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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627579

RESUMO

Language is one of the most affected areas in people with Down syndrome and is one of the most influential throughout their development. That is why the linguistic difficulties presented by this group are susceptible to treatment through different specific interventions. However, little emphasis has been placed on the effectiveness and importance of this type of intervention in improving their language skills. Therefore, this work aimed to carry out a systemic literature review of language intervention programs that have been carried out in the last 20 years. To this end, a total of 18 articles were analyzed in which the effectiveness of different types of treatment related to oral language, written language and communication, in general, was studied, using the guidelines of the PRISMA Statement and the COSMIN methodology. The results highlight that language intervention improves linguistic levels in people with Down Syndrome. Most of the research focuses on early interventions and interventions carried out through individual sessions. Nevertheless, the data are unanimous in considering the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed treatments for improving the language skills of people with Down syndrome. Thus, linguistic intervention is a fundamental area of work throughout the lives of people with Down syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Linguística/métodos
2.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 69(1): e1-e13, 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teachers play a significant role as early identifiers of learners with developmental language disorder (DLD). They provide important information to other professionals for further specialist support of such learners. Professionals, such as educational psychologists, speech-language therapists (SLTs) and learning support therapists are involved in assisting learners with DLD; hence, inter-professional collaboration (IPC) amongst these professionals is of paramount importance in meeting the needs of learners. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine systemic support strategies available to learners with DLD. METHOD: This was a multiple case study of Zimbabwe and South Africa. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. The study consisted of 56 participants: 5 teachers, 2 SLTs, a learning support therapist, an educational psychologist and 47 learners. A qualitative research approach was employed and data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and classroom observations. The data were analysed thematically and categorised. RESULTS: Support strategies employed by teachers include remedial lessons and promoting a culture of reading for leisure to enhance learners' vocabulary and narrative skills. The SLTs and the learning support therapist use speech-language programmes and assistive technologies. Limited IPC and the absence of SLTs in District Based Support Teams were some of the challenges identified. The results also indicate that SLTs receive referrals mostly from primary schools compared with secondary schools. CONCLUSION: Raising awareness of DLD in schools and communities is deemed essential. Inter-professional collaboration is recommended to support learners with DLD as it increases the exchange of ideas and mutual acknowledgement of expertise amongst professionals.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Leitura , África do Sul , Zimbábue
3.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(3): 1221-1243, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are underidentified, despite a robust literature on their language abilities and a clinical grammar marker. Adlof and Hogan (2019) call for school systems to assess oral language and provide supports through response to intervention (RTI), with the aim of identifying and supporting children with SLI and other language impairments. However, it is unknown how teachers make educational decisions for children with SLI. METHOD: A web-based survey was distributed to public school teachers nationwide (N = 304). In this observational study, teachers read six vignettes featuring profiles of children systematically varying in the linguistic characteristics relevant to SLI (e.g., difficulty with verb tense) and responded to items on the educational decisions that they would make in the absence of workplace constraints. RESULTS: Teachers were likely to identify that the children in the vignettes needed language for classroom success and to indicate that they would provide in-class intervention. However, teachers were unlikely to recommend speech-language pathology services. These outcomes were mostly consistent across all child characteristics and teacher characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that teachers were sensitive to the language-based needs of children with SLI and elected to provide in-class intervention. Future work is needed to understand how workplace characteristics, including opportunities for interprofessional collaboration, and the heterogeneity of children with SLI, inform teacher educational decision making.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Leitura
