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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(3): 233-243, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose erythropoietin has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in preclinical models of neonatal brain injury, and phase 2 trials have suggested possible efficacy; however, the benefits and safety of this therapy in extremely preterm infants have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of high-dose erythropoietin, we assigned 941 infants who were born at 24 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to receive erythropoietin or placebo within 24 hours after birth. Erythropoietin was administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 U per kilogram of body weight every 48 hours for a total of six doses, followed by a maintenance dose of 400 U per kilogram three times per week by subcutaneous injection through 32 completed weeks of postmenstrual age. Placebo was administered as intravenous saline followed by sham injections. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of postmenstrual age. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as severe cerebral palsy or a composite motor or composite cognitive score of less than 70 (which corresponds to 2 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: A total of 741 infants were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis: 376 received erythropoietin and 365 received placebo. There was no significant difference between the erythropoietin group and the placebo group in the incidence of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age (97 children [26%] vs. 94 children [26%]; relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.32; P = 0.80). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rates of retinopathy of prematurity, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or death or in the frequency of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose erythropoietin treatment administered to extremely preterm infants from 24 hours after birth through 32 weeks of postmenstrual age did not result in a lower risk of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death at 2 years of age. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; PENUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01378273.).


Assuntos
Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritropoetina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
2.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 64-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apgar scores of zero at 10 min strongly predict mortality and morbidity in infants. However, recent data reported improved outcomes among infants with Apgar scores of zero at 10 min. We aimed to review the mortality rate and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with Apgar scores of zero at 10 min in Japan. DESIGN: Observational study. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight of 768 infants registered in the Baby Cooling Registry of Japan between 2012 and 2016, at >34 weeks' gestation, with Apgar scores of zero at 10 min who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia. INTERVENTIONS: We investigated the time of first heartbeat detection in infants with favourable outcomes and who had neurodevelopmental impairments or died. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics, mortality rate and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of age were evaluated. RESULTS: Nine (32%) of the 28 infants died before 18 months of age; 16 (57%) survived, but with severe disabilities and 3 (11%) survived without moderate-to-severe disabilities. At 20 min after birth, 14 of 27 infants (52%) did not have a first heartbeat, 13 of them died or had severe disabilities and one infant, who had the first heartbeat at 20 min, survived without disability. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to the recent evidence that neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants with Apgar scores of zero at 10 min may not be uniformly poor. However, in our study, all infants with their first heartbeat after 20 min of age died or had severe disabilities.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Seguimentos , Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Memória de Wechsler
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18229, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between chorioamnionitis (CA) and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants remain controversial. The meta-analysis aims to evaluate the associations between CA and neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants. METHODS: All studies exploring the associations between CA and neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, OVID, EBSCO, ProQuest, CDSR, and CENTRAL. The NOS was used to evaluate the quality of the studies, RevMan was adopted to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 4267 preterm infants were included. The ORs across studies was 0.95 (P = .77, I = 51%) for cognitive deficits, 1.09 (P = .44, I = 10%) for psychomotor deficits, 1.21 (P = .08, I = 25%) for language deficits, 2.34 (P = .02, I = 0%) for performance intelligence quotient impairment and 2.81 (P = .03, I = 0%) for verbal intelligence quotient impairment. Subgroup analyses based on the severity of cognitive deficits indicated that CA might be correlated with severe cognitive deficits (P = .01, I = 0%) but not with mild cognitive deficits (P = .40, I = 19%). In terms of the CA category, clinical CA may be related to overall psychomotor deficits (P = .01, I = 25%) and overall language deficits (P < .00001, I = 23%) other than histological CA. CONCLUSION: In preterm infants, CA might be a risk factor for performance and verbal intelligence quotient impairment and severe cognitive deficits, and clinical CA might be a risk factor for overall psychomotor and language deficits.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
