoración positiva del cambio de vida en la familia, la mejora en la contaminación ambiental y el mensaje positivo de que todo va a salir bien son algunos de los temas expresados. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio denotan optimismo en general, y permiten concluir que los dibujos, los relatos y los vídeos son herramientas útiles para analizar la percepción de esta población ante situaciones de riesgo. Además, destaca el interés de los pediatras de Atención Primaria por conocer cómo han vivido los niños el confinamiento a causa de la infección por coronavirus y crear la inquietud de que el dibujo infantil debe ser estudiado de manera rigurosa


INTRODUCTION: children have feelings and experiences that they cannot or will not express and that may manifest through their drawings and imagination. The Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, AEPap) wanted to explore how children have experienced the confinement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we organized a contest through the Family and Health website. The study population consisted of children residing anywhere in Spain aged 3 to 16 years. The works submitted were drawings, micro stories or micro videos. RESULTS: we received 53 works from children in different autonomous communities and gave 5 awards. The elements featured most frequently were the coronavirus, figures of children indoors, a rainbow in the clouds and health care professionals. Some of the subjects expressed in the works were boredom, missing grandparents and friends, trust in health care professionals, a positive perception of the change in life in the family, the improvement in environmental pollution and a positive view that everything will turn out well. CONCLUSIONS: the results obtained in this study suggest a generalized optimism and allow us to conclude that drawings, stories and videos are a useful tool to analyze the perception of this population in risk situations. We also ought to highlight the interest of primary care paediatricians in how children have experienced the confinement imposed due to the coronavirus pandemic and raise awareness that children's drawings should be carefully studied