4.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 275-289, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This investigation adapted a well-studied language treatment method, Enhanced Conversational Recast, paired with auditory bombardment to a teletherapy format. METHOD: The study used a single case series approach (n = 7) to determine the feasibility of teletherapy with children ages 5 and 6 years of age. Treatment targeted grammatical errors in the context of dialogic reading and craft activities. Clinicians administered 24 doses in the form of focused conversational recasting, followed by 12 doses consisting of simple sentences containing the grammatical forms targeted for remediation. Children were treated for up to 26 sessions, with four children treated on consecutive weekdays and three treated twice a week. Treatment progress was operationalized as generalization of target grammatical forms to untreated linguistic contexts, as well as spontaneous use of the treated form. To control for nontreatment effects, generalization of an untreated form was also tracked throughout the treatment period. RESULTS: Six of the seven children showed clinically meaningful gains in the use of the grammatical forms targeted for treatment within the treatment period. This was true for children enrolled in both treatment schedules. Learning for treated forms was retained after treatment was discontinued. In comparison, no change was seen for untreated forms for six of the seven children. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this treatment method is feasible in a telepractice format, even with young children. The range of individual results is generally comparable to previous face-to-face versions of this treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Linguística
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 121: 104139, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have a significant deficit in spoken language ability which affects their communication skills, education, mental health, employment and social inclusion. AIM: The present study reports findings from a survey by EU network COST ACTION 1406 and aims to explore differences in service delivery and funding of SLT services for children with DLD across Europe and beyond. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The survey was completed by 5024 European professionals. COST countries were grouped into Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Continental, Mediterranean, Central/Eastern and Non-European categories. The use of direct, indirect and mixed interventions, and their relationship to funding available (public, private or mixed) were considered for further analysis. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The results revealed that for direct therapy, there were more cases than expected receiving private funding. For indirect therapy, fewer than expected received private and more than expected public funding. For mixed therapy, fewer cases than expected received private funding. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The results implies that other factors than evidence-based practices, practitioners experience, and patient preferences, drive choices in therapy. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of factors affecting the choice of therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fala , Fonoterapia
6.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 57(1): 90-102, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a clear predominance of programmes aimed at improving aspects related to language production in pupils with developmental language disorder (DLD). However, programmes aimed at improving their receptive skills are limited. AIMS: The main aim was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme for oral language comprehension skills in preschoolers with typical development (TD) and pupils with DLD. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were 99 five-year-old pupils, with and without DLD, divided into four groups: two control groups (TD-C = 25; DLD-C = 25) and two experimental groups (TD-T = 24; DLD-T = 25), from schools on the Spanish island of Tenerife. The study used, as pre- and post-measures, the receptive language subtests of the CELF-4-Spanish: Concepts and Following Directions, Word Classes-Receptive and Sentence Structure, as well as two tasks assessing comprehension of paragraphs and narratives. Due to the strong link between oral comprehension skills and executive functions, working memory and semantic fluency are included in this research. The Backward Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and Semantic Fluency subtest of the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) were used to assess working memory and semantic fluency, respectively. The intervention programme followed a multitiered system of support (MTSS) model, with 95 sessions lasting 60 min each delivered jointly by teachers and speech and language therapists, and focused on lexical-semantic, morphological, syntactic and narrative skills; inferences; verbal working memory; and semantic fluency. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The results showed, as expected, that pupils diagnosed with DLD initially performed worse on oral language comprehension and executive functions than pupils with TD. Further, the DLD-T and TD-T groups showed greater gains following the programme, especially in word classes-receptive, sentence structure, verbal working memory and semantic fluency. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the gains obtained by the participants in verbal working memory and semantic fluency, with the gains obtained in the three CELF-4-Spanish subtests. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: An intervention programme applied at an early age fosters oral language comprehension skills and executive functions in pupils with DLD and TD. The intervention organized at different levels of support, following an MTSS model, showed clear progress of the DLD and TD groups in oral language comprehension and executive functions. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Pupils with DLD present deficits in linguistic comprehension and executive functions. There are many intervention programs focused on improving language production skills. It is also necessary to consider the skills underlying language problems in pupils with DLD. Oral language, inference, working memory and semantic fluency activities improve comprehension. A collaborative and inclusive intervention of teachers and speech language therapists. Psycholinguistic and neuropsychological skills training should become part of the academic curriculum as early as preschool age. What is already known on the subject Pupils with DLD show problems related to both comprehension and production language. However, there is a clear predominance of programs just aimed at improving aspects related to language production. Clinical implications of this study An intervention program applied at an early age fosters oral language comprehension skills and executive function in pupils with DLD. The intervention organized at different levels of support, following an adaptation of the Response Tier Intervention models, showed clear progress of the DLD in comprehension oral language and executive functions.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Memória de Curto Prazo
