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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851172

RESUMO

AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of peptidergic nootropic medication Cortexin during two-month follow-up in children with developmental dysphasia aged 3-4 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four children with developmental dysphasia were randomized into two equal groups. The cortexin group received the drug once daily intramuscularly during 10 days. After this course, children did not receive any pharmacotherapy and were examined two months after the beginning of treatment. The control group did not receive pharmacotherapy and was examined twice in two months interval. All the parents were provided with recommendations for the stimulation of speech development in dysphasic children. Before treatment and two months later, speech development was assessed by special scales and questionnaires for parents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After treatment with Cortexin, a significant improvement was achieved not only on the 'expressive language' scale but also on the 'attention to speech' and 'impressive language' scales. The volume of active vocabulary was increased by 2.3 times, the number of articulated phrases by 3.6 times. The evaluation of parents' questionnaires demonstrated the decrease of cerebrasthenic, psychosomatic problems, motor clumsiness, hyperactivity, attention deficit and problems with emotional control in children. The therapy contributed to the reduction of difficulties in communication and social adaptation. The positive effect of Cortexin was observed after the completion of treatment (the protracted effect).


Assuntos
Afasia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Nootrópicos , Afasia/complicações , Afasia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/tratamento farmacológico , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Pais , Fala
2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(8): 3181-3190, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069618

RESUMO

This study introduces an objective neurophysiological marker of language ability, the integral of event-related desynchronization in the 5-20 Hz band during 0.2-1 seconds post auditory stimulation with interleaved word/non-word tokens. This measure correlates with clinical assessment of language function in both ASD and neurotypical pediatric populations. The measure does not appear related to general cognitive ability nor autism symptom severity (beyond degree of language impairment). We suggest that this oscillatory brain activity indexes lexical search and thus increases with increased search in the mental lexicon. While specificity for language impairment in ASD remains to be determined, such an objective index has potential utility in low functioning individuals with ASD and young children during language acquisition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Estimulação Acústica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sincronização Cortical , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino
3.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 50(1): 150-163, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950775

RESUMO

Purpose This review article provides a scoping review of the literature on mathematical abilities in developmental language disorder (DLD). Children with DLD typically struggle with learning in school; however, the mechanism by which DLD impacts academic success is unclear. Mathematics involves demands in the multiple domains and therefore holds potential for examining the relationship between language and academic performance on tasks mediated by verbal and nonverbal demands. Method A scoping review was performed via computerized database searching to examine literature on mathematics and DLD. The 21 review articles meeting inclusion criteria compared children with typical development or DLD on various tasks measuring numerical cognition. Results Children with DLD consistently performed below peers with typical development on number transcoding, counting, arithmetic, and story problem tasks. However, performance was similar to peers with typical development on most number line, magnitude comparison, and conceptual mathematics tasks. Conclusions The findings suggest a relationship between DLD and mathematics was characterized by more detrimental performance on tasks with higher verbal demands. Results are discussed with respect to typical academic curricula and demonstrate a need for early identification and intervention in DLD to optimize academic outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Matemática , Desempenho Acadêmico , Aptidão , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , /diagnóstico
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 590-597, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554107

RESUMO

The FOXP2 gene is hypothesised to be involved in schizophrenia by affecting speech and language development. Associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXP2 and language have been inconsistent. We tested five previously associated SNPs for association with language in the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (n = 709, including n = 333 with schizophrenia/spectrum disorder) and found no significant associations. When we included all common FOXP2 variants, one SNP (rs2189008) was nominally associated with language. This is the most comprehensive analysis to date and indicates that common variants in FOXP2 do not play a major role in speech and language development in a clinical family sample.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Neurodev Disord ; 10(1): 35, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541453