4.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine screening practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subsequent referrals, and diagnostic outcomes within a large network of primary pediatric care practices. METHODS: Rates of ASD screening with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) at 18- and 24-month well-child visits were examined among 290 primary care providers within 54 pediatric practices between June 2014 and June 2016. Demographic, referral, and diagnostic data were abstracted from the medical records for all children who failed the M-CHAT (ie, score of ≥3) at either or both visits. RESULTS: Rates of M-CHAT screening were 93% at 18 months and 82% at 24 months. Among 23 514 screens, scores of 648 (3%) were ≥3 (386 at 18 months, 262 at 24 months) among 530 unique children who failed 1 or both screenings. Among screen-failed cases, 18% received a diagnosis of ASD and 59% received ≥1 non-ASD neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis within the follow-up period. Only 31% of children were referred to a specialist for additional evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of ASD-specific screening do not necessarily translate to increases in subsequent referrals for ASD evaluation or ASD diagnoses. Low rates of referrals and/or lack of follow-through on referrals appear to contribute to delays in children's receipt of ASD diagnoses. Additional education of primary care providers regarding the referral process after a failed ASD screening is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Seguimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia
5.
BJOG ; 126(13): 1588-1597, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on cognitive abilities and behaviour profiles of 4-year-old children. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. POPULATION: A cohort of 500 children. METHODS: Children from the Safe Passage Study, which prospectively collected PAE, were included. Cognition and behavioural profiles were assessed. Children with and without PAE were compared. Mean scores were compared, with P ≤ 0.05 considered significant. Results were adjusted for confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Kaufman Assessment Battery for children measured intellectual and mental ability; the NEPSY-II instrument assessed neurocognitive performance. The caregiver completed the Preschool Child Behaviour checklist to rate the child's problem behaviours and competencies. RESULTS: Two hundred children had no PAE, 117 children had mild to moderate PAE (with no binge episodes), 113 children had heavy PAE (with one or two binge episodes), and 70 children had very heavy PAE (with three or more binge episodes). Women who binge drank had significantly higher rates of smoking, marijuana use, and methamphetamine use. Low to moderate PAE had no effect on cognitive ability and behaviour. Very heavy PAE was associated with problems performing simultaneous as well as sequential functions, lower scores in the language and sensorimotor domain, and more attention and pervasive developmental problems. CONCLUSIONS: Low to moderate PAE was not associated with cognitive processing or developmental problems. Women who had many binge drinking episodes during pregnancy were the most at risk for cognitive processing, neurocognitive, and behaviour problems in their children at 4 years of age. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Low to moderate prenatal alcohol use was not associated with cognitive or behavioural problems in 4-year-olds.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) is very common among children and adults and studies had found some related risk factors for DRE, while the results were not consistent. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane library) were searched to identify studies with a cohort design reporting on epidemiologic evidence regarding risk factors for DRE. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of DRE in newly diagnosed epilepsy patients was 25% (95% CI 17-32%). Abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) (both slow wave and epileptiform discharges) (RR 2.80; 95% CI 1.95-4.0), status epilepticus (SE) (RR 11.60; 95% CI 7.39-18.22), symptomatic etiology (RR 3.36; 95% CI 2.53-4.46), multiple seizure types (RR 3.66; 95% CI 2.37-5.64) and febrile seizures (RR 3.43; 95% CI 1.95-6.02) were identified as strong risk factors for DRE. In addition, firm conclusions cannot be drawn for poor short-term outcomes of therapy, neurodevelopment delay and high initial seizure frequency for the heterogeneity of study results. The predictive effect of focus onset seizure was not stable after removing one study and switching the effect model. Age of onset was not risk factors for DRE. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis identified potential risk factors for DRE. The results may contribute to better prevention strategies and treatments for DRE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/classificação , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Parciais/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 23(6): 661-669, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153150

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children both in the United States and throughout the world. Despite valiant efforts and multiple clinical trials completed over the last few decades, there are no high-level recommendations for pediatric TBI available in current guidelines. In this review, the authors explore key findings from the major pediatric clinical trials in children with TBI that have shaped present-day recommendations and the insights gained from them. The authors also offer a perspective on potential efforts to improve the efficacy of future clinical trials in children following TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189616