7.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 57(1): 103-111, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing understanding of the potential benefits of a multi-method approach to accurately capture language skills of children on the autism spectrum. Tools such as Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) provide an efficient means of capturing and analysing early child vocalizations (CVs) and the language learning environment. While developed to capture whole-day recordings of child language in naturalistic settings, there is potential utility in capturing, but little knowledge about, primary LENA metrics-including CVs and conversational turns (CTs)-and novel metrics, such as vocalization ratios (VRs), sampled in clinical practice settings where children are often seen. Moreover, recent research indicates that the novel VR may offer a broad indicator of children's developmental level, beyond just their language abilities, a hypothesis yet to be investigated in a large sample of children for whom the LENA was designed (i.e., pre-schoolers). AIMS: To explore the extent to which primary and novel LENA metrics collected during brief one-to-one clinical interaction was a useful indicator of developmental outcomes for children on the autism spectrum. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were recruited as part of an on-going research programme evaluating early intervention outcomes (n = 99; age 14-47 months). Language samples were collected at intake (T1) using the wearable LENA Digital Language Processors during a one-to-one, play-based assessment with a clinician. Direct (Mullen Scales of Early Learning-MSEL) and parent-report (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-VABS) measures of verbal and non-verbal skills were also collected at intake (T1) and again at exit (T2), approximately 12 months later. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Few correlations were observed between child measures and CVs, a primary LENA metric. The novel VR metric was associated with concurrent direct assessment (MSEL) (and to a lesser extent parent report; VABS) measures of verbal and non-verbal skills, with moderate positive correlations found between VRs and all directly assessed subscale scores. However, VRs did not uniquely contribute to the prediction of child outcomes when baseline skills were also considered. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The novel VR may provide an insight into autistic children's overall development in addition to their language ability, suggesting that even when collected in a short recording format, LENA might be a useful component of a multi-method assessment approach. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject To accurately capture language skills of children on the autism spectrum, multi-method approaches, including natural language sampling, are recommended. Tools such as LENA provide an efficient means of capturing and analysing naturalistic child language and the language learning environment. What this paper adds to existing knowledge This study demonstrates the potential benefits, and limitations, of using LENA to augment assessment of young children on the autism spectrum. Specifically, LENA provides a complementary, and low burden, method for capturing child language samples. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Novel metrics, such as the VR, collected during brief clinical interactions might be a useful component of a multi-method assessment approach for children on the autism spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia
8.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(1): 213-221, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cognates, words in two languages that share form and meaning, can be used to support vocabulary development in bilingual children. Typically developing bilinguals have shown better performance on cognates versus noncognates. Of key interest is whether bilinguals with developmental language disorder (DLD) also show a cognate effect and, if so, which factors are related to their cognate performance. METHOD: Thirty-five Spanish-English bilingual children (5-11 years old) with DLD completed the Expressive and Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Tests, third edition, in English (EOW, ROW) to measure cognate performance. Test items were divided by difficulty level (easy, medium, and hard) and classified as cognates or noncognates using the Cross-Linguistic Overlap Scale for Phonology. RESULTS: On average, children showed clear and robust cognate effects on EOW across difficulty levels with medium-to-large effect sizes. Results on the ROW showed minimal effects that varied by difficulty. Individually, 80% of participants (28 of 35) demonstrated a cognate effect in EOW, whereas only 31% (11 of 35) showed an effect in ROW. A cognate effect in ROW was positively correlated with age and English proficiency, whereas no factors correlated with the EOW cognate effect. CONCLUSIONS: Bilingual children with DLD show higher performance on cognates than noncognates, at least in expressive vocabulary. Participants who did show a receptive cognate effect tended to be older and have higher English proficiency. Further investigation is needed to identify factors underlying cognate performance in order to tailor intervention strategies that promote bilingual vocabulary development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Vocabulário
9.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 36(4-5): 359-380, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958296