RESUMO

Until recently, most behavioral studies of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have used standardized assessments as a means to probe etiology and to characterize phenotypes. Over the past decade, however, tasks originally developed to investigate learning processes in typical development have been brought to bear on developmental processes in children with IDD.This brief review will focus on one learning process in particular-statistical learning-and will provide an overview of what has been learned thus far from studies using statistical learning tasks with different groups of children with IDD conditions. While a full picture is not yet available, results to date suggest that studies of learning are both feasible and informative about learning processes that may differ across diagnostic groups, particularly as they relate to language acquisition.More generally, studies focused on learning processes may be highly informative about different developmental trajectories both across groups and within groups of children.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Estatística como Assunto
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 338, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Genetically based subtype identification may prove more beneficial not only in illuminating the course and prognosis, but also for individualized treatment targets of an ASD sub-group. Increasing evidence has shown that de novo loss-of-function mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) gene are associated with an ASD sub-group. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe two ASD cases in children with mild intellectual disability, early motor deficits, and speech delay, without distinct structural or EEG brain anomalies. Exome sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous nonsense/missense mutations(c.2647C > A/p.E883X and c.1677C > A/p.M559I respectively) in CHD8 gene. CONCLUSIONS: There were few cases in the literature reporting de novo mutation of CHD8 in ASD. As demonstrated in our patients, along with other previously reported studies support that disruption of the CHD8 gene represents a specific genetic sub-type of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 89: 55-58, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood (BREC) and central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) and to test the hypothesis that an early onset of BREC could be associated with more cases of CAPD. METHOD: This study has a retrospective cross-sectional design conducted from January 2006 to January 2016 including 93 patients with BREC and without intellectual disability, dyslexia, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. All patients were evaluated for central auditory processing (CAP), and its presence or absence was compared with age of seizure onset. RESULTS: In all patients, audiometric test results were normal, and in 43 cases (46.2%), CAPD was detected. There was no significant statistical difference in the mean age of seizure onset. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of children with BREC will have a diagnosis of CAPD at school age.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Rolândica/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/complicações
8.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 49(4): 762-773, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458538

