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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540885

RESUMO

Socially, economically, politically and emotionally (SEPE) disadvantaged children are shorter than children from affluent background. In view of previous work on the lack of association between nutrition and child growth, we performed a study in urban schoolchildren. We measured 723 children (5.83 to 13.83 years); Kupang, Indonesia; three schools with different social background. We investigated anthropometric data, clinical signs of malnutrition, physical fitness, parental education, and household equipment. Subjective self-confidence was assessed by the MacArthur test. The prevalence of stunting was between 8.5% and 46.8%. Clinical signs of under- or malnutrition were absent even in the most underprivileged children. There was no delay in tooth eruption. Underprivileged children are physically fitter than the wealthy. The correlation between height and state of nutrition (BMI_SDS, skinfold_SDS, MUAC_SDS) ranged between r = 0.69 (p < 0.01) and r = 0.43 (p < 0.01) in private school children, and between r = 0.07 (ns) and r = 0.32 (p < 0.01) in the underprivileged children. Maternal education interacted with height in affluent (r = 0.20, p < 0.01) and in underprivileged children (r = 0.20, p < 0.01). The shortness of SEPE disadvantaged children was not associated with anthropometric and clinical signs of malnutrition, nor with delay in physical development. Stunting is a complex phenomenon and may be considered a synonym of social disadvantage and poor parental education.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Desnutrição , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24712, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607811

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic abnormalities and clinical manifestations of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). PATIENT CONCERNS: A Chinese infant with elevated transaminase and a novel mutation at of sbdsc.258 +2T>C and c.184a>Tc.292G>A. DIAGNOSES: The female patient was 5 months' old at onset, with elevated transaminase as the first manifestation accompanied by restricted growth and development and oily stool. After sequencing the blood samples from patients and their parents, the heterozygous mutations of sbdsc.258 +2T>C and c.184a>T were detected. INTERVENTIONS: After admission, the patient was provided compound glycyrrhizin, Newtide formula milk supplemented with probiotics, fat-soluble vitamins, oral medication to adjust the spleen and stomach, and other symptomatic treatments. OUTCOMES: The stool traits improved, and the levels of liver function transaminases decreased compared with before. LESSONS: SDS is a rare disease with a variety of clinical manifestations. Pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, blood system manifestations, and bone abnormalities are common clinical manifestations, and genetic testing is helpful for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Pâncreas Exócrino/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação/genética , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/terapia , Transaminases/sangue , Transaminases/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23266, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327247

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a congenital pituitary anatomical defect. It is characterized by the triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior lobe, and hypoplastic or aplastic anterior lobe. Moreover, this condition is considered rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old male patient presented with a history of short stature and hypogonadism. Laboratory assessment revealed low thyroxine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, which are consistent with adrenal insufficiency without hypoglycemia. The insulin-induced hypoglycemia tolerance test finding indicated growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an interrupted pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior pituitary, and hypoplastic anterior pituitary. This triad of symptoms was indicative of PSIS. DIAGNOSIS: INTERVENTIONS:: The patient was deficient in adrenaline, thyroxine, gonadal steroid, and GH. Thus, glucocorticoid replacement therapy was initiated, followed by euthyrox, androgen, and human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. Calcium tablets, calcitriol, and alendronate sodium were used for the management of osteoporosis. The patient was 164 cm tall, and his bone age was approximately 15 years old. However, owing to a poor economic condition, the family did not proceed with GH therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient did not present with adrenal or hypothyroidism crisis after receiving poly-hormonal replacement therapy. His secondary sexual characteristics began to develop. However, owing to a short treatment window period, the patient could not receive the required treatment. Hence, whether the patient would have a normal fertility function needs to be confirmed. LESSONS: PSIS is a rare disease with various clinical characteristics. During the neonatal period and infancy, the signs and symptoms of PSIS are often not evident. Therefore, diagnosis is delayed. The early detection of hormone deficiency and treatment initiation can affect both the quality of life and the prognosis of patients with PSIS. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease must be improved to help patients achieve a better quality of life and to prevent reproductive health problems.