RESUMO

Word learning difficulties are often found in children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Lexical patterns of difficulties appear to be well described in the context of DLD but very little research focuses on their underlying causes. Word learning is known to be an inference-based process, constrained by categorization, which helps the extension of new words to unfamiliar referents and situations. These processes appear integrated in Bayesian models of cognition, which supposes that learning relies on an inductive inference process that recruits prior knowledge and principles of statistical learning (detection of regularities). Taken together, these mechanisms remain underexplored in DLD. Our study aims to define whether children with DLD can draw inductive inferences in a word learning context using categorization. Twenty children with DLD (between 6;0 and 12;6), and 20 language-matched and 16 age-matched controls were exposed to a word learning task where they were given exemplars of objects associated with pseudo-words. The objects belonged to six categories spread across three hierarchical levels. For each item, the children chose which one(s), among a set of test objects from the same categories, could be labelled the same way (word extension). Results showed that school-aged children with DLD could extend new words to broader categories as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Nevertheless, none of the DLD or TD children showed a specification of their categorization of familiar instances that referred to more restricted instances. Our study suggests preserved abilities in using conceptual knowledge in order to learn new words, which could be used as a compensative strategy in the context of therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate this ability in more complex learning contexts.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário
10.
J Commun Disord ; 94: 106160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have difficulties learning words. However, the severity of these difficulties can be reduced through word learning procedures that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval (RSR). Previous studies have shown positive outcomes with RSR but we still know very little about how learning unfolds with this procedure. In this study, we focus on the process of learning under RSR. METHODS: We analyze the learning data from children with DLD and with typical development (TD) from three recent studies using RSR. We fit growth curves to the trial-by-trial learning data for immediate and spaced retrieval trials and use the characteristics of children's individual word-learning trajectories to predict their long-term recall. RESULTS: We found that children in both groups demonstrated linear growth during learning, despite breaks within and across days. Success on early immediate retrieval trials promoted success on subsequent spaced retrieval trials. Children's trial-by-trial RSR learning trajectories were related to their long-term recall: both cumulative success and growth over time on the spaced retrieval trials positively predicted long-term recall. Consecutive success was also highly correlated with growth over time. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated spaced retrieval supplemented with immediate retrieval trials during learning promotes long-term recall.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal
11.
FP Essent ; 510: 17-21, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709025

RESUMO

Between 5% and 12% of children ages 2 to 5 years are diagnosed with a speech or language delay. Fifty percent of these children experience delays that persist into adolescence, and face educational and occupational challenges later in life. The causes of speech and language delay vary. Some children are born with physical or physiologic conditions that impede speech and language development, whereas others have cognitive or developmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. Risk factors include male sex, prematurity, low birth weight, late birth order, larger family size, and maternal intimate partner (ie, domestic) violence. Although there is no required screening or universally recommended screening tool for speech or language delay, reliable milestone indicators and parent and physician questionnaires can help identify children in need of diagnostic evaluation. If further screening is warranted or if parental concern exists beyond the well-child visit, local resources are available for evaluation and intervention. These include agencies and school districts, as well as speech and language pathology subspecialists.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fala
12.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(11): 916-921, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711025

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role of the enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) model in early intervention of children with language developmental delay (LDD) in outpatient child healthcare clinic. Methods: Case-control study design was adopted. Twenty-eight children aged 2.5 to 4.0 years who were diagnosed with LDD from June 2019 to June 2020 at the Division of Child Healthcare, Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology were recruited as the intervention group, and participated in one-on-one EMT model language rehabilitation sessions for 3 months (12 sessions). Another 27 children with LDD who attended the Division of Child Healthcare around the same period of time were recruited as control group, all of whom did not attend any types of language intervention in the subsequent three months. Both groups were followed up three months later. Gesell developmental scale (GDS) and diagnostic receptive and expressive assessment of Mandarin-comprehensive (DREAM-C) standardized language test were used to evaluate and compare children's development level at the first and follow-up visit, with the treatment effect of the EMT model being evaluated with independent sample t-test. Results: The language development quotient of GDS of the intervention group (22 boys and 6 girls) at the follow-up visit was significantly higher than that of at the first visit (64±21 vs. 52±17,t=4.960, P<0.01). The Dream-C test scores of total language (89±16 vs. 77±14, t=5.061, P<0.01), receptive language (90±16 vs. 77±15, t=5.301, P<0.01), semantics (93±20 vs. 79±19, t=5.06, P<0.01), and syntax after training (84±14 vs. 76±11, t=3.209, P<0.01) were significantly higher than those at the first visit. In the control group (19 boys and 8 girls), the only improvement was found in the Dream-C semantics score (82±26 vs. 71±18, t=2.330, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in any domains in GDS at the first and follow-up visit (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Early language rehabilitation training based on the EMT model has a significant effect on all domains of language development for children with LDD. Therefore, EMT model is a language intervention model compatible in the child healthcare outpatient clinic settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Masculino
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(10): 3995-4003, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533999