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the language basis of dyslexia in the context of developmental language disorders (DLDs). Whereas most studies have focused on the phonological skills of children with dyslexia, we bring attention to broader language skills. Method: We conducted a focused literature review on the language basis of dyslexia from historical and theoretical perspectives with a special emphasis on the relation between dyslexia and DLD and on the development of broader language skills (e.g., vocabulary, syntax, and discourse) before and after the identification of dyslexia. Results: We present clinically relevant information on the history of dyslexia as a language-based disorder, the operational definitions used to diagnose dyslexia in research and practice, the relation between dyslexia and DLD, and the language abilities of children with dyslexia. Conclusions: We discuss 3 clinical implications for working with children with dyslexia in school settings: (a) Children with dyslexia-with and without comorbid DLDs-often have language deficits outside the phonological domain; (b) intervention should target a child's strengths and weaknesses relative to reading outcomes, regardless of diagnostic labels; and (c) those who have dyslexia, regardless of language abilities at the time of diagnosis, may be at risk for slower language acquisition across their lifetime. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess multiple language skills early, at the time of the diagnosis of dyslexia, and years later to better understand the complex development of language and reading in children with dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/etiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/psicologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD012324, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has an estimated prevalence of around 1.7% of the population. People with ASD often also have language difficulties, and about 25% to 30% of children with ASD either fail to develop functional language or are minimally verbal. The ability to communicate effectively is an essential life skill, and difficulties with communication can have a range of adverse outcomes, including poorer academic achievement, behavioural difficulties and reduced quality of life. Historically, most studies have investigated communication interventions for ASD in verbal children. We cannot assume the same interventions will work for minimally verbal children with ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of communication interventions for ASD in minimally verbal children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase as well as 12 other databases and three trials registers in November 2017. We also checked the reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews, contacting experts in the field as well as authors of identified studies about other potentially relevant ongoing and unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of communication-focused interventions for children (under 12 years of age) diagnosed with ASD and who are minimally verbal (fewer than 30 functional words or unable to use speech alone to communicate), compared with no treatment, wait-list control or treatment as usual. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes two RCTs (154 children aged 32 months to 11 years) of communication interventions for ASD in minimally verbal children compared with a control group (treatment as usual). One RCT used a verbally based intervention (focused playtime intervention; FPI) administered by parents in the home, whereas the other used an alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System; PECS) administered by teachers in a school setting.The FPI study took place in the USA and included 70 participants (64 boys) aged 32 to 82 months who were minimally verbal and had received a diagnosis of ASD. This intervention focused on developing coordinated toy play between child and parent. Participants received 12 in-home parent training sessions for 90 minutes per session for 12 weeks, and they were also invited to attend parent advocacy coaching sessions. This study was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the MIND Institute Research Program and a Professional Staff Congress-City University of New York grant. The PECS study included 84 minimally verbal participants (73 boys) aged 4 to 11 years who had a formal diagnosis of ASD and who were not using PECS beyond phase 1 at baseline. All children attended autism-specific classes or units, and most classes had a child to adult ratio of 2:1. Teachers and parents received PECS training (two-day workshop). PECS consultants also conducted six half-day consultations with each class once per month over five months. This study took place in the UK and was funded by the Three Guineas Trust.Both included studies had high or unclear risk of bias in at least four of the seven 'Risk of bias' categories, with a lack of blinding for participants and personnel being the most problematic area. Using the GRADE approach, we rated the overall quality of the evidence as very low due to risk of bias, imprecision (small sample sizes and wide confidence intervals) and because there was only one trial identified per type of intervention (i.e. verbally based or AAC).Both studies focused primarily on communication outcomes (verbal and non-verbal). One of the studies also collected information on social communication. The FPI study found no significant improvement in spoken communication, measured using the expressive language domain of the Mullen Scale of Early Learning expressive language, at postintervention. However, this study found that children with lower expressive language at baseline (less than 11.3 months age-equivalent) improved more than children with better expressive language and that the intervention produced expressive language gains in some children. The PECS study found that children enrolled in the AAC intervention were significantly more likely to use verbal initiations and PECS symbols immediately postintervention; however, gains were not maintained 10 months later. There was no evidence that AAC improved frequency of speech, verbal expressive vocabulary or children's social communication or pragmatic language immediately postintervention. Overall, neither of the interventions (PECS or FPI) resulted in maintained improvements in spoken or non-verbal communication in most children.Neither study collected information on adverse events, other communication skills, quality of life or behavioural outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence that verbally based and ACC interventions improve spoken and non-verbal communication in minimally verbal children with ASD. A substantial number of studies have investigated communication interventions for minimally verbal children with ASD, yet only two studies met inclusion criteria for this review, and we considered the overall quality of the evidence to be very low. In the study that used an AAC intervention, there were significant gains in frequency of PECS use and verbal and non-verbal initiations, but not in expressive vocabulary or social communication immediately postintervention. In the study that investigated a verbally based intervention, there were no significant gains in expressive language postintervention, but children with lower expressive language at the beginning of the study improved more than those with better expressive language at baseline. Neither study investigated adverse events, other communication skills, quality of life or behavioural outcomes. Future RCTs that compare two interventions and include a control group will allow us to better understand treatment effects in the context of spontaneous maturation and will allow further comparison of different interventions as well as the investigation of moderating factors.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Comunicação não Verbal , Ludoterapia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pais/educação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Professores Escolares , Capacitação de Professores , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Neurodev Disord ; 10(1): 29, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language delay is extremely common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet it is unclear whether measurable variation in early language is associated with genetic liability for ASD. Assessment of language development in unaffected siblings of children with ASD can inform whether decreased early language ability aggregates with inherited risk for ASD and serves as an ASD endophenotype. METHODS: We implemented two approaches: (1) a meta-analysis of studies comparing language delay, a categorical indicator of language function, and language scores, a continuous metric, in unaffected toddlers at high and low familial risk for ASD, and (2) a parallel analysis of 350 unaffected 24-month-olds in the Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS), a prospective study of infants at high and low familial risk for ASD. An advantage of the former was its detection of group differences from pooled data across unique samples; an advantage of the latter was its sensitivity in quantifying early manifestations of language delay while accounting for covariates within a single large sample. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that high-risk siblings without ASD (HR-noASD) were three to four times more likely to exhibit language delay versus low-risk siblings without ASD (LR-noASD) and had lower mean receptive and expressive language scores. Analyses of IBIS data corroborated that language delay, specifically receptive language delay, was more frequent in the HR-noASD (n = 235) versus LR-noASD group (n = 115). IBIS language scores were continuously and unimodally distributed, with a pathological shift towards decreased language function in HR-noASD siblings. The elevated inherited risk for ASD was associated with lower receptive and expressive language scores when controlling for sociodemographic factors. For receptive but not expressive language, the effect of risk group remained significant even when controlling for nonverbal cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Greater frequency of language delay and a lower distribution of language scores in high-risk, unaffected toddler-aged siblings support decreased early language ability as an endophenotype for ASD, with a more pronounced effect for receptive versus expressive language. Further characterization of language development is warranted to refine genetic investigations of ASD and to elucidate factors influencing the progression of core autistic traits and related symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Endofenótipos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Irmãos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Autism Res ; 11(10): 1356-1365, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230700