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Children with orofacial clefts (OFCs) are reported to have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes than unaffected peers, although study methodologies and findings are highly variable and trends in outcomes by age remain unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the strength of the evidence and explore trends in neurodevelopment by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted of studies published from January 1, 1980, through November 3, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were independently screened by the authors and included in the review if they met predetermined eligibility criteria: (1) children and/or youth (<25 years) with OFCs were studied, and (2) neurodevelopmental or academic outcomes were included. DATA EXTRACTION: The authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted outcome data. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies involving 10 143 patients with OFCs and 2 017 360 controls met eligibility criteria. Although the quality of the studies varied, patients with OFCs consistently performed worse than their peers on neurodevelopmental and academic measures. In infancy, differences were observed on multiple developmental outcomes (eg, cognition, motor skills, and language), and in later childhood and adolescence, differences were manifest on several indicators of academic achievement (eg, use of special education services, grades, and scores on standardized measures). LIMITATIONS: Heterogeneity in study designs, methods, and outcomes prevented statistical pooling and modeling for meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with OFCs exhibit neurodevelopmental and academic deficits compared with their unaffected peers. Although the nature of these deficits changes with development, differences are observed from infancy through adolescence. Clinicians should monitor neurodevelopment in children with OFCs and support them appropriately.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/psicologia , Fissura Palatina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 25(3): 116-127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246106

RESUMO

Background: Although common and often with long-lasting effects, child mental health problems (MHPs) are still under-recognized and under-treated. A better understanding of the factors associated with the identification of MHPs in primary care may improve the recognition of MHPs. Objectives: To review studies on factors associated with the identification of child MHPs in primary care. Methods: Six leading databases were systematically searched until 1 October 2018. Two independent researchers selected articles and extracted data on study characteristics and factors associated with MHP identification. Inclusion criteria were the investigation of factors associated with MHP identification by primary care professionals (PCPs) in children aged 0-18 years. Results: Of the 6215 articles identified, 26 were included. Prevalence rates of PCP-identified MHPs varied between 7 and 30%. PCPs identified 26-60% of children with an increased risk of MHPs as indicated by MHP assessment tools, but associated factors were investigated in relatively few studies. MHPs were more often identified in children with a family composition other than married parents, with worse mental health symptoms, prior MHPs, among boys in elementary school, when contact with PCPs was related to parental psychosocial concerns or routine health check-ups, when PCPs were recently trained in MHPs or when PCPs felt less burdened treating MHPs. Conclusion: MHP identification varied substantially between studies and PCPs and was related to several child, family and practice factors. Future studies should systematically investigate factors associated with MHP identification by PCPs and specifically in children with an increased risk of MHPs according to mental health assessment tools.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23739-23753, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209749

RESUMO

Prospective studies indicate that the exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) during fetal life, infancy, and early childhood may be associated with features of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of serum OCPs in children with categorically diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations and detection rates of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, cyclodienes, and methoxychlor in serum samples of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific learning disorder (SLD), all of normal intelligence, compared to typically developing controls (TD). In total, 114 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years old, were assessed and distributed into four groups: ASD (n = 39), ADHD (n = 21), SLD (n = 32), and TD (n = 18). Each clinical group was compared to the TD group. Concentrations of serum OCPs were determined by gas chromatography and are presented as ng/g lipid. Concentrations of ß-HCH, the sum of HCH isomers, and o,p'-DDD were significantly higher in ASD children: ASD vs. TD (mean ± SD): 10.5 ± 7.7 vs. 6.1 ± 4.0, (p = 0.049); 12.0 ± 10.3 vs. 6.6 ± 4.0, (p = 0.025); 7.4 ± 6.5 vs. 2.8 ± 2.3, (p = 0.0019), respectively. The detection rates of p,p'-DDT, at least one substance from DDTs detected, and the cyclodiene heptachlor epoxide, were significantly lower in the ASD group: ASD vs. TD: 12.8% vs. 38.9%, (p = 0.037); 69.2% vs. 94.4%, (p = 0.044); 10.3% vs. 38.9%, (p = 0.026), respectively. No significant differences between the ADHD or SLD groups and the TD group were observed. We demonstrated higher serum concentrations and lower detection rates of selected OCPs in ASD than TD children. Our results add to potential neurodevelopmental concerns surrounding OCPs and provide evidence of specificity in the relations between HCHs and ASD.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/sangue , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , China , DDT/análise , DDT/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hexaclorocicloexano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 244-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074670