RESUMO

Purpose Children with developmental language disorder sometimes spontaneously repeat clinician models of morphemes targeted for treatment. We examine how spontaneous repeating of clinician models in the form of recasts associates with improved child production of those emerging morphemes. Method Forty-seven preschool children with developmental language disorder participated in Enhanced Conversational Recast therapy and were monitored for spontaneous repetitions of morphemes modeled by the clinician through conversational recasting. We calculated proportion of correct and incorrect productions elicited during treatment and for generalization probes as well as treatment effect sizes. We then used odds ratios to determine the probability that a spontaneous repetition may precede treatment gains and calculated correlations of correct repetitions with correct in-treatment productions of targets and treatment effect sizes. Results Spontaneous repetitions were highly likely to happen just prior to meaningful treatment progress. Children with higher frequencies of correct spontaneous repetitions of morpheme targets also showed higher frequencies of correct productions of these forms during the course of treatment. Furthermore, children with an earlier onset of repetitions and higher frequencies of correct repetitions showed overall larger effect sizes at the end of treatment. Conclusions Children's use of correct forms in their repetitions may serve as a self-scaffold for mastering productions of the correct form via structural priming mechanisms. Tracking spontaneously repeated targets may be a useful milestone for identifying response to treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(11): 4413-4438, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554866

RESUMO

Purpose There is a shortage of information on evidence-based interventions for supporting young multilingual children. The purpose of this review was to identify interventions that have been evaluated with preschool-age multilingual children with a speech and/or language disorder or who are at risk of poor speech, language, literacy, and/or educational outcomes. Method This review considered speech, language, and early literacy interventions evaluated with preschool-age multilingual children with a speech and/or language disorder or who have been identified as being at risk of language difficulties (PROSPERO ID: 165892). The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO (CINAHL Plus, ERIC, PsycINFO, Medline, Education) and Linguistics, Language, and Behavior Abstracts. Data were extracted describing article, participant, methodological, and intervention variables, and effect sizes. The Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC) standards for evidence-based practice were used to examine the quality of studies. Results Fifty-six relevant studies were identified in 52 articles and these studies described 4,551 participants who had speech sound disorder (six articles), developmental language disorder (11 articles), or were considered to be at risk (36 articles). The interventions targeted speech production (seven studies), language (45 studies), and early literacy (11 studies) skills. Most studies reported positive effects. Only 15 studies met all quality indicators specified by the CEC (2014) and these described 18 interventions targeting language and literacy skills. The only intervention with sufficient evidence to be considered an evidence-based practice was Nuestros Niños [Our Children] for children's early literacy and phonological awareness skills. Conclusions A number of high-quality studies exist that describe speech, language and/or literacy interventions for preschool-age multilingual children with a speech and/or language disorder, or who have been identified as being at risk of language difficulties. However, there remains limited evidence for specific interventions as to their ability to inform evidence-based practices. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16632649.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia , Fonoterapia
15.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 56(6): 1278-1295, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431174