Assuntos
Hipófise/anormalidades , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/deficiência , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/deficiência , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Adeno-Hipófise/anormalidades , Neuro-Hipófise/anormalidades , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Tiroxina/deficiência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 481-488, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107436

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the etiology of severe short stature in the Helsinki University Hospital district covering a population of 1.2 million that is subject to frequent growth monitoring and screening rules during childhood. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We identified all subjects born 1990 or later with a height SD score <-3, after the age of 3 years, from the Helsinki University Hospital district growth database. A total of 785 subjects (376 females and 409 males) fulfilled our inclusion criteria; we reviewed their medical records and growth data and report their underlying diagnoses. Results: A pathological cause for short stature was diagnosed in 76% of the girls and 71% of the boys (P = NS). Syndromes were the most numerous pathological cause (n = 160; 20%), followed by organ disorders (n = 127; 16%), growth hormone deficiency (GHD, n = 94; 12%), SGA without catch-up growth (n = 73; 9%), and skeletal dysplasias (n = 57; 7%). Idiopathic short stature (ISS) was diagnosed in 210 (27%) subjects. The probability of growth-related pathology, particularly of a syndrome or skeletal dysplasia, increased with the shorter height SD score and the greater deviation from the target height. Sitting height to height SDS was increased in subjects with ISS, GHD, and SGA (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: Height <-3 SDS after 3 years of age usually results from a pathological cause and should be thoroughly investigated in specialized health care. The chance of finding a specific etiology increased with the severity of short stature, and the mismatch with target height.


Assuntos
Nanismo/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Nanismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gráficos de Crescimento , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition on the background of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a complex medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality for affected children, with greater mortality from SAM (Severe Acute Malnutrition) among HIV-positive children than their HIV-negative peers. HIV-induced immune impairment heightened risk of opportunistic infection and can worsen nutritional status of children. HIV infection often leads to nutritional deficiencies through decreased food intake, mal-absorption and increased utilization and excretion of nutrients, which in turn can hasten death. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that assessed the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Gray Literatures using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. The last search date was December 30/2019. The data was extracted in excel sheet considering country, study design, year of publication, prevalence reported. Then the authors transformed the data to STATA 14 for analysis. Heterogeneity across the studies was assessed by the Q and the I2 test. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used to estimate the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting. The subgroup analysis was done by country, year of publication, and study design. To examine publication bias, a funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used. RESULTS: For the analysis a total of 22 studies with 22074 patients were used. The pooled prevalence of under-weight, wasting, and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa was found to be 41.63% (95%CI; 35.69-47.57; I2 = 98.7%; p<0.001), 24.65% (95%CI; 18.34-30.95; I2 = 99.2%; p<0.001), and 49.68% (95%CI; 42.59-56.77; I2 = 99.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 49.67% in Ethiopia followed by 42.00 in Rwanda. It was high among cohort studies (44.87%). Based on the year of publication, the prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 40.88% from studies conducted from January 2008-December 2014, while it was 43.68% from studies conducted from 2015-2019. The prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be 29.7% in Tanzania followed by 24.94% in Ethiopia. Based on the study design, the prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be high in cohort studies (31.15%). The prevalence of stunting among HIV positive children was found to be 51.63% in Ethiopia, followed by 48.21% in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented above provide evidence of a higher prevalence of under nutrition among HIV positive children in East Africa. Despite the country level variations of child under nutrition in East Africa, still it is high in all aspects compared to the studies from other parts of Africa. It is recommended that further systematic review and meta-analysis need to be conducted on magnitude of malnutrition among HIV positive children in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome de Emaciação por Infecção pelo HIV/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/etiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867111