RESUMO

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is preoccupation with perceived body defects leading to distress and impairment in social functioning. Most of adolescent BDD literature has been done on patients within the outpatient setting with prior versions of DSM with dearth of information about BDD and comorbid psychiatric conditions among adolescents within the inpatient setting. Aims: This pilot study evaluated the prevalence rate, clinical characteristics in adolescent BDD compared to non-BDD adolescents in a psychiatric in patient setting in addition to their comorbid issues like anxiety, OCD, ADHD and substance abuse. Methods: Forty-five consecutively admitted adolescent patients participated with 17 meeting the DSM 5 criteria for BDD while 28 did not. Patients were asked four questions designed around the DSM-5 criteria for BDD after which they were asked to complete questionnaires like BDDQ child and adolescent version, BDDM, Multiaxial Anxiety Scale for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, Y-BOCS and Vanderbilt ADHD rating scales. Results: Seventeen participants had BDD. Mean age of BDD patients was 13.1 while non-BDD was 12.4. Male patients with BDD were seven (41%) while female BDD patients were 10 (58.8%). Anxiety, depression, OCD and substance use disorders were common comorbid diagnoses. Majority of patients in the BDD group classified their BDD as a severe problem with more BDD, patient's considering suicide because of their BDD. Discussion: BDD is present in adolescents admitted in inpatient psychiatric hospital with more female patients endorsing BDD versus their male counterparts. Patients with BDD are more likely to endorse more comorbid psychiatric issues such as anxiety, OCD, ADHD and substance abuse.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Criança , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 217-226, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075589

RESUMO

Bien Hoa airbase is the most contaminated area of dioxin contamination from Agent Orange in Vietnam, but little is known about the neurodevelopmental effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on children living nearby. We recruited 210 mother-newborn resident pairs in 2012 and 78 pairs in 2015 and followed them for 2 years to assess the children's neurodevelopment. As a control group, we used 120 mother-child pairs recruited in 2014 in the Ha Dong district of Ha Noi City, an unexposed area. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were indicated by levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and toxic equivalency values of polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and nonortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (TEQ-PCDD/Fs/noPCBs) in maternal breast milk. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were used to assess neurodevelopment, and scores in each domain were compared between children with different exposure levels using general linear regression models and stratification by sex. Decreased expressive and composite language scores in boys and gross motor scores in girls were found in children exposed to TCDD ≥ 5.5 (pg/g lipid) compared with children with TCDD < 1.8. However, in matched pair analysis between children with TCDD ≥ 5.5 and <1.8 (pg/g lipid), lower expressive and composite language scores in boys exposed to TCDD ≥ 5.5 were significant, but lower gross motor scores in girls did not reach statistical significance. In addition, significant association was found between levels of PCDD congeners other than TCDD and gross motor scores in boys. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure of TCDD and other PCDD congeners affects development of language and gross motor skills, respectively, in boys at 2 years of age exposed to dioxins originating from Agent Orange in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Agente Laranja , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
13.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(6): 597-606, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112508