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between eight theoretically motivated behavioral variables and a spoken-language-related outcome measure, after 25 sessions of treatment for speech production in 38 minimally verbal children with autism. After removing potential predictors that were uncorrelated with the outcome variable, two remained. We used both complete-case and multiple-imputation analyses to address missing predictor data and performed linear regressions to identify significant predictors of change in percent syllables approximately correct after treatment. Baseline phonetic inventory (the number of English phonemes repeated correctly) was the most robust predictor of improvement. In the group of 17 participants with complete data, ADOS score also significantly predicted the outcome. In contrast to some earlier studies, nonverbal IQ, baseline levels of expressive language, and younger age did not significantly predict improvement. The present results are not only consistent with previous studies showing that verbal imitation and autism severity significantly predict spoken language outcomes in preschool-aged minimally verbal children with autism, but also extend these findings to older minimally verbal children with autism. Autism Res 2018, 11: 1356-1365. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We wished to understand what baseline factors predicted whether minimally verbal children with autism would improve after treatment for spoken language. The outcome measure was change in percentage (%) syllables approximately correct on a set of 30 two-syllable words or phrases. Fifteen were both practiced in treatment and tested; the remainder were not practiced in treatment, but only tested, to assess how well children were able to generalize their new skills to an untrained set of words. Potential predictors tested were sex, age, expressive language, phonetic inventory (the number of English speech sounds repeated correctly), autism severity, and nonverbal IQ. Phonetic inventory and (for some children) autism severity predicted children's posttreatment improvement. Nonverbal IQ and expressive language ability did not predict improvement, nor did younger age, suggesting that some older children with autism may be candidates for speech therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Masculino
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(8): 1773-1777, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063093

RESUMO

Kleefstra Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in EHMT1, Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1, or deletions encompassing EHMT1 on 9q34.3. Congenital heart defects are among the major findings in patients with 9q34.3 microdeletion/Kleefstra Syndrome along with recognizable facial appearance, developmental delay/intellectual disability including severely delayed or absent speech, hypotonia, seizures, behavioral and sleep abnormalities. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare condition associated with increased pulmonary artery and right heart pressures that can lead to right heart failure and death if untreated. PH can be idiopathic, heritable, or associated with co-morbid conditions including congenital heart disease (CHD), lung diseases and other metabolic disorders. Genetic factors play important roles in heritable and idiopathic PH development and are particularly relevant but more diverse in etiology in children. PH is also reported in some chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome in which congenital heart defects are common; however, PH has rarely been reported in patients with 9q34.3 microdeletion/Kleefstra Syndrome. Here, we present three patients with 9q34.3 microdeletions with CHD and PH along with review of five similar cases reported in the literature and discuss the potential association of PH with Kleefstra syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Down/genética , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
14.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 53(6): 1110-1123, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). However, risk and protective factors contributing to these problems are currently underspecified. AIMS: The current longitudinal study examined the role of emotion-regulation (ER) strategies in the severity of depressive symptoms in children with and without DLD, taking into account the severity of communication problems of children with DLD. METHODS & PROCEDURES: We followed clinically referred children with DLD (n = 114, 49% girls) and without DLD (n = 214, 58% girls) between the ages of 8 and 16 years across an 18-month period. Participants completed self-report questionnaires at three time points. Parents of children with DLD reported on their child's communication problems. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Multilevel analyses confirmed higher levels of depressive symptoms in youngsters with DLD compared with peers without DLD, with a decrease across time in the DLD group. In both groups, higher levels of approach and increasing avoidant strategies aimed at distraction or trivializing a problem explained lower depressive symptoms, whereas more worry and externalizing strategies contributed to more depressive symptoms. Within the DLD group, semantic language problems were associated with higher depressive symptoms. However, this relation was mediated by the tendency to worry or use externalizing strategies. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest that interventions for children with DLD should focus on enhancing their adaptive ER strategies to help them cope with daily stressors just as in the general population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
15.
Child Care Health Dev ; 44(6): 818-831, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of individuals with unrepaired submucous cleft palate (SMCP) experience speech difficulties secondary to velopharyngeal insufficiency. Language delays are reported in the broader cleft lip and/or palate population, suggesting that individuals with SMCP may also be at risk. However, contemporary understanding of this population remains limited as there has been no systematic examination of the literature. This review aims to systematically review and document the speech and language characteristics of individuals with nonsyndromic SMCP and, in addition, to identify factors reported to impact speech and language outcomes. METHOD: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Five databases were comprehensively searched using keywords and indexed headings. Included studies had to report speech or language outcomes of individuals with nonsyndromic SMCP. Risk of bias and methodological design quality were examined using tools from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Relevant data were extracted for analysis. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria, yielding 598 participants. Study results showed that individuals with unrepaired nonsyndromic SMCP may have speech difficulties secondary to velopharyngeal insufficiency including increased nasal resonance and palatalized or glottal articulation. Lower age at primary surgical repair led to better postsurgical speech outcomes. There is a paucity of literature outlining motor or phonological aspects of speech and receptive or expressive language abilities of this population. CONCLUSION: Individuals with nonsyndromic SMCP present with speech difficulties similar to those experienced by individuals with overt cleft palate. Health care professionals should be aware of possible presenting symptoms and consider early SMCP diagnoses where appropriate. Further research is needed to specify the broader communication profile in this population.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Fissura Palatina/psicologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios da Fala/psicologia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/complicações , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/psicologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia
16.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 62(6): 557-568, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether verbal responsiveness in special education teachers varied among subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 112) who differed in cognitive and language abilities. METHODS: Participants were divided into clusters using cluster analysis based on standardised cognitive and language tests using k-mean clustering. For each child, a 15-min video of free play in school setting was collected. Three types of responsive utterances were coded: follow-in directives for behaviour, follow-in directives for language and follow-in comments. RESULTS: Results showed that the three groups did not differ in overall verbal responsiveness after controlling for engagement, classroom type, age and gender. However, groups differ in follow-in directives for language, but not in follow-in directives for behaviours or follow-in comments. Compared with children with autism spectrum disorder who had higher cognitive and language ability, children with more severe impairments received fewer follow-in directives for language. Moreover, children with more cognitive and language impairments produced fewer amount of vocal/verbal acts, which results in receiving fewer verbal responses from their teachers. Additionally, teachers from the three groups did not differ in their responses to the child's verbal/vocal acts when the number of the child's verbal/vocal acts were controlled for. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest child characteristics are related to the type of teachers' verbal responses in preschools. This difference in follow-in directives for questions may be related to language or other outcomes that warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Educação Especial/métodos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(6): 1426-1439, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800035