RESUMO

The burden of childhood stunting in Tanzania is persistently high, even in high food-producing regions. This calls for a paradigm shift in Child Growth Monitoring (CGM) to a multi-dimensional approach that also includes the contextual information of an individual child and her/his caregivers. To contribute to the further development of CGM to reflect local contexts, we engaged the Capability Framework for Child Growth (CFCG) to identify maternal capabilities for ensuring healthy child growth. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in Southeastern Tanzania using in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, participant observation, and focus group discussions with caregivers for under-fives. Three maternal capabilities for healthy child growth emerged: (1) being able to feed children, (2) being able to control and make decisions on farm products and income, and (3) being able to ensure access to medical care. Mothers' capability to feed children was challenged by being overburdened by farm and domestic work, and gendered patterns in childcare. Patriarchal cultural norms restricted women's control of farm products and decision-making on household purchases. The CFCG could give direction to the paradigm shift needed for child growth monitoring, as it goes beyond biometric measures, and considers mothers' real opportunities for achieving healthy child growth.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos do Crescimento , Mães , População Rural , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Tanzânia
7.
Pediatr. catalan ; 80(3): 121-123, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200157

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓ: La irritabilitat en el lactant és un motiu de consulta habitual que inclou les intoxicacions en el diagnòstic diferencial. L'ús de remeis casolans, com ara infusions, és freqüent en la població pediàtrica, en concret per tractar còlics, diarrees o vòmits. Aquest ús és més alt entre la població immigrant, amb la qual sovint existeix una barrera idiomàtica. Això pot dificultar la prevenció, la identificació I la resolució de possibles intoxicacions. En aquest treball es presenta el cas d'un nadó afectat per la ingesta d'infusió de fonoll, I s'insisteix en els efectes tòxics potencials. CAS CLÍNIC: Es presenta el cas d'un lactant de 16 dies de vida que consulta a infermeria per dificultats en l'alletament. S'observa una presa a la consulta, s'objectiva molta irritabilitat durant l'intent d'aferrament I es constata un escàs guany ponderal. Fent èmfasi en l'anamnesi, s'identifica l'administració durant dues setmanes de tres biberons al dia de 60 ml d'infusió de fonoll amb sucre com a remei per al còlic del lactant. COMENTARIS: Hi ha poca evidència de la tolerància al fonoll en lactants. Alguns dels seus compostos s'han aïllat en llet materna en cas que la mare n'hagi ingerit. La intoxicació depèn de la dosi I pot provocar cianosi sense resposta a oxigenoteràpia per metahemoglobinèmia. En quantitats més reduïdes, el component neurotòxic anetol provoca letargia, escàs guany ponderal, irritabilitat o vòmits; les proves complementàries no mostren alteracions, I la recuperació és completa al suprimirne la ingesta. És important detectar aquestes pràctiques potencialment perjudicials fent èmfasi en l'anamnesi


INTRODUCCIÓN: La irritabilidad en el lactante es un motivo de consulta habitual que incluye las intoxicaciones en su diagnóstico diferencial. El uso de remedios caseros a base de hierbas o infusiones es frecuente en la población pediátrica, en concreto para el tratamiento de cólicos, diarreas o vómitos. Dicho uso es mayor en la población inmigrante, con la cual suele existir también barrera idiomática. Esto puede dificultar la prevención, identificación y resolución de posibles intoxicaciones. Este trabajo presenta el caso de un recién nacido afectado por infusión de hinojo, haciendo hincapié en sus potenciales efectos tóxicos. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta el caso de un lactante de 16 días de vida que consulta a enfermería por dificultades en la lactancia. Se observa una toma en la consulta, se objetiva irritabilidad marcada y se constata una escasa ganancia ponderal. Poniendo énfasis en la anamnesis, se identifica la administración durante dos semanas de tres biberones al día de 60 ml de infusión de hinojo con azúcar como remedio para los cólicos del lactante. COMENTARIOS: Existe poca evidencia de la tolerancia al hinojo en lactantes. Algunos de sus compuestos han sido aislados en la leche materna en caso de ingesta por su parte. La intoxicación es dosis-dependiente y puede provocar cianosis sin respuesta a oxigenoterapia por metahemoglobinemia. En cantidades más reducidas, el compuesto neurotóxico anetol puede provocar letargia, fallo de medro, irritabilidad y vómitos. Las pruebas complementarias no muestran alteraciones y la recuperación es completa al suprimir la ingesta de la sustancia. Es importante detectar estas prácticas potencialmente perjudiciales para la población pediátrica haciendo hincapié en la anamnesis de forma activa