RESUMO

Background For several decades, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) has been a topic of debate. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood and consensus on the therapeutic approach is lacking. This study aimed at gaining a better insight into the pathogenesis by studying the trends in thyroid hormone (TH) levels during the first week of life. Methods This single-center prospective observational study analyzed the plasma levels of total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4-binding globulin (TBG) in cord blood and at the end of the first week of life in 120 preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <37 weeks). The change over time was calculated (delta, ∆). The impact of perinatal and subsequently postnatal variables on ∆ was studied by hierarchical multiple regression. The impact of ∆ on the neurodevelopmental outcome at the corrected ages of 9 and 24 months, measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-II, was assessed by logistic regression. Results ∆fT4 levels were negatively affected by GA and use of dopamine, whereas only GA was associated with low ∆T3 levels. Negative ∆fT4 levels were present in 75% of the extremely low-for-gestational-age infants, whereas 23.5% had a negative ∆T3 level. There was an increased risk for an abnormal mental developmental score (<85) with decreasing ∆T3 at 9 months, corrected age, but not at 24 months. Conclusions A negative evolution in circulating TH levels is principally an immaturity phenomenon, whereas dopamine can further suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. There is at least a temporary negative effect of this evolution on the infants' neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/sangue , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea
14.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973924

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term behavioural and neurodevelopmental complications of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis at school age. METHOD: This was a historic cohort study comparing all surviving children born in Denmark between 1st of January 2002 and 31st of December 2011 with a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis to a group of children without necrotizing enterocolitis, but same gestational age, birth weight and year of birth. Outcomes were investigated through a parental questionnaire. The primary outcome was the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire score and secondary outcomes were cerebral palsy and impaired head growth. RESULTS: Response rates were 50% (163 of 328) and 36% (237 of 652) among children with and without necrotizing enterocolitis, respectively. There was a higher rate of abnormal Strength and Difficulties score (23.9 versus 17.8%), moderate/severe cerebral palsy (3.1 versus 0.9%) and small head circumference for age (11.7 versus 7.2%) among children with necrotizing enterocolitis. However, these differences were all statistically insignificant and did not change significantly by adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study includes the largest cohort of necrotizing enterocolitis children evaluated for possible long-term complications at school age. The increased risks of behavioural- and neurodevelopmental impairments were statistically insignificant, moderate in magnitude and may be of little clinical importance for management in the neonatal period or when planning follow-up.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cabeça/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Early Hum Dev ; 133: 5-10, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and associated factors of extremely preterm infants (EPIs) in GuangXi, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study consisting of 131 eligible cases with gestational age (GA) between 22 and 28 weeks, and infants were followed until 18-24 months. Data including clinical characteristics, perinatal factors and after-birth conditions were collected from the neonatal intensive care unit in 10 hospitals in Guangxi from January 1st 2010 until May 31st 2016. RESULTS: During that period, 307 EPIs were born in the hospitals. 137 infants died in hospital after their parents decided to withdraw clinical treatment, and 11 infants died despite full resuscitation was provided. Of the 159 surviving infants, 28 infants were lost to follow-up. In total, 131 infants who survived and were presented to follow-up at 18-24 months of age were enrolled into this study. Of the 131 infants evaluated at 18-24 months follow-up, 47 (35.9%) were diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disability (ND), and 84 (64%) demonstrated on tract motor and language skills. The incidence of chorioamnionitis, early onset sepsis (EOS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were all higher in the group of infants who were diagnosed with ND compared to those with normal motor language development (NML), the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was longer in ND group, and the higher incidence of ND was seen in the smaller GA babies (p < 0.05). Adjusted the BPD severity, GA was a protective factor of neurodevelopmental outcome (combined OR = 0.338, 95% CI: 0.145-0.791). In EPIs with moderate BPD and severe BPD, chorioamnionitis was a risk factor of ND (OR = 10.313 and 5.778,respectively, 95% CI: 1.389-6.486 and 1.444-23.119, respectively). The Logistic regression analysis showed that GA (OR = 0.207, 95%CI = 0.047-0.917) was a protective factor for ND, and chorioamnionitis (OR = 6.010, 95%CI: 1.331-27.138), moderate-to-severe BPD (OR = 4.285, 95%CI: 1.495-12.287), the duration of MV (OR = 3.508, 95%CI: 2.077-5.926) were independent risk factors for ND in EPIs. CONCLUSIONS: Chorioamnionitis, moderate-to-severe BPD, and the duration of MV were associated with neurodevelopmental disability in EPIs. The smaller the GA, the higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disability.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
16.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(2): 132-140, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964388

