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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540885

RESUMO

Socially, economically, politically and emotionally (SEPE) disadvantaged children are shorter than children from affluent background. In view of previous work on the lack of association between nutrition and child growth, we performed a study in urban schoolchildren. We measured 723 children (5.83 to 13.83 years); Kupang, Indonesia; three schools with different social background. We investigated anthropometric data, clinical signs of malnutrition, physical fitness, parental education, and household equipment. Subjective self-confidence was assessed by the MacArthur test. The prevalence of stunting was between 8.5% and 46.8%. Clinical signs of under- or malnutrition were absent even in the most underprivileged children. There was no delay in tooth eruption. Underprivileged children are physically fitter than the wealthy. The correlation between height and state of nutrition (BMI_SDS, skinfold_SDS, MUAC_SDS) ranged between r = 0.69 (p < 0.01) and r = 0.43 (p < 0.01) in private school children, and between r = 0.07 (ns) and r = 0.32 (p < 0.01) in the underprivileged children. Maternal education interacted with height in affluent (r = 0.20, p < 0.01) and in underprivileged children (r = 0.20, p < 0.01). The shortness of SEPE disadvantaged children was not associated with anthropometric and clinical signs of malnutrition, nor with delay in physical development. Stunting is a complex phenomenon and may be considered a synonym of social disadvantage and poor parental education.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Desnutrição , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 57-62, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between household drinking water, toilet status and the prevalence of stunting for Chinese children aged 0 to 5 years old in 2013. METHODS: Data was extracted from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. A total of 32 861 children aged 0 to 5 years old were selected from 165 townships(streets) of 55 counties(cities/districts) in 30 provinces. Caregivers were face to face interviewed to collect data, including demographic characteristics of children, mothers and household, main source of household drinking water and main type of household toilet. Height/Length of children was measured using a standard procedure. Height(Length) for age Z score(HAZ(LAZ)) was calculated using WHO Anthro Survey Analyser software(online version), and stunting was defined as HAZ(LAZ)<-2. SAS 9. 4 was used to analyze. SURVEYFREQ procedure was used to calculate the coverage rate of safe drinking water, hygienic toilet, and the prevalence of stunting. SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure was used to analyze the relationship between household safe drinking water, hygienic toilet and prevalence of stunting for Chinese children aged 0 to 5 years old in 2013. RESULTS: A total of 32 861 children completed the study. The coverage rate of safe drinking water was 86. 9%. The proportion of water piped into household, a public tab and water from a protected spring or well was 49. 4%, 15. 9% and 15. 6%, respectively. The coverage rate of hygienic toilet was 56. 8%. The proportion of pour-flush toilet and pit latrine were 52. 1% and 4. 7%. The prevalence of stunting for 0 to 5 years old children was 8. 1% in China. The prevalence of stunting were 8. 1% for children aged 0-5 years old with safe household drinking water and 7. 8% for those without safe household drinking water. The difference was not significant(P=0. 882). The prevalence of stunting was 6. 6% for children aged 0-5 years old with hygienic household toilet and 10. 0% for those without hygienic household toilet. The difference was not significant(P=0. 069). There was no significant relationship between household sanitary condition and stunting for children aged 0 to 5 years old. CONCLUSION: Household sanitary conditions, including main source of household drinking water and the main type of household toilet may not be associated with the prevalence of stunting for children aged 0 to 5 years old in this settings.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Água Potável , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24419, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592890

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Childhood malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Yemen. However, there is a limited information regarding association of malnutrition with different socio-economic factors. This study examines the correlates of socioeconomic and maternal behavioral factors on malnutrition in Yemeni children under 5 years of age.Our study focuses on the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, and uses the data provided by the cross-sectional study namely Yemen National Demographic and Health Survey. Three anthropometric indicators: stunting, wasting, and underweight were selected for the evaluation of malnutrition. Independent variables include personal and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic and behavioral factors, and illness conditions. The study used the Chi-Squared test to test the significant association between independent variables and logistic regression to estimate the odds of being malnourished.A total of 13,624 Yemeni children under 5 years of age were included in the study. The results show the high malnutrition level - the prevalence of stunting was 47%, wasting was 16%, and underweight was 39%. There is a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, and child malnutrition. The odds of malnutrition decreased with the increase in the level of mother's education, economic status, and frequency of prenatal visits. The odds of malnutrition were least for children whose mothers had highest level of education (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.55-0.76), who belonged to highest wealth index (OR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.36-0.47). Moreover, the likelihood of malnutrition was less among the children whose mother had highest number of prenatal visits during the pregnancy (OR = 0.67; 95%CI = 0.59-0.76).The high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and undernutrition were found in Yemeni children. Different factors such as regional variations, socio-economic disparities, and maternal education and health care utilization behavior are found to be associated with high malnutrition. These findings provide important policy implications to improving childhood malnutrition in Yemen.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477580