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Quarentena/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pinturas/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Fatores de Risco , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
3.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 100, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being parents of children who display disruptive behavior problems (DBP) can pose several challenges. Interventions for children with DBP are primarily outpatient group parent training (PT) programs. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents of children with disruptive behavior problems, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), describe the difficulties they face in their family and parenting situations. METHODS: Nineteen parents of children aged 3 to 8 years who had searched for help and signed up for a parent training program provided by Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service participated in the study. Semi-structured diagnostic interviews and a modified background interview adapted for the purpose of the study were conducted before parents entered the program. All children included in the study met the DSM criteria for ODD. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to examine, identify, and report patterns of meaning in the data. The analysis was conducted inductively using a contextual approach. RESULTS: Parents described their own vulnerability, how they were affected by the parent-child interaction, and the challenges they perceived in their parenting practices. The study contributes to an understanding of the complexity that parents of children with ODD perceive in everyday life. CONCLUSIONS: The parents in the study highlight the need to address parents' own mental health problems, parental alliance, capacity for emotion regulation, perceived helplessness as parents, lack of parental strategies, sense of isolation, and absence of supportive social networks. All these factors could be important when tailoring interventions aimed to help and support parents of children who display DBP, and specifically ODD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 880-890, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in language ability and emotional-behavioral problems according to the severity of social communication impairments (SCI) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We grouped 113 children with ASD aged 3-12 years according to the severity of SCI and RRB, and investigated language differences and emotional-behavioral problems among the severity groups. If differences in language abilities between the groups were observed, they were further subdivided to examine possible predictors of both receptive and expressive language abilities. RESULTS: In cluster analyses using subdomains of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-revised, severe SCI individuals showed lower language ability than their milder counterparts, while RRB showed no differences. Receptive and expressive language in the severe SCI group was negatively predicted by social communication and social motivation, respectively. The severe RRB group showed significantly higher levels of anxiety/distress, somatic complaints, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior, while the severe SCI group was reported to be more withdrawn. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the severity of SCI greatly affects language ability. In children with severe SCI, social communication and social motivation negatively predicted receptive language and expressive language, respectively. Children with severe RRB may have more emotional-behavioral problems that require active intervention.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
6.
Epilepsia ; 61(7): 1427-1437, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presence and nature of discrete behavioral phenotypes and their correlates in a cohort of youth with new and recent onset focal and generalized epilepsies. METHODS: The parents of 290 youth (age = 8-18 years) with epilepsy (n = 183) and typically developing participants (n = 107) completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6-18 from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The eight behavior problem scales were subjected to hierarchical clustering analytics to identify behavioral subgroups. To characterize the external validity and co-occurring comorbidities of the identified subgroups, we examined demographic features (age, gender, handedness), cognition (language, perception, attention, executive function, speed), academic problems (present/absent), clinical epilepsy characteristics (epilepsy syndrome, medications), familial factors (parental intelligence quotient, education, employment), neuroimaging features (cortical thickness), parent-observed day-to-day executive function, and number of lifetime-to-date Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses. RESULTS: Hierarchical clustering identified three behavioral phenotypes, which included no behavioral complications (Cluster 1, 67% of epilepsy cohort [n = 122]), nonexternalizing problems (Cluster 2, 11% of cohort [n = 21]), and combined internalizing and externalizing problems (Cluster 3, 22% of cohort [n = 40]). These behavioral phenotypes were characterized by orderly differences in personal characteristics, neuropsychological status, history of academic problems, parental status, cortical thickness, daily executive function, and number of lifetime-to-date DSM-IV diagnoses. Cluster 1 was most similar to controls across most metrics, whereas Cluster 3 was the most abnormal compared to controls. Epilepsy syndrome was not a predictor of cluster membership. SIGNIFICANCE: Youth with new and recent onset epilepsy fall into three distinct behavioral phenotypes associated with a variety of co-occurring features and comorbidities. This approach identifies important phenotypes of behavior problem presentations and their accompanying factors that serve to advance clinical and theoretical understanding of the behavioral complications of children with epilepsy and the complex conditions with which they co-occur.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Epilepsias Parciais/psicologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/psicologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 669-679, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the comparative efficacy of a more intensive version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT; 5 days/week over 2 weeks) versus a time-limited weekly PCIT format (1 day/week over 10 weeks) in treating early childhood externalizing behavior problems. METHOD: Using a randomized trial design, 60 young children (mean age [Mage] = 4.33 years; 65% male; 85% Latinx) with clinically elevated levels of externalizing behavior problems and their parents were assigned to either I-PCIT (n = 30) or time-limited PCIT (n = 30). Families completed pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments 6-9 months following treatment completion. Parents completed measures of child behavior, discipline practices, and parenting stress. Observational data on child behavior and parenting were also collected. RESULTS: Noninferiority and multivariate repeated-measures analyses indicated comparable improvements across 6 out of 7 observed and parent-reported outcomes, including parenting skills, discipline practices, and child externalizing behavior problems at posttreatment. Comparable treatment gains remained at follow-up, with the caveat that parents in time-limited PCIT reported lower externalizing behavior problems compared with I-PCIT, although both groups were still significantly better compared with pretreatment. Lastly, moderation analyses indicated that parents experiencing high levels of stress benefited more from I-PCIT in terms of decreasing child externalizing behavior compared with time-limited PCIT. CONCLUSIONS: I-PCIT appears to be a viable treatment option for families, especially those experiencing high levels of stress, in terms of targeting early externalizing behavior problems within a short period of time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar
8.
Psychol Bull ; 146(7): 553-594, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437177

RESUMO

The aim of the current meta-analysis was to aggregate concurrent and longitudinal empirical research on associations between the interparental relationship and both children's maladjustment (i.e., externalizing and internalizing symptoms) and children's responses to interparental conflict (i.e., emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological). Based on major theoretical frameworks, we distinguished between six dimensions of the interparental relationship: relationship quality, conflict frequency, hostile, disengaged, and unconstructive forms of conflict, and child-related conflict. A final selection of 169 studies for child maladjustment and 61 studies for child responses to conflict were included. The findings revealed by the expansive and fine-grained approach of this meta-analysis support and challenge theoretical hypotheses about the relative predictive value of dimensions of the interparental relationship for children's functioning. Although hostility was specifically more strongly associated with children's externalizing behavior and emotional responses to conflict, disengaged and unconstructive conflict behavior posed similar risks for the other domains of child functioning. In addition, relationship quality, conflict frequency, and child-related conflict warrant more attention in theoretical frameworks, as these dimensions posed similar risks to child functioning as the different forms of conflict. Moreover, most associations between the interparental relationship and child functioning endured over time. Also, developmental and gender differences appeared to depend on the specific forms of interparental conflict and the domain of child functioning. In sum, the results support the growing consensus that prevention and intervention programs aimed at children's mental health could benefit from an alternative or additional focus on the interparental relationship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Dev Psychol ; 56(7): 1372-1384, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352825