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood psychopathologies in Turkey. METHOD: A nation-wide, randomly selected, representative population of 5830 children (6-13 years-old) enrolled as a 2nd,3rd or 4th grade student in 30 cities were evaluated for presence of a psychiatric or mental disorder by a Sociodemographic Form, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and DSM-IV-Based Screening Scale for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents scales. Impairment criterion was assessed via a 3 point-Likert scale by the parent and the teacher independently. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of any psychopathology was 37.6% without impairment criterion, and 17.1% with impairment criterion. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by anxiety (19.5% and 16.7% without impairment, 12.4% and 5.3% with impairment, respectively). Lower education level and presence of a physical or psychiatric problem of the parents were independent predictors of any psychopathology of the offspring. CONCLUSION: This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of psychopathologies in children and adolescents in Turkey. Our results partly higher than, and partly comparable to previous national and international studies. It also contributes to the literature by determining the independent predictors of psychopathologies in this age group.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudantes/psicologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
18.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 8-16, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940478

RESUMO

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a sensorimotor gating mechanism that reduces interfering influences to the neural processing of incoming stimuli, and is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. To date, research on PPI and neurodevelopmental disorders has primarily been in cross-sectional, clinical settings. In this prospective, epidemiologic study, we used a data-driven prediction model to identify socio-demographic predictors of PPI in children and adolescents from Mexico City to inform future etiologic studies evaluating PPI. We conducted variable selection and validation using a modified version of the multiple imputation random lasso (MIRL) variable selection algorithm. MIRL identified six predictors of PPI at a stimulus onset asynchrony of 120 ms or 240 ms. Of those six predictors, maternal education, birthweight, and total breastfeeding months were highlighted as previously unstudied variables associated with enhanced PPI. Our findings highlight the potential value of PPI as an adjunct screening tool for identifying children at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and underscore the relevance for validation research on this topic.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Inibição Pré-Pulso , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Filtro Sensorial
19.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(6): F631-F635, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) duration and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants in an era of restricted IMV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single neonatal intensive care unit in Amsterdam. PATIENTS: All ventilated patients with a gestational age between 24 and 30 weeks born between 2010 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 24 months corrected age (CA). Data on patient characteristics, respiratory management, neonatal morbidities, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were collected. The relationship between IMV duration and NDI was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: During the study period, 368 admitted infants received IMV for a median duration of 2 days. Moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was diagnosed in 33% of the infant. Multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for gestational age, small for gestational age and socioeconomic status showed a significant association between every day of IMV and NDI at 24 months CA (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.004 to 1.16, p=0.04). This association only reached borderline significance when also adjusting for severe neonatal morbidity (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17, p=0.05). CONCLUSION: Even in an era of restricted IMV, every additional day of IMV in preterm infants is strongly associated with an increased risk of NDI at 24 months CA. Limiting IMV should be an important focus in the treatment of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Apgar , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
World Neurosurg ; 126: e1197-e1205, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Skull fractures caused by birth injury are mainly compression and linear fractures, but the incidence is known to be rare. It has been recently suggested, however, that greenstick fractures (GSFs) are more common than compression or linear fractures that are detected through 3-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the correlation of GSF with perinatal factors, the accompanying head injury factors, and the long-term outcomes in neonates. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on correlations between GSF and perinatal and head injury factors for 295 neonates. In 160 neonates, the correlation with long-term outcome was investigated. RESULTS: In 295 neonates, 47 cases had 3 or fewer GSFs, 66 cases had 4-6, 82 cases had 7-9, and 100 cases had 10 or more. The number of GSFs was significantly associated with gestational age and mode of delivery among the perinatal factors, with brain swelling and cephalohematoma among the head injury factors. It was also associated with long-term outcomes. The cut-off value of the number of GSFs for a poor outcome by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 6 or greater. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that GSF most commonly occurs as a birth-related skull fracture and that birth-related GSF is associated with perinatal factors, birth-related head injuries, and deterioration of long-term development. Therefore, efforts should be made to prevent GSF at birth.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Fraturas Cranianas/etiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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