INTRODUCTION: Irritability in the newborn is a usual reason for consultation. It may include intoxications in its differential diagnosis. Herbal medicines and infusions are commonly used in paediatric patients, especially for infantile colic, diarrhoea and vomiting. These practices are common among the immigrant population, in which idiomatic barrier is frequent. Thus, prevention, identification and resolution of eventual intoxications can be difficult. In this paper a case report of a newborn being affected by fennel infusion is presented. The focus is put on fennel's potential toxic effects. CASE REPORT: A case of a 16-day-old infant who consults the nurse due to breastfeeding difficulties is presented. A breast milk intake with marked irritability is observed during the consultation and a low weight gain is detected. On further questioning, the administration of 3 bottles per day of 60 ml of infusion of fennel with sugar over the previous two weeks was documented, as a remedy for the infant's colics. COMMENTS: There is little evidence about fennel tolerance in new-borns. Some of its compounds have been found in breast milk in case of ingestion by the mother. Intoxication is dose-dependent and can cause cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen due to metahaemoglinaemia. In smaller quantities, the neurotoxic compound anethole can cause lethargy, failure to thrive, irritability and vomiting. Additional diagnostic tests show no alterations. Recovery after interruption of the substance's intake is ad integrum. It is important to focus on the anamnesis in order to identify dietary habits and home remedies, which could be potentially harmful in the paediatric population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Foeniculum/envenenamento , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Transtornos da Lactação/etiologia , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Cólica/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(4): 321-333, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is an enigmatic disorder of the small intestine that is postulated to play a role in childhood undernutrition, a pressing global health problem. Defining the incidence of this disorder, its pathophysiological features, and its contribution to impaired linear and ponderal growth has been hampered by the difficulty in directly sampling the small intestinal mucosa and microbial community (microbiota). METHODS: In this study, among 110 young children (mean age, 18 months) with linear growth stunting who were living in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and had not benefited from a nutritional intervention, we performed endoscopy in 80 children who had biopsy-confirmed EED and available plasma and duodenal samples. We quantified the levels of 4077 plasma proteins and 2619 proteins in duodenal biopsy samples obtained from these children. The levels of bacterial strains in microbiota recovered from duodenal aspirate from each child were determined with the use of culture-independent methods. In addition, we obtained 21 plasma samples and 27 fecal samples from age-matched healthy children living in the same area. Young germ-free mice that had been fed a Bangladeshi diet were colonized with bacterial strains cultured from the duodenal aspirates. RESULTS: Of the bacterial strains that were obtained from the children, the absolute levels of a shared group of 14 taxa (which are not typically classified as enteropathogens) were negatively correlated with linear growth (length-for-age z score, r = -0.49; P = 0.003) and positively correlated with duodenal proteins involved in immunoinflammatory responses. The representation of these 14 duodenal taxa in fecal microbiota was significantly different from that in samples obtained from healthy children (P<0.001 by permutational multivariate analysis of variance). Enteropathy of the small intestine developed in gnotobiotic mice that had been colonized with cultured duodenal strains obtained from children with EED. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for a causal relationship between growth stunting and components of the small intestinal microbiota and enteropathy and offer a rationale for developing therapies that target these microbial contributions to EED. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02812615.).


Assuntos
Duodeno/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos do Crescimento/microbiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/complicações , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bangladesh , Duodenoscopia , Duodeno/patologia , Doença Ambiental/complicações , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Crescimento , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Enteropatias/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise Multivariada , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/análise , Proteoma/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629904