RESUMO

Rural Guatemala has one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world, with little progress despite considerable efforts to scale up evidence-based nutrition interventions. Recent literature suggests that one factor limiting impact is inadequate supervisory support for frontline workers. Here we describe a community-based quality improvement intervention in a region with a high rate of stunting. The intervention provided audit and feedback support to frontline nutrition workers through electronic worklists, performance dashboards, and one-on-one feedback sessions. We visualized performance indicators and child nutrition outcomes during the improvement intervention using run charts and control charts. In this small community-based sample (125 households at program initiation), over the two-year improvement period, there were marked improvements in the delivery of program components, such as growth monitoring services and micronutrient supplements. The prevalence of child stunting fell from 42.4 to 30.6%, meeting criteria for special cause variation. The mean length/height-for-age Z-score rose from -1.77 to -1.47, also meeting criteria for special cause variation. In conclusion, the addition of structured performance visualization and audit and feedback components to an existing community-based nutrition program improved child health indicators significantly through improving the fidelity of an existing evidence-based nutrition package.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , População Rural
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 420-427, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine colostrum with egg powder (BC/egg) is rich in essential amino acids and immunoactive compounds. OBJECTIVES: This trial tested the hypothesis that a daily supplement of BC/egg would reduce linear growth faltering and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in Malawian infants when compared with an isoenergetic ration of corn/soy flour used as a control. EED was defined by a lactulose permeability test. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 9-mo-old infants received BC/egg or a control for 3 mo. The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z-score (ΔLAZ) and urinary lactulose excretion (%L) at 12-mo-old. Secondary outcomes included episodes of diarrhea, stunting, EED, and the 16S configuration of the fecal microbiota. RESULTS: Of the 277 children enrolled, 267 completed the intervention phase of the study. LAZ decreased in all children from 9 to 17 mo, although ΔLAZ was less in children receiving BC/egg from 9 to 12 mo (difference = 0.12 z-scores; P = 0.0011). This difference persisted after feeding was completed, with less ΔLAZ (difference = 0.09 z-scores). A lower prevalence of stunting was seen in the intervention group (n = 47/137) than the control group (n = 62/127) at 17 mo (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.94).The median %L at 12 mo of age in the children receiving BC/egg was 0.14%, compared with 0.17% in the control group (P = 0.74). In children with %L >0.45% at enrollment (severe EED), the BC/egg group had more children with normal %L at 12 mo of age (10/20, 50%) than was seen in controls (2/15, 13%; P = 0.024). Episodes of diarrhea and ß-diversity of the 16S configuration of fecal microbiota did not differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of BC/egg to complementary feeding in Malawian infants resulted in less linear growth faltering. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03801317.


Assuntos
Colostro , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Soja , Zea mays , Animais , Bovinos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , População Rural
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 481-488, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107436

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the etiology of severe short stature in the Helsinki University Hospital district covering a population of 1.2 million that is subject to frequent growth monitoring and screening rules during childhood. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We identified all subjects born 1990 or later with a height SD score <-3, after the age of 3 years, from the Helsinki University Hospital district growth database. A total of 785 subjects (376 females and 409 males) fulfilled our inclusion criteria; we reviewed their medical records and growth data and report their underlying diagnoses. Results: A pathological cause for short stature was diagnosed in 76% of the girls and 71% of the boys (P = NS). Syndromes were the most numerous pathological cause (n = 160; 20%), followed by organ disorders (n = 127; 16%), growth hormone deficiency (GHD, n = 94; 12%), SGA without catch-up growth (n = 73; 9%), and skeletal dysplasias (n = 57; 7%). Idiopathic short stature (ISS) was diagnosed in 210 (27%) subjects. The probability of growth-related pathology, particularly of a syndrome or skeletal dysplasia, increased with the shorter height SD score and the greater deviation from the target height. Sitting height to height SDS was increased in subjects with ISS, GHD, and SGA (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: Height <-3 SDS after 3 years of age usually results from a pathological cause and should be thoroughly investigated in specialized health care. The chance of finding a specific etiology increased with the severity of short stature, and the mismatch with target height.