RESUMO

AIMS: This study compared two dose frequency conditions of an explicit intervention with 50 trials per session designed to improve past tense marking in early school-aged children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The influence of allomorphs on intervention effects was also examined. METHODS: Data from previously conducted intervention studies were combined and analysed. Participants included nine children (mean age = 6;5 years) who received 20-30-min intervention sessions provided twice per week for 10 weeks (1000 trials; 400-600 min) and 20 children (mean age = 6;6) who received 20-30-min intervention sessions provided once per week for 10 weeks (500 trials; 200-300 min). Repeated measures included criterion-referenced probes for production of untrained past tense verbs collected throughout baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. The rate of progress in each phase was analysed using logistic regression. The proportion of participants who produced past tense allomorphs correctly at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and maintenance testing points was analysed. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed a stable baseline, highly significant progress during the intervention phase, and a marginally significant shallow decline during the maintenance phase. Those in the twice per week group showed a greater rate of progress during the intervention phase leading to significantly higher scores in the maintenance period when compared with the once per week group. The allomorphic category of past tense verbs did not appear to influence outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Participants receiving intervention twice per week appeared to demonstrate a greater rate of progress with intervention than those receiving it once per week, although once per week was also effective. However, these results should be interpreted with caution. Limitations to study design indicate that a larger randomised controlled trial is required. All past tense allomorphs improve to a similar degree when treated with this intervention. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject Understanding the parameters of dosage and intensity are important for clinical practice. Research evaluating the efficacy and/or effectiveness of interventions delivered in different dose/intensity conditions is scarce. There appears to be different interpretations of what constitutes dosage and intensity in published research. What this paper adds to existing knowledge This study retrospectively compared dosage and intensity conditions of intervention provided twice per week to intervention provided once per week. Both dose frequencies could be delivered in clinical settings. Results from this study were analysed by grouping data from multiple testing points, rather than comparing pre-post results. This approach demonstrated the variability of individual performance that would otherwise be lost with conventional methods of analysis. This study demonstrated that all past tense allomorphs improve to a similar degree when treated with this intervention. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Parameters of dosage and intensity are still not clearly defined well enough for translation to clinical practice. In consideration of current research, this intervention may be more effective if delivered twice per week. If clinicians are treating past tense, all allomorphs should be considered as priorities for intervention targets.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(4): 1007-1019, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185580

RESUMO

Purpose Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) demonstrate general spelling difficulties. This study investigated accuracy on and sensitivity to silent letters in spelling in children with and without DLD. Investigating silent-letter production provides a window into orthographic and morphological knowledge and enhances understanding of children's spelling skills. Method A group of children with DLD (M age = 9;11 [years;months]) and two control groups of typically developing children (n = 30 in each group) were given a dictated spelling task of 44 words that each contained a derivational or a nonderivational silent letter. We coded the silent letter in each word and counted 1 point for each correctly spelled letter in order to examine accuracy on silent letters. Two error patterns were distinguished to analyze sensitivity to silent letters: silent-letter substitutions and silent-letter omissions. Results Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that children with DLD produced significantly more errors on silent letters than did both control groups. Both control groups showed a greater sensitivity to silent-letter endings, as they tended to substitute incorrect silent letters where they made errors. In contrast, children with DLD tended to omit silent letters in their spelling attempts. Conclusions Our results suggest that silent-letter production is a major source of difficulty for spellers, especially for those with DLD, who appear to lack sensitivity to silent letters. These results highlight the importance of promoting spelling instruction to enhance orthographic knowledge in children with DLD.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fonética , Leitura
17.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3S): 1542-1557, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852328

RESUMO

Purpose Understanding what limits speech development in minimally verbal (MV) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important for providing highly effective targeted therapies. This preliminary investigation explores the extent to which developmental speech deficits predicted by Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA), a computational model of speech production, exemplify real phenotypes. Method Implementing a motor speech disorder in DIVA predicted that speech would become highly variable within and between tokens, while implementing a motor speech plus an auditory processing disorder predicted that DIVA's speech would become highly centralized (schwa-like). Acoustic analyses of DIVA's output predicted that acoustically measured phoneme distortion would be similar between the two cases, but that in the former case, speech would show more within- and between-token variability than in the latter case. We tested these predictions quantitatively on the speech of children with MV ASD. In Study 1, we tested the qualitative predictions using perceptual analysis methods. Speech pathologists blinded to the purpose of the study tallied the signs of childhood apraxia of speech that appeared in the speech of 38 MV children with ASD. K-means clustering was used to create two clusters from the group of 38, and analysis of variance was used to determine whether the clusters differed according to perceptual features corresponding to within- and between-token variability. In Study 2, we employed acoustic analyses on the speech of the child from each cluster who produced the largest number of analyzable tokens to test the predictions of differences in within-token variability, between-token variability, and vowel space area. Results Clusters produced by k-means analysis differed by perceptual features that corresponded to within-token variability. Nonsignificant differences between clusters were found for features corresponding to between-token variability. Subsequent acoustic analyses of the selected cases revealed that the speech of the child from the high-variability cluster showed significantly more quantitative within- and between-token variability than the speech of the child from the low-variability cluster. The vowel space of the child from the low-variability cluster was more centralized than that of typical children and that of the child from the high-variability cluster. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence that subphenotypes of children with MV ASD may exist, characterized by (a) comorbid motor speech disorder and (b) comorbid motor speech plus auditory processing disorder. The results motivate testable predictions about how these comorbidities affect speech. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14384432.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 113: 103936, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901883