RESUMO

The Dual Failure Model suggests that peer victimization (social failure) and academic difficulties (academic failure) mediate the association between externalizing and later internalizing problems. The present study sought to better understand why children with externalizing problems develop later internalizing problems by testing the Dual Failure Model using a sample of 744 children (aged 6 to 10 at Time 1 [T1]), of whom 434 (44.7% girls) presented with high levels of conduct problems at study inception. Both parent and teacher ratings of externalizing and internalizing problems support the social failure pathway, but not the academic failure pathway. Children with externalizing behaviors at T1 who developed internalizing problems 2 years later did so via their experiences of peer victimization. These results apply for both boys and girls and do not vary according to child age at T1 or the level of conduct problems at study inception. These findings underscore the importance of early screening and intervention for externalizing behavioral problems in order to reduce subsequent peer victimization and internalizing problems. Findings regarding the consequences of internalizing are also discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Vítimas de Crime , Controle Interno-Externo , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 513, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household chaos, represented by the level of disorganisation or environmental confusion in the home, has been associated with a range of adverse child and family outcomes. This review aims to (1) identify how household chaos is measured, (2) chart study details of household chaos literature, and (3) map the existing literature with respect to the relationship between household chaos and child, parent, and family outcomes. We expect that this review will highlight the need to consider the importance of household chaos in child well-being research, particularly in those families where children may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of household chaos. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases (last updated September 1st 2018) in addition to Google Scholar, and identified publications via a 3-stage screening process, which was conducted by two researchers. Published studies were included if they investigated the association between household chaos and child, parent, or family outcomes. Research that investigated household chaos as a mediator or moderator, or that investigated how the relationship between household chaos and the outcome of interest was mediated or moderated, were also included. RESULTS: One hundred twelve studies in 111 publications were included. The majority were conducted in the United States (n = 71), and used either cross-sectional (n = 60) or longitudinal (n = 49) study designs. Outcomes of interest were categorised into seven categories: (1) cognitive and academic (n = 16), (2) socio-emotional and behavioural (n = 60), (3) communication (n = 6), (4) parenting, family, and household functioning (n = 21), (5) parent outcomes (n = 6), (6) hormone (n = 8), and (7) physical health and health behaviours (n = 19). There was consistent evidence for significant correlations between household chaos and adverse outcomes across all seven categories in diverse populations with respect to age, disease status, and socio-economic status (SES). CONCLUSION: There is consistent evidence for associations between household chaos and a number of adverse child, parent, and family-level outcomes. Household chaos may also help describe variations in outcomes between low SES and child development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Características da Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 74(6): 453-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186228

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of specific learning disorder (SLD), comorbid disorders, and risk factors in primary school children for the first time in two-stage design in Turkey.Materials and methods: Participants were 1041 pupils in 28 primary schools and aged from 7 to 11. The Mathematics, Reading, Writing Assessment Scale (MOYA) teacher and parent forms were used in the screening stage and parents and teachers of each child completed MOYA. Ninety-five children were screen positive and eighty-three of these children participated in the interview. SLD diagnoses were based on DSM V criteria. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used for the comorbid psychiatric disorders.Results and conclusions: The prevalence rate of the SLD was 6.6%, impairment in reading was 4%, in mathematics was 3.6%, and in written expression was 1.8%. About 62.75% of children with SLD had one or more comorbid diagnoses. ADHD was the most common comorbid mental disorder in SLD (54.9%). SLD prevalence was higher among males. The prevalence of SLD in primary school children in Turkey is consistent with previous studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/diagnóstico , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 105: 106966, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146338

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine different aspects of well-being in mothers with epilepsy with school-aged children. METHODS: In an observational study, mothers, identified from the European Registry of Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy database in the Netherlands, completed questions on epilepsy, the impact of epilepsy on daily functioning, quality of life, behavioral problems, and parenting stress. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine the prevalence of behavioral problems and the impact of epilepsy on different aspects of the mother's daily functioning and family life. We subsequently investigated which factors contributed most to the impact of maternal epilepsy using regression analyses. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-six (46%) of the 342 invited mothers with epilepsy participated. The majority (89%) had low epilepsy severity, with well-controlled seizures. Internalizing problems within the borderline or clinical range were reported by 23% of the mothers. Behavioral problems were significantly correlated with epilepsy severity (r = 0.26, p = .002), impact of epilepsy on daily functioning (r = 0.32, p < .001), and quality of life (r = -0.52, p < 01). Quality of life was in general good (mean = 8, standard deviation [SD] = 1), with low impact of epilepsy. Epilepsy affected mostly maternal self-confidence, work, and general health. Mothers indicated to experience no to little impact of epilepsy on the relationship with their children, partner, or family. Regression analyses showed that epilepsy severity (1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 1.6; p = .002) and quality of life (-1.3, CI: -2.3 to -0.4; p = .007) were significant contributors to the impact of epilepsy on daily functioning, while other factors (maternal education, family type, behavioral problems, and parenting stress) were nonsignificant. DISCUSSION: The current study shows that mothers with epilepsy generally fared well. Epilepsy negatively impacted the lives of some mothers, though. As maternal well-being is of importance for mother-child interaction and child development, clinicians should be aware of the impact of epilepsy on maternal psychosocial outcomes and family life of women with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema/psicologia
14.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 211-222, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138933