RESUMO

Adequate nutritional intake for mothers during pregnancy and for children in the first two years of life is known to be crucial for a child's lifelong physical and neurodevelopment. In this regard, the global nutrition community has focused on strategies for improving nutritional intake during the first 1,000 day period. This is largely justified by the observed steep decline in children's height-for-age z scores from birth to 23 months and presumed growth faltering at later ages as a reflection of earlier deprivation that is accumulated and irreversible. Empirical evidence on the age-stratified burden of child undernutrition is needed to re-evaluate the appropriate age for nutrition interventions to target among children. Using data from two successive rounds of National Family Health Surveys conducted in 2006 and 2016, the objective of this paper was to analyze intertemporal changes in the age-stratified burden of child stunting across socioeconomic groups in India. We found that child stunting in India was significantly concentrated among children entering preschool age (24 or above months). Further, the temporal reduction in stunting was relatively higher among children aged 36-47 months compared to younger groups (below 12 and 12-23 months). Greater socioeconomic inequalities persisted in stunting among children from 24 months or above age-groups, and these inequalities have increased over time. Children of preschool age (24 or above months) from economically vulnerable households experienced larger reductions in the prevalence of stunting between 2006 and 2016, suggesting that policy research and strategies beyond the first 1000 days could be critical for accelerating the pace of improvement of child nutrition in India.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento , Desnutrição , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
11.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(17): 693-699, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618681

RESUMO

The management of idiopathic scoliosis in the skeletally immature patient can be challenging. Posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation is indicated for severe scoliosis deformities. However, the skeletally immature patient undergoing posterior fusion and instrumentation is at risk for developing crankshaft deformities. Moreover, bracing treatment remains an option for patients who are skeletally immature, and although it was found to be effective, it does not completely preclude deformity progression. Recently, fusionless treatment options, such as anterior vertebral body growth modulation, have been developed to treat these patients while avoiding the complications of posterior rigid fusion. Good results have been shown in recent literature with proper indications and planning in the skeletally immature patient.