RESUMO

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of Authors and Editor-in-Chief. Whilst conducting further analyses for a companion paper in June 2021 using the survey data reported in this study, it came to the authors' attention that unfortunately there were errors in the data used in the analyses for this paper. The authors believe this to be either human error in data entry or coding or a technical error whilst recoding a variable. They therefore reran their analyses with the correct data for the paper to understand if and how the results differed from those published, and they did indeed change the findings. As soon as this came to the authors' attention (July 2021), they contacted the Editorial office. All authors on the paper are in agreement with this retraction. A new revised article with the correct data, analysis and results is now available: 10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104139.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fala , Fonoterapia
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 649-662, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751898

RESUMO

Purpose Most toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental delays receive early intervention at home and may not participate in a clinic-based communication evaluation. However, there is limited research that has prospectively examined communication in very young children with and without autism in a home-based setting. This study used granular observational coding to document the communicative acts performed by toddlers with autism, developmental delay, and typical development in the home environment. Method Children were selected from the archival database of the FIRST WORDS Project (N = 211). At approximately 20 months of age, each child participated in everyday activities with a caregiver during an hour-long, video-recorded, naturalistic home observation. Inventories of unique gestures, rates per minute, and proportions of types of communicative acts and communicative functions were coded and compared using a one-way analysis of variance. Concurrent and prospective relationships between rate of communication and measures of social communication, language development, and autism symptoms were examined. Results A total of 40,738 communicative acts were coded. Children with autism, developmental delay, and typical development used eight, nine, and 12 unique gestures on average, respectively. Children with autism used deictic gestures, vocalizations, and communicative acts for behavior regulation at significantly lower rates than the other groups. Statistically significant correlations were observed between rate of communication and several outcome measures. Conclusion Observation of social communication in the natural environment may improve early identification of children with autism and communication delays, complement clinic-based assessments, and provide useful information about a child's social communication profile and the family's preferred activities and intervention priorities. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14204522.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Gestos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
HNO ; 69(12): 978-986, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from primarily English-speaking countries have shown that specific language impairments can lead to disadvantages in educational and professional development. Corresponding studies for Germany have not been published. This study surveys the educational and language outcomes of adolescents and young adults who were treated in an inpatient setting during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 193 young adults who had received inpatient treatment between 1998 and 2005 at the Department of Communication Disorders of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery (ENT) of the Mainz University Medical Center were assessed. The cohort was contacted by telephone and interviewed about aspects of their educational and language development using a specially developed questionnaire. It was possible to include 70 participants in the study. RESULTS: Almost half (48.6%; n = 34) of the participants had attended a regular elementary school and 50% (n = 35) attended a special school with a focus on speech-language development (others: 1.4%, n = 1). Regarding school-leaving qualifications, 31.5% (n = 22) finished school with an Abitur/Fachabitur (high-school-level certificate), 33% (n = 23) with a Realschulabschluss (secondary school certificate), 30% (n = 21) with a Hauptschulabschluss (lower secondary certificate), and 4% (n = 3) with a special school certificate. Only one participant left school without a qualification. Of the interviewed participants, 71% (n = 50) do not feel any speech language limitations anymore. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a positive educational and language development of children with SLI after inpatient treatment in Germany. Over 90% of the participants finished school with a regular certification and most of them do not feel any speech and language limitations anymore.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Fonoterapia , Adulto Jovem
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