RESUMO

Purpose: Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. Method: We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Results: Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Conclusions: Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino , Percepção da Fala
18.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 62(7): 604-616, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). METHODS: Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development. Parent-child interactions were transcribed and coded for parenting domains and child language. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the contribution of parenting to complex syntax growth in children with typical development or DD. RESULTS: Analyses supported a final model, F(9,50) = 11.90, P < .001, including a significant three-way interaction between positive parenting behaviours, negative parenting behaviours and child delay status. This model explained 68.16% of the variance in children's complex syntax at age 4. Simple two-way interactions indicated differing effects of parenting variables for children with or without DD. CONCLUSIONS: Results have implications for understanding of complex syntax acquisition in young children, as well as implications for interventions.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
Autism Res ; 11(7): 1050-1061, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676529

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are thought to develop largely through implicit-or automatic-learning mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the role of implicit learning abilities in the atypical development of communication skills in ASD and SLI. In the current study, we investigated Response Times (RTs) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) during implicit learning on a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17), a group of autistic children (n = 16), and a group of children with SLI (n = 13). Findings suggest that learning in both ASD and SLI are similar to that in TD. However, electrophysiological findings suggest that autistic children seem to rely mainly on more automatic processes (as reflected by an N2b component), whereas the children with SLI seem to rely on more controlled processes (as reflected by a P3 component). The TD children appear to use a combination of both learning mechanisms. These findings suggest that clinical interventions should aim at compensating for an implicit learning deficit in children with SLI, but not in children with ASD. Future research should focus on developmental differences in implicit learning and related neural correlates in TD, ASD, and SLI. Autism Res 2018, 11: 1050-1061. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Autism and Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are two disorders characterized by problems in social communication and language. Social communication and language are believed to be learned in an automatic way. This is called "implicit learning." We have found that implicit learning is intact in autism. However, in SLI there seems different brain activity during implicit learning. Maybe children with SLI learn differently, and maybe this different learning makes it more difficult for them to learn language.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
20.
Autism Res ; 11(6): 903-915, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509308

RESUMO

Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018, 11: 903-915. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer-generated and real-life vocal samples of young children with autism collected in natural settings. The results provide initial evidence of accuracy, test-retest reliability, and validity of the new measure of child vocal reciprocity. A sound measure of children's vocal reciprocity might improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A free, publicly-available software program and manuals are provided.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fala
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