Assuntos
Nanismo/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Nanismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gráficos de Crescimento , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition on the background of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a complex medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality for affected children, with greater mortality from SAM (Severe Acute Malnutrition) among HIV-positive children than their HIV-negative peers. HIV-induced immune impairment heightened risk of opportunistic infection and can worsen nutritional status of children. HIV infection often leads to nutritional deficiencies through decreased food intake, mal-absorption and increased utilization and excretion of nutrients, which in turn can hasten death. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that assessed the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Gray Literatures using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. The last search date was December 30/2019. The data was extracted in excel sheet considering country, study design, year of publication, prevalence reported. Then the authors transformed the data to STATA 14 for analysis. Heterogeneity across the studies was assessed by the Q and the I2 test. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used to estimate the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting. The subgroup analysis was done by country, year of publication, and study design. To examine publication bias, a funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used. RESULTS: For the analysis a total of 22 studies with 22074 patients were used. The pooled prevalence of under-weight, wasting, and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa was found to be 41.63% (95%CI; 35.69-47.57; I2 = 98.7%; p<0.001), 24.65% (95%CI; 18.34-30.95; I2 = 99.2%; p<0.001), and 49.68% (95%CI; 42.59-56.77; I2 = 99.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 49.67% in Ethiopia followed by 42.00 in Rwanda. It was high among cohort studies (44.87%). Based on the year of publication, the prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 40.88% from studies conducted from January 2008-December 2014, while it was 43.68% from studies conducted from 2015-2019. The prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be 29.7% in Tanzania followed by 24.94% in Ethiopia. Based on the study design, the prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be high in cohort studies (31.15%). The prevalence of stunting among HIV positive children was found to be 51.63% in Ethiopia, followed by 48.21% in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented above provide evidence of a higher prevalence of under nutrition among HIV positive children in East Africa. Despite the country level variations of child under nutrition in East Africa, still it is high in all aspects compared to the studies from other parts of Africa. It is recommended that further systematic review and meta-analysis need to be conducted on magnitude of malnutrition among HIV positive children in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome de Emaciação por Infecção pelo HIV/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/etiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting is a worldwide public health problem caused by factors that vary across regions, including in Ethiopia. Limited evidence to prevent stunting makes it difficult to design and prioritize appropriate interventions. Therefore, this study investigated the intervention priorities for the prevention of stunting among children 6-59 months old in Kemissie City Administration, northeastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based individual matched case-control study was conducted from January to April 2017 including 107 cases and 214 controls. Controls were selected and matched with cases using the matching variable of child's age. Data were collected by open data kit (ODK) software using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.0 and WHO (World Health Organization) Anthro 2005. A conditional logistic regression model was used for data analysis. From multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis, determinants of stunting were identified. A statistically significant level was declared by a conditional adjusted odds ratio (cAOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value of less than 0.05. MAIN FINDINGS: The wealth index 52 (48.6%) of the cases and 108 (50.5%) controls were categorized as poor. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) for the cases and controls was -2.79±.67 and -0.55±.92, respectively. One-sixth (16.8%) of the cases and 29 (13.6%) of the controls were given prelacteal feeding. A majority 82 (86.9%) of the cases and 137 (69.1%) of the controls had undernourished mothers/care-givers. Slightly less than one-third 35 (32.7%) of cases and one-fourth 53 (24.8%) of controls were affected by repeated episodes of diarrhea. Mother's body mass index (BMI) (conditional adjusted odds ratio [cAOR]) = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.43), giving food priority to father (cAOR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.23, 4.75), lack of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months (cAOR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.17), no intake of meat by child (cAOR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.58) and child having repeated diarrheal episodes (cAOR = 2.0: 95% CI: 1.07, 3.86) were factors associated with childhood stunting. CONCLUSION: Maternal nutritional status, food priority, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, no intake of meat and repeated episodes of diarrhea were the main determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, intervention measures to avert childhood stunting should include strengthening action on provision of essential nutrition, providing counseling to parents on giving food priority to children, promotion of optimal duration of breastfeeding and preventing diarrheal disease among children 6-59 months old.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a major cause of child death, and many children suffer from acute and chronic malnutrition. Nigeria has the second-highest burden of stunting globally and a higher-than-average child wasting prevalence. Moreover, there is substantial spatial variation in the prevalence of stunting and wasting in Nigeria. This paper assessed the socioeconomic inequalities and determinants of the change in socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting in Nigeria between 2013 and 2018. METHODS: Data came from the 2013 and 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and wasting were measured using the concentration curve and Erreygers' corrected concentration index. A pro-poor concentration index is negative, meaning that the poor bear a disproportionately higher burden of stunting or wasting than the wealthy. A positive or pro-rich index is the opposite. Standard methodologies were applied to decompose the concentration index (C) while the Oaxaca-Blinder approach was used to decompose changes in the concentration indices (ΔC). FINDINGS: The socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting were pro-poor in 2013 and 2018. The concentration indices for stunting reduced from -0.298 (2013) to -0.330 (2018) (ΔC = -0.032). However, the concentration indices for wasting increased from -0.066 to -0.048 (ΔC = 0.018). The changes in the socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and wasting varied by geopolitical zones. Significant determinants of these changes for both stunting and wasting were changes in inequalities in wealth, maternal education and religion. Under-five dependency, access to improved toilet facilities and geopolitical zone significantly explained changes in only stunting inequality, while access to improved water facilities only significantly determined the change in inequality in wasting. CONCLUSION: Addressing the socio-economic, spatial and demographic determinants of the changes in the socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting, especially wealth, maternal education and access to sanitation is critical for improving child stunting and wasting in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Classe Social
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870942

RESUMO

Despite rapid macro-economic growth, one-third of the global burden of childhood stunting is contributed by India. This burden is characterized by wide-spread geographical variation within the country. This paper explores two research questions: (i) are the drivers of severe and moderate stunting similar? (ii) differential endowments or policy-effect, how do community-level nutrition and sanitary practices affect inter-state differences? Using data from Indian National Family and Health Survey 4, 2015-16, six states holding different ranks in the stunting continuum are compared to Tamil Nadu, taken as the benchmark state due to its laudable performance in the health care sector. Applying quantile regression approaches, the difference in state-level performance is decomposed into detailed covariate effects (differential endowments) and coefficient effects (differential strength of association between the drivers and outcome). The explanatory variables are not similarly associated with severe and moderate stunting. Decomposition results demonstrate a significant role of community-level sanitation practices compared to child nutrition behaviour in explaining the inter-state disparity. Coefficient effects play a dominant role in the lower tail of HAZ distribution for the poor performing states indicating that the worse outcomes of these states are due to weaker policy effects of the control variables on stunting. Multi-sectoral approach, identification and differentiation between severe and moderate stunting cases can be more instrumental in managing and reducing the scourge. This paper also advocates the potential benefits of customizing centrally-launched policies as per the state's performance and introducing the concept coproduction in the existing nutrition and health policy framework. This will instigate a feeling of ownership of the problem of childhood stunting among the policy consumers and strengthen the influence of policies on the outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Saneamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872130

RESUMO

The slow decrease in child stunting rates in East Africa warrants further research to identify the influence of contributing factors such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This study investigated the association between child length and WASH conditions using the recently revised WHO and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) indicators. Data from households with infants and young children aged 6-23 months from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were used. Associations for each country between WASH conditions and length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) were analyzed using linear regression. Stunting rates were high (>20%) reaching 45% in Burundi. At the time of the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), more than half of the households in most countries did not have basic or safely managed WASH indicators. Models predicted significantly higher LAZ for children living in households with safely managed drinking water compared to those living in households drinking from surface water in Kenya (ß = 0.13, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.05) after adjustment with child, maternal, and household covariates. Children living in households with improved sanitation facilities not shared with other households were also taller than children living in households practicing open defecation in Ethiopia (ß = 0.07, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.01) in the adjusted models. All countries need improved WASH conditions to reduce pathogen and helminth contamination. Targeting adherence to the highest JMP indicators would support efforts to reduce child stunting in East Africa.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867016