RESUMO

Children with anxiety disorders often present with other co-occurring symptom clusters, of which irritability is among the most highly co-occurring. Despite compelling clinical and pathophysiological evidence linking anxiety and irritability, little is known regarding the clinical presentation and associated impairment of children with both anxiety and irritability. In this study, our aims were to confirm the preponderance of irritability in clinically anxious children and compare clinically anxious children with irritability to those without irritability across sociodemographic, clinical, psychosocial, and family domains. Participants were 230 children with anxiety disorders (ages 6-14 years) and their mothers, and 91 healthy controls (ages 6-17 years) and their mothers. Of the clinically anxious children, 121 were anxious and irritable; 109 were anxious but not irritable. Irritability levels were significantly higher in the clinically anxious children compared with the healthy controls. Children with anxiety disorders and irritability presented with greater severity and impairment across clinical phenomenology, psychosocial, and family domains relative to anxious children without irritability. Regression analysis findings were convergent in that greater severity and impairment across these same domains predicted higher irritability levels in the children with anxiety disorders. Results support the meaningful distinction between anxious children with and without irritability. Implications of the findings are discussed particularly in regard to assessment and treatment and future research directions are delineated.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humor Irritável , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
15.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 435-443, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hirsutism with offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and behavioral problems. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,915 mother-child dyads. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Maternal report of offspring ADHD, anxiety, or conduct disorder diagnosis at 7 to 8 years; emotional symptoms, behavioral problems (including peer relationship, conduct, hyperactivity/inattention), and prosocial problems measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 7 years. RESULT(S): Prevalence of PCOS and hirsutism were 12.0% and 3.9%; 84% of women with hirsutism had PCOS. After adjustment for sociodemographic covariates, prepregnancy body mass index, and parental history of affective disorders, children born to mothers with PCOS had higher risk of anxiety (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.57) and borderline emotional symptoms (aRR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18-2.33) compared with children born to mothers without PCOS. The associations between maternal PCOS and offspring ADHD were positive but imprecise. Maternal hirsutism was related to a higher risk of children's ADHD (aRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.28-4.24), conduct disorder (aRR 2.54; 95% CI 1.18-5.47), borderline emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, and conduct problems (aRRs 2.61; 95% CI, 1.69-4.05; 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; and 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30-3.79, respectively). CONCLUSION(S): Maternal PCOS was associated with offspring anxiety, and hirsutism was related to other offspring behavioral problems. These findings should be interpreted with caution as replication is needed in prospective cohort studies that assess PCOS and hirsutism diagnoses using medical records.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Hirsutismo/epidemiologia , Saúde Materna , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Feminino , Hirsutismo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social
16.
Neuropsychology ; 34(4): 375-387, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985239

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can disrupt cognitive, social, and behavioral functioning. Temperament is often used to reflect emotional and behavioral tendencies in young children, but has never been assessed after TBI. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether early TBI disrupts the trajectory of temperament. METHOD: Primary caregivers of 173 young children (age: 36 ± 12 months) with uncomplicated mild TBI (n = 83), more severe TBI (msTBI; mild complicated, moderate and severe, n = 21) and with orthopedic injuries (n = 69) reported on their child's temperament retrospectively to assess preinjury profiles and at 6 and 18 months postinjury. For each domain of temperament (Surgency, Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control), linear mixed-model analyses were conducted to explore group differences on the rate of change across time. RESULTS: There were no preinjury temperament differences between groups for any domains, χ²(2) = 2.84; p = .24; χ²(2) = 0.27; p = .87; χ²(2) = 1.47; p = .48. There was a significant effect of group on the rate of change across time for Surgency, χ²(2) = 6.77; p = .03, but not for Negative Affectivity, χ²(2) = 1.47; p = .48, or Effortful Control, χ²(2) = 2.21; p = .33. Children with msTBI showed a lower rate of increase in Surgency compared to children with mild TBI and orthopedic injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental trajectories of Surgency appear to be affected by msTBI. Disruptions in expected developmental trajectories of temperament could underlie some of the sociobehavioral manifestations of TBI in this young age group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Afeto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112775, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927302