Assuntos
Braquetes , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Dispositivos de Fixação Ortopédica/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) in India apply adult cutoffs of nutritional status for the estimation of undernutrition/overweight in the 15-19 age group. The prevalence of thinness in boys and girls thus estimated is 58.1% and 46.8% in NFHS-3, and 45% and 42% in NFHS-4 respectively. But the WHO recommends using age and sex-specific reference for adolescents. We reanalyzed the nutritional status of the adolescents using the WHO 2007 Growth Reference to obtain revised estimates of thinness, overweight and stunting across states, rural-urban residence, and wealth quintiles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic information, anthropometric data, and wealth index were accessed from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) database. We re-analyzed the anthropometric data using WHO AnthroPlus software which uses the WHO 2007 Growth reference. The revised estimates of thinness assessed by BMI-for-age z-scores in boys and girls was 22.3% (95%CI: 21.6, 23.0) and 9.9% (95%CI: 9.5, 10.3) in NFHS-3 and 16.5% (95%CI: 16.0,17.0) and 9% (95%CI: 8.9, 9.2) in NFHS-4 respectively. Stunting was found to be 32.2% (95% CI: 31.6, 32.9) in boys and 34.4% (95% CI: 34.2, 34.7) in girls in NFHS-4. This was higher than that in NFHS-3; 25.2% (95% CI: 24.4, 26) in boys and 31.2 (95% CI: 30.6, 31.8) in girls. There was a clear socioeconomic gradient as there were higher thinness and stunting in rural areas. There was wide variation among the states with pockets of a double burden of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Using the adult cutoffs significantly overestimates thinness in adolescents in the age group of 15-19 years old in India. Stunting, which is an indicator of long term nutrition is also widely prevalent in them. Future editions of DHS and NFHS should consider adolescents as a separate age group for nutritional assessment for a better understanding of nutritional transition in the population.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 736, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A study involving children from Alagoas (Northeast Brazil) revealed that, as a consequence of a drastic reduction in the prevalence of stunting between 1992 to 2005, (22.5 to 11.4%) combined with an increase in overweight prevalence (6.7 to 9.3%), the prevalence of these two conditions in 2005 was very close. If these trends were maintained, it is very likely that, at this time, the childhood overweight prevalence has already exceeded that of the stunting. However, no study is available to confirm this hypothesis. The identification of these changes is relevant to the planning and evaluation of public policies. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, time trends and associated factors with stunting and overweight in children from Alagoas. METHODS: Independent cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 1992 (n = 1231), 2005 (n = 1381) and 2015 (n = 988). Data were collected from probabilistic samples of children aged 0-60 months. Stunting was defined by stature-for-age < - 2 sd and overweight by weight-for-stature > 2 sd. RESULTS: Between 1992, 2005 and 2015, the stunting prevalence was 22.6, 11.2 and 3.2% (reduction of 85.8%), while the overweight prevalence was 6.9, 7.5 and 14.9% (increase of 115.9%), respectively. After multivariate analysis, the following positive associations with stunting were observed in 1992: age group > 24 months (28.3% vs 14.5%), mother with ≥2 children (28.8% vs 12.8%), low birth weight (28.3% vs 15.7%) and mother with low schooling (29.3% vs 7.2%). In 2015 there was a higher prevalence of stunting in males (4.2% vs 2.2%), in children < 24 months (4.6% vs 2.2%), with low birth weight (8.6% vs 3.0%) and in those who had mothers with low schooling (7.0% vs 2.6%). Regarding overweight, in 1992 there was higher prevalence for male (9.1% vs 4.7%) and in children whose mothers had ≤2 children (8.9% vs 5.8%), while in 2015 only birth weight >  4 kg was associated to overweight (27.3% vs 14.2%). CONCLUSIONS: During the analyzed period, there was a significant decrease in stunting prevalence. At the same time, a substantial increase was observed in the overweight prevalence. Currently, stunting is a problem of low magnitude, while overweight has become a worrying public health problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Análise Multivariada , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting is an indicator of poor linear growth in children and is an important public health problem in many countries. Both nutritional deficits and toxic exposures can contribute to lower height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ < -2). OBJECTIVES: In a community-based cross-sectional sample of 97 healthy children ages 6-59 months in Kampala, Uganda, we examined whether exposure to Pb, As, Cd, Se, or Zn were associated with HAZ individually or as a mixture. METHODS: Blood samples were analyzed for a mixture of metals, which represent both toxins and essential nutrients. The association between HAZ and metal exposure was tested using multivariable linear regression and Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression, which uses mixtures of correlated exposures as a predictor. RESULTS: There were 22 stunted children in the sample, mean HAZ was -0.74 (SD = 1.84). Linear regression showed that Pb (ß = -0.80, p = 0.021) and Se (ß = 1.92, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with HAZ. The WQS models separated toxic elements with a presumed negative effect on HAZ (Pb, As, Cd) from essential nutrients with presumed positive effect on HAZ (Se and Zn). The toxic mixture was significantly associated with lower HAZ (ß = -0.47, p = 0.03), with 62% of the effect from Pb. The nutrient WQS index did not reach statistical significance (ß = -0.47, p = 0.16). DISCUSSION: Higher blood lead and lower blood selenium level were both associated with lower HAZ. The significant associations by linear regression were reinforced by the WQS models, although not all associations reached statistical significance. These findings suggest that healthy children in this neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, who have a high burden of toxic exposures, may experience detrimental health effects associated with these exposures in an environment where exposure sources are not well characterized.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Selênio/sangue , Uganda , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/toxicidade
16.
J Trop Pediatr ; 66(3): 248-256, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452522

RESUMO

Livestock is an integrated part of agriculture, yet the relationship between household livestock ownership and child nutrition is a significant knowledge gap. The present study aimed to assess the association between household livestock ownership and childhood stunting and to explore the geospatial variations at district level in Bangladesh. A complete data of 19 295 children aged below 5 years were extracted from the latest Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012-13. The tropical livestock unit (TLU) score calculated as a weighted value for each livestock and categorized as low, medium, and high using tertile. A hierarchical Bayesian spatial logistic model was used to assess the association between TLU and childhood stunting. Children from the household with high TLU were 10% less likely to be stunted (adjusted posterior odds ratio: 0.90, 95% credible interval: 0.84-0.97) after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, morbidity, place of residence and spatial effects. There was also a substantial spatial variation in childhood stunting across districts in Bangladesh with the highest burden in the Northern and North-Eastern regions. The positive effect of household livestock ownership on reducing child stunting suggests that, in addition to nutritional intervention in Bangladesh, efforts to strengthen livestock production would be beneficial for improving child nutrition status. However, a small effect size may be owing to the lack of dietary diversity, livestock health and productivity data as well as the complexity of the relationship, requiring further study. Furthermore, a significant regional disparity in stunting highlighted the importance of spatial targeting during the design of interventions and implementation.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Gado , Estado Nutricional , Propriedade , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012284, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia. Growth hormone replacement therapy has been used in children with thalassaemia who have short stature and growth hormone deficiency. This review on the role of growth hormone was originally published in September 2017 and updated in April 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and safety of growth hormone therapy in people with thalassaemia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. Date of latest search: 14 November 2019. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and clinical trial registries. Date of latest search: 06 January 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of growth hormone therapy to placebo or standard care in people with thalassaemia of any type or severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were also conducted independently by two authors. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: We included one parallel trial conducted in Turkey. The trial recruited 20 children with homozygous beta thalassaemia who had short stature; 10 children received growth hormone therapy administered subcutaneously on a daily basis at a dose of 0.7 IU/kg per week and 10 children received standard care. The overall risk of bias in this trial was low except for the selection criteria and attrition bias which were unclear. The certainty of the evidence for all major outcomes was moderate, the main concern was imprecision of the estimates due to the small sample size leading to wide confidence intervals. Final height (cm) (the review's pre-specified primary outcome) and change in height were not assessed in the included trial. The trial reported no clear difference between groups in height standard deviation (SD) score after one year, mean difference (MD) -0.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.33 to 0.15 (moderate-certainty evidence). However, modest improvements appeared to be observed in the following key outcomes in children receiving growth hormone therapy compared to control (moderate-certainty evidence): change between baseline and final visit in height SD score, MD 0.26 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.39); height velocity, MD 2.28 cm/year (95% CI 1.76 to 2.80); height velocity SD score, MD 3.31 (95% CI 2.43 to 4.19); and change in height velocity SD score between baseline and final visit, MD 3.41 (95% CI 2.45 to 4.37). No adverse effects of treatment were reported in either group; however, while there was no clear difference between groups in the oral glucose tolerance test at one year, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in the growth hormone therapy group compared to control, although both results were still within the normal range, MD 6.67 mg/dL (95% CI 2.66 to 10.68). There were no data beyond the one-year trial period. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: A small single trial contributed evidence of moderate certainty that the use of growth hormone for a year may improve height velocity of children with thalassaemia although height SD score in the treatment group was similar to the control group. There are no randomised controlled trials in adults or trials that address the use of growth hormone therapy over a longer period and assess its effect on final height and quality of life. The optimal dosage of growth hormone and the ideal time to start this therapy remain uncertain. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials over a longer period with sufficient duration of follow up are needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Talassemia beta/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Talassemia beta/genética
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19813, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311999

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS, online mendelian inheritance in man 605130) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertrichosis cubiti. Here, we report a Chinese boy who do not show the characteristic of hypertrichosis cubiti, and was misdiagnosed as blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome at first. We found a de novo frameshift mutation (p.Glu390Lysfs*10) in the KMT2A gene, which was not reported before. Our study increases the cohort of Chinese WDSTS patients, and expand the WDSTS phenotypic and variation spectrum. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient demonstrated typical craniofacial features of blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome, including small palpebral fissures, ptosis, telecanthus, and epicanthus inversus, besides he had congenital heart disease (ventricular septal defects), strabismus, hypotonia, amblyopia, delayed speech and language development, delayed psychomotor development, and amblyopia (HP:0000646) which was not reported before. DIAGNOSIS: FOXL2 gene was cloned and sequenced, however, there was no mutation detected in this patient. The result of Chromosomal microarray analysis was normal. The patient was diagnosed as WDSTS by whole exome sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received cardiac surgery, frontalis suspension and regular speech and occupational therapy. He also treated with growth hormone (GH). OUTCOMES: The patient's symptoms are improved after cardiac surgery and frontalis suspension, he can express himself well now and had a 10 cm gain in height. LESSONS: As the relationship between genotype and phenotype becomes more and more clear, WES is incredibly powerful tool to diagnose the disease of WDSTS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Blefarofimose/diagnóstico , Contratura/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Hipertricose/congênito , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Anormalidades da Pele/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Contratura/diagnóstico , Contratura/terapia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Facies , Genótipo , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertricose/diagnóstico , Hipertricose/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/terapia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202791, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293682

RESUMO

Importance: Much research on sanitation and linear growth in low- and middle-income countries focuses on children younger than 5 years. However, poor sanitation may be associated with growth faltering during middle and late childhood to a greater extent than previously recognized. Objective: To characterize the association of poor sanitation with height-for-age z (HAZ) scores in children and adolescents in India aged 0 to 18 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined 134 882 children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years who were surveyed in the fourth round of India's District Level Household and Facilities Survey (survey conducted August 2012 to February 2014). Data were analyzed from June 1, 2019, to August 20, 2019. Exposures: Proportion of households reporting open defecation at the village level (to account for its high negative externality) and household-level access to boiled or filtered drinking water. Main Outcomes and Measures: Individual-level HAZ scores were measured in standard deviations. The association of exposures with outcomes was estimated using ordinary least-squares regression stratified by sex (boys and girls) and 4 age groups (≤1, >1 to ≤7, >7 to ≤12, >12 to ≤18 years). Models controlled for parental height and education, socioeconomic status, maternal age at birth, hemoglobin level, and indicators for state and birth year to adjust for regional (state) and temporal (birth year) fixed effects. Results: The sample comprised 70 463 male (52.5%) and 64 419 female (47.8%) children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years; 46 722 participants (34.6%) were aged older than 12 to 18 years. Open defecation was inversely associated with HAZ score among all age groups except boys aged 1 year and younger (>1 to ≤7 years: ß, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.10; >7 to ≤12 years: ß, -0.15; 95% CI, -0.24 to -0.06; >12 to ≤18 years: ß, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.01) and among girls aged between 7 and 18 years (>7 to ≤12 years: ß, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.12; >12 to ≤18 years: ß, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.09). Boiled or filtered drinking water was positively associated with HAZ score among younger girls (≤1 year: ß, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.45; >1 to ≤7 years: ß, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.14) and across all age groups in boys (≤1 years: ß, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35; >1 to ≤7 years: ß, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.14; >7 to ≤12 years: ß, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.13; >12 to ≤18 years: ß, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, open defecation and lack of boiled or filtered drinking water were inversely associated with height-for-age measures across all ages in children and adolescents in India. Improved sanitation may benefit growth among children and adolescents older than 5 years.


Assuntos
Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Saneamento , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India is expected to experience an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in the coming decades, which poses serious risks to human health and wellbeing in the country. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to shed light on the possible detrimental effects of monsoon weather shocks on childhood undernutrition in India using the Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16, in combination with geo-referenced climate data. METHODS: Undernutrition is captured through measures of height-for-age, weight-for-height, stunting and wasting among children aged 0-59 months. The standardised precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is used to measure climatic conditions during critical periods of child development. RESULTS: The results of a multivariate logistic regression model show that climate anomalies experienced in utero and during infancy are associated with an increased risk of child undernutrition; exposure to excessive monsoon precipitation during these early periods of life elevates the risk of stunting, particularly for children in the tropical wet and humid sub-tropical regions. In contrast, the risk of stunting is reduced for children residing in the mountainous areas who have experienced excessive monsoon precipitation during infancy. The evidence on the short-term effects of climate shocks on wasting is inconclusive. We additionally show that excessive precipitation, particularly during the monsoon season, is associated with an increased risk of contracting diarrhoea among children under five. Diseases transmitted through water, such as diarrhoea, could be one important channel through which excessive rainfall increases the risk of stunting. CONCLUSIONS: We find a positive association between childhood undernutrition and exposure to excessive monsoon precipitation in India. Pronounced differences across climate zones are found. The findings of the present analysis warn of the urgent need to provide health assistance to children in flood-prone areas.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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