RESUMO

Stunting is highly prevalent in Indonesian children. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of stunting with morbidity, parental education and socioeconomic status (SES) in Indonesian children. The study population was part of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). A total of 2236 Indonesian children aged 0.5 to 12 years, who had participated in the SEANUTS, were included in this study. Stunting was defined as height for age Z-score (HAZ) ≤ -2 using WHO criteria and severe stunting as HAZ ≤ -3. Information on morbidity, parental education and family SES were collected by structured questionnaires. ANOVA was used for evaluating differences across groups, with or without correction for confounders. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting was 31.4%. HAZ in stunted children was associated with disease incidence, including frequency, parental education and family income. There were no significant differences in HAZ values in stunted children with one or more bouts of infectious, digestive tract or respiratory tract illnesses compared to stunted children with no reported illness. The prevalence of stunting in Indonesian children was high and was strongly associated with child morbidity, parental education and SES.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Relações Pais-Filho , Classe Social , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Morbidade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of a 4-month telehealth home monitoring program (REACH), layered on usual care, on postdischarge outcomes in parents of infants recovering from cardiac surgery and their infants. METHODS: Randomized trial of infants discharged from the hospital after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Consecutive infants with complex congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery within 21 days of life were enrolled at 3 university-affiliated pediatric cardiac centers. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2016, 219 parent-infant dyads were enrolled; 109 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 110 to the control group. At 4 months postdischarge, parenting stress was not significantly different between groups (total Parenting Stress Index in the intervention group was 220 and in the control group was 215; P = .61). The percentages of parents who met posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria and parent quality of life inventory scores were also not significantly different between the 2 groups (PTSD in the intervention group was 18% and was 18% in the control group; P =.56; the mean Ulm Quality of Life Inventory for Parents in the intervention group was 71 andwas 70 in the control group; P = .88). Infant growth in both groups was suboptimal (the mean weight-for-age z scores were -1.1 in the intervention group and -1.2 in the control group; P = .56), and more infants in the intervention group were readmitted to the hospital (66% in the intervention group versus 57% in the control group; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: When added to usual care, the REACH intervention was not associated with an improvement in parent or infant outcomes. Four months after neonatal heart surgery, ∼20% of parents demonstrate PTSD symptoms. Suboptimal infant growth and hospital readmissions were common.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, India is home to every third child affected by stunting. While numerous studies have examined the correlates of childhood stunting (CS) in India, most of these studies have focused on examining the role of proximal factors, and the role of contextual factors is much less studied. This study presents a comprehensive picture of both proximal and contextual determinants of CS in India, expanding the current evidence base. The present study is guided by the WHO conceptual framework, which outlines the context, causes, and consequences of CS. DATA AND METHODS: The study used exploratory spatial data analysis tools to analyse the spatial pattern and correlates of CS, using data from the fourth round (2015-16) of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) and the 2011 Census of India. RESULTS: The study findings reiterate that CS continues to be high in India, with several hot spot states and districts, and that children from the central and eastern region of the nation, namely, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh are particularly vulnerable. Our analysis has identified six risk factors-maternal short stature, large household size, closely spaced births, prevalence of hypertension among women, household poverty, open defecation, and extreme temperature-and four protective factors-female education, access to improved drinking water, dietary diversity among children, and iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the need for investing in pre-conception care, addressing both demand- and supply-side barriers to increase the coverage of nutrition-specific interventions, implementing programmes to promote the intake of healthy foods from an early age, providing contraceptive counselling and services to unmarried and married adolescents and young women and men, and universalizing quality primary and secondary education that is inclusive and equitable to avert the burden of childhood stunting in India.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Terapia Nutricional , Análise Espacial , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/dietoterapia , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Public Health ; 186: 137-143, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of parental international migration on health care seeking for common childhood illnesses (diarrhoea, fever, and acute respiratory infections) and nutritional status (stunting, underweight and wasting) in young children in Nepal using the most recent nationally representative Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. STUDY DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between parental international migration and the study outcomes adjusting for a range of potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 5310 children, 23.5% had at least one parent living abroad. Health care for common childhood illnesses was sought for 52.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.0%-59.2%) and 47.0% (95% CI: 42.7%-51.1%) of children from migrant and non-migrant families, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among left-behind children were 35.3% (95% CI: 31.5%-39.1%), 28.3% (95% CI: 24.2%-32.2%) and 11.8% (95% CI: 8.8%-14.7%), respectively. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences in health care seeking or nutritional status by parent's migration status. CONCLUSIONS: Despite large economic benefits to Nepal due to international labour migration, we did not observe any apparent differences in young left-behind children in terms of seeking health care for common childhood illnesses or prevalence of under-nutrition. Longitudinal studies are needed to accurately measure whether migration has any substantial temporal effect on the nutritional status of young children or seeking for health care.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração , Estado Nutricional , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Migrantes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629904

RESUMO

Adequate nutritional intake for mothers during pregnancy and for children in the first two years of life is known to be crucial for a child's lifelong physical and neurodevelopment. In this regard, the global nutrition community has focused on strategies for improving nutritional intake during the first 1,000 day period. This is largely justified by the observed steep decline in children's height-for-age z scores from birth to 23 months and presumed growth faltering at later ages as a reflection of earlier deprivation that is accumulated and irreversible. Empirical evidence on the age-stratified burden of child undernutrition is needed to re-evaluate the appropriate age for nutrition interventions to target among children. Using data from two successive rounds of National Family Health Surveys conducted in 2006 and 2016, the objective of this paper was to analyze intertemporal changes in the age-stratified burden of child stunting across socioeconomic groups in India. We found that child stunting in India was significantly concentrated among children entering preschool age (24 or above months). Further, the temporal reduction in stunting was relatively higher among children aged 36-47 months compared to younger groups (below 12 and 12-23 months). Greater socioeconomic inequalities persisted in stunting among children from 24 months or above age-groups, and these inequalities have increased over time. Children of preschool age (24 or above months) from economically vulnerable households experienced larger reductions in the prevalence of stunting between 2006 and 2016, suggesting that policy research and strategies beyond the first 1000 days could be critical for accelerating the pace of improvement of child nutrition in India.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento , Desnutrição , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1181, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health concern for children. Each day, worldwide, approximately 440 children became newly infected with HIV, and 270 children died from AIDS-related causes in 2018. Poor nutrition has been associated with accelerated disease progression, and sufficient dietary diversity is considered a key to improve children's nutritional status. Therefore, this study aims to 1) examine nutritional status of school-age children living with HIV in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and 2) identify factors associated with their nutritional status, especially taking their dietary diversity into consideration. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2018 within the catchment area of the National Pediatric Hospital, Cambodia. Data from 298 children and their caregivers were included in the analyses. Using semi-structured questionnaires, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life, and dietary diversity. To assess children's nutritional status, body weight and height were measured. Viral load and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were collected from clinical records. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with stunting and wasting. RESULTS: Of 298 children, nearly half (46.6%) were stunted, and 13.1% were wasted. The mean number of food groups consumed by the children in the past 24 h was 4.6 out of 7 groups. Factors associated with children's stunting were age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.166, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.151, 4.077), household wealth (AOR 0.543, 95%CI: 0.299, 0.986), duration of receiving ART (AOR 0.510, 95%CI: 0.267, 0.974), and having disease symptoms during the past 1 year (AOR 1.871, 95%CI: 1.005, 3.480). The only factor associated with wasting was being male (AOR 5.304, 95%CI: 2.210, 12.728). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of stunting was more than double that of non-infected school-age children living in urban areas in Cambodia. This highlights the importance of conducting nutritional intervention programs, especially tailored for children living with HIV in the country. Although dietary diversity was not significantly associated with children's nutritional status in this study, the findings will contribute to implementing future nutritional interventions more efficiently by indicating children who are most in need of such interventions in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Síndrome de Emaciação/complicações , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Carga Viral , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine how overweight and obesity at specific ages and overall BMI growth patterns throughout childhood predict cardiometabolic phenotypes at 11 to 12 years. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 5107 infants, BMI was measured every 2 years between ages 2 to 3 and 10 to 11 years. We identified 5 BMI trajectories using growth curve models. At ages 11 to 12 years, 1811 children completed assessments for metabolic syndrome risk scores, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate associations, adjusted for potential confounders (eg, age, sex, smoking exposure, and small for gestational age). RESULTS: Overweight and obesity from early childhood onward were strongly associated with higher cardiometabolic risk at 11 to 12 years of age. At age 6 to 7 years, compared with those with a healthy weight, children with overweight had higher metabolic syndrome risk scores by 0.23 SD units (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41) and with obesity by 0.76 SD units (0.51-1.01), with associations almost doubling by age 10 to 11 years. Obese (but not overweight) children had higher outcome pulse wave velocity (0.64-0.73 SD units) from ages 6 to 7 years and slightly higher outcome carotid intima-media thickness (0.20-0.30 SD units) at all ages. Cumulative exposure to high BMI from 2 to 3 years of age carried the greatest cardiometabolic risk, with a gradient of risk across trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: High early-childhood BMI is already silently associated with the development of cardiometabolic risk by 11 to 12 years, highlighting the urgent need for effective action to reduce overweight and obesity in early childhood.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diagnóstico Precoce , Programas de Rastreamento , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) in India apply adult cutoffs of nutritional status for the estimation of undernutrition/overweight in the 15-19 age group. The prevalence of thinness in boys and girls thus estimated is 58.1% and 46.8% in NFHS-3, and 45% and 42% in NFHS-4 respectively. But the WHO recommends using age and sex-specific reference for adolescents. We reanalyzed the nutritional status of the adolescents using the WHO 2007 Growth Reference to obtain revised estimates of thinness, overweight and stunting across states, rural-urban residence, and wealth quintiles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic information, anthropometric data, and wealth index were accessed from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) database. We re-analyzed the anthropometric data using WHO AnthroPlus software which uses the WHO 2007 Growth reference. The revised estimates of thinness assessed by BMI-for-age z-scores in boys and girls was 22.3% (95%CI: 21.6, 23.0) and 9.9% (95%CI: 9.5, 10.3) in NFHS-3 and 16.5% (95%CI: 16.0,17.0) and 9% (95%CI: 8.9, 9.2) in NFHS-4 respectively. Stunting was found to be 32.2% (95% CI: 31.6, 32.9) in boys and 34.4% (95% CI: 34.2, 34.7) in girls in NFHS-4. This was higher than that in NFHS-3; 25.2% (95% CI: 24.4, 26) in boys and 31.2 (95% CI: 30.6, 31.8) in girls. There was a clear socioeconomic gradient as there were higher thinness and stunting in rural areas. There was wide variation among the states with pockets of a double burden of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Using the adult cutoffs significantly overestimates thinness in adolescents in the age group of 15-19 years old in India. Stunting, which is an indicator of long term nutrition is also widely prevalent in them. Future editions of DHS and NFHS should consider adolescents as a separate age group for nutritional assessment for a better understanding of nutritional transition in the population.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 952, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is facing a serious problem of child under-nutrition as about 38% of children in Pakistan are stunted. Punjab, the largest province by population and contributes high gross domestic product (GDP) share in economy has reported 27% moderately and 10% severely stunted children of less than 5 years. Thus, this study aims at examining the determinants of stunting (moderate and severe) at different level of hierarchy empirically in Punjab province of Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: Data for this study is coming from Punjab Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS-2014), used two-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach. Sub-national level data covering urban and rural areas were used for this study consists of 25,067 children less than 5 year's ages, from nine administrative divisions and 36 districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. Descriptive statistics and multilevel hierarchical models were estimated. Multilevel data analyses have an advantage because it provides robust standard error estimates and helps in finding variation in the data at various levels. RESULTS: Punjab has a stunting prevalence of about 27% moderately and 10% severely stunted children of less than 5 years. The results depict that increasing the age of the child, increasing birth order, illiterate mothers and fathers, lack of sanitation facilities and being poor are associated significantly with the likelihood of moderate and severe stunting. Surprisingly, there is a gender bias in stunting in Punjab, Pakistan and being a girl child is more likely associated with moderate and severe stunting, which shows the patriarchal nature of the society and a substantial prevalence of gender bias in household resource allocations. CONCLUSION: This outcome of our analysis points towards targeting not only households (focus on girls) but also their families and communities.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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