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the literature concerning the effects of paternal perinatal depression (PPND) on socioemotional and behavioral development in children. We assessed the literature using searches in PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Embase from inception to November 2019 and supplemented it by manual searches. Two authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data, and three authors assessed the quality of the studies. To explore the effects of PPND on a child's socioemotional and behavioral development, a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted, followed by the construction of a funnel plot. Nine studies were included for review. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of behavioral problems in children with PPND as compared to non-PPND was 1.209 (95% CI: 1.137-1.285), the pooled OR of emotional problems in children with PPND was 1.265 (95% CI: 1.180-1.356), and the pooled OR of social functions in children with PPND was OR=1.299 (95% CI: 0.972-1.736). PPND may play a significant role in adversely impacting the emotional and behavioral development in children during early childhood. Thus, interventions for PPND should be initiated to make up the negative effect of PPND on a child's emotional and behavioral development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(1): 17-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444904

RESUMO

The development of problem behavior in children is associated with exposure to environmental factors, including the maternal environment. Both are influenced by genetic factors, which may also be correlated, that is, environmental risk and problem behavior in children might be influenced by partly the same genetic factors. In addition, environmental and genetic factors could interact with each other increasing the risk of problem behavior in children. To date, limited research investigated these mechanisms in a genome-wide approach. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the association between genetic risk for psychiatric and related traits, as indicated by polygenetic risk scores (PRSs), exposure to previously identified maternal risk factors, and problem behavior in a sample of 1,154 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study at ages 5-6 and 11-12 years old. The PRSs were derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, neuroticism, and wellbeing. Regression analysis showed that the PRSs were associated with exposure to multiple environmental risk factors, suggesting passive gene-environment correlation. In addition, the PRS based on the schizophrenia GWAS was associated with externalizing behavior problems in children at age 5-6. We did not find any association with problem behavior for the other PRSs. Our results indicate that genetic predispositions for psychiatric disorders and wellbeing are associated with early environmental risk factors for children's problem behavior.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Mães/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
19.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 47(1): 146-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607528

RESUMO

Millions of children across the USA have unmet mental health needs. When these include the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)-oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-this can mean significant long-term consequences. Since children rarely seek treatment themselves, parents are central to the help-seeking process. This paper reviews research on the rates of problem recognition and help-seeking for DBDs, and on perceptual barriers that might hinder service engagement. Most children with DBDs are neither identified as such nor engaged in treatment, although this may be less true for ADHD than ODD or CD. Factors associated with DBDs that may reduce service engagement include seeing the behaviors as "normative," interpreting the symptoms as willful, and expecting to be blamed for the child's problems. Implications of these findings are discussed with particular focus on the widespread dissemination of evidence-based information about DBDs.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Estigma Social
20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(1): 85-103, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704548

RESUMO

This study investigated the longitudinal associations among prenatal substance use, socioeconomic adversity, parenting (maternal warmth, sensitivity, and harshness), children's self-regulation (internalization of rules and conscience), and conduct problems from infancy to middle childhood (Grade 2). Three competing conceptual models including cascade (indirect or mediated), additive (cumulative), and transactional (bidirectional) effects were tested and compared. The sample consisted of 216 low-income families (primary caretaker and children; 51% girls; 74% African American). Using a repeated-measures, multimethod, multi-informant design, a series of full panel models were specified. Findings primarily supported a developmental cascade model, and there was some support for additive effects. More specifically, maternal prenatal substance use and socioeconomic adversity in infancy were prospectively associated with lower levels of maternal sensitivity. Subsequently, lower maternal sensitivity was associated with decreases in children's conscience in early childhood, and in turn, lower conscience predicted increases in teacher-reported conduct problems in middle childhood. There was also a second pathway from sustained maternal depression (in infancy and toddlerhood) to early childhood conduct problems. These findings demonstrated how processes of risk and resilience collectively contributed to children's early onset conduct problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Consciência , Depressão/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA