Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 275
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3042, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589663

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal how the COVID-19 stay-at-home period has affected the quality of life (QOL) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents and to identify possible factors that enabled them to maintain their QOL. We enrolled 136 school-aged children (intellectual quotient ≥ 50) and their parents and administered QOL questionnaires to assess the maladaptive behavior of the children; depression, anxiety, and stress of the parents; and activities of their daily lives. The relationship between their QOL and clinical features was examined. The decrease in QOL of children and parents was associated with the mother's limited job flexibility. Decreased QOL was also associated with changes in the sleep rhythms of the children. Maladaptive behaviors in children were associated with parental stress. However, maintained QOL of some families who faced these same conditions of job stress and sleep disorders was associated with less parental stress, less parental depression and anxiety, and milder maladaptive behavior in children. Both mothers with limited job flexibility and changes in the sleep rhythm of children were associated with reduced QOL of children and their parents. Low parental stress was associated with decreased maladaptive behavior in children and with maintained QOL of the family.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Sono
2.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(4): 1281-1288, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486835

RESUMO

AIM: To examine how the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impacts child well-being and family functioning, particularly among children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. METHODS: Families of 73 typically developing children, 54 children born very preterm (VPT) and 73 children with congenital heart disease (CHD) from two prospective cohort studies were assessed prior to (mean age: 10.4 [SD: 1.2] years) and during (mean age: 12.8 [SD: 2.0] years) the pandemic, more specifically, in April/May 2020. Child well-being and family functioning were assessed with validated, parent-reported questionnaires and tested with linear mixed models. Group comparison of child distress and parental concerns related to medical implications of COVID-19 and homeschooling, assessed with 5-point Likert scales, was done with Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Children's psychological well-being and family functioning (both, p < 0.001) decreased significantly during the pandemic, irrespective of group. Children with CHD were reported to be more concerned about becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 than were others. Child distress due to homeschooling and parents' concerns about children's academic achievements were significantly higher in VPT and CHD children than in typically developing peers (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially impacts the whole family and leads to additional distress in families with children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. These families should receive individualised counselling and assistance from healthcare providers and schools during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
3.
Res Dev Disabil ; 109: 103840, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383468

RESUMO

Research on the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted negative effects on the general population and particularly on parents. However, little is known about families of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD). The present study investigated parental stress, coparenting, and child adjustment in Italian families with children with NDD (N = 82) and typical developing children (TD, N = 82) during lockdown, using an online survey. Results of quantitative analyses showed a significant increase in parental stress and child externalizing behaviors, but not of coparenting. Parental stress is predicted by externalizing behaviors, and coparenting acted as a moderator in the relationship between the change in the amount of time spent with the children before and during lockdown and parental stress. In children with NDD, the decrease in therapeutic/rehabilitation support predicted higher externalizing behaviors. Qualitative analysis showed that beyond the difficulties and worries arising during lockdown, most of the parents appreciated the opportunity of spending more time with their children and strengthening the parent-child relationship. In conclusion, our results point out the importance of ensuring continuity of care for children with NDD (e.g. telehealth) during home confinement and of providing psychological support for parents.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5236, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067431

RESUMO

The etiology of major neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism is unclear, with evidence supporting a combination of genetic factors and environmental insults, including viral infection during pregnancy. Here we utilized a mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA) with the viral mimic PolyI:C infection during early gestation. We investigated the transcriptional changes in the brains of mouse fetuses following MIA during the prenatal period, and evaluated the behavioral and biochemical changes in the adult brain. The results reveal an increase in RNA editing levels and dysregulation in brain development-related gene pathways in the fetal brains of MIA mice. These MIA-induced brain editing changes are not observed in adulthood, although MIA-induced behavioral deficits are observed. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIA induces transient dysregulation of RNA editing at a critical time in brain development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Edição de RNA , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/imunologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Poli I-C/efeitos adversos , Poli I-C/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia
5.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 265-266, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049100

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown response has had a disproportionate and damaging effect on the lives, mental health and well-being of young people globally. They have been neglected in policy-making and their needs have been subjugated to those of adults which contravenes the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Here, I argue that the needs and rights of young people must come first to protect their health, mental health and futures. If we do not do this, we will let down a generation of children who will bear the brunt of the fallout of the economic burden of the global COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
8.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1367-1379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787508

RESUMO

Objective: As the coronavirus pandemic extends across the globe, the impacts have been felt across domains of industry. Neuropsychology services are no exception. Methods for neuropsychological assessments, which typically require an in-person visit, must be modified in order to adhere to social distancing and isolation standards enacted in an effort to slow the pandemic. How can providers continue to meet the needs of patients referred for neuropsychology evaluations, while respecting federal and state guidelines for safety and ethical mandates? We offer a novel, tiered model of care, successfully implemented in response to mandated social distancing, in a large, pediatric neuropsychology program.Method: We describe the considerations and challenges to be addressed in transitioning a large neuropsychology department to a new model of care, including triaging referrals, developing -or rediscovering - types of services to meet the needs of a virtual patient population, and helping patients, parents, and providers to adjust to these new models.Conclusions: Lessons learned as a function of rapid changes in care models have implications for the field of neuropsychology as a whole as well as for future flexibility in meeting the needs of pediatric patients and their families.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos
9.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1380-1394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847476

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the challenges related to COVID-19 affecting pediatric neuropsychologists practicing in inpatient brain injury rehabilitation settings, and offer solutions focused on face-to-face care and telehealth.Methods: A group of pediatric neuropsychologists from 12 pediatric rehabilitation units in North America and 2 in South America have met regularly since COVID-19 stay-at-home orders were initiated in many parts of the world. This group discussed challenges to clinical care and collaboratively problem-solvedsolutions.Results: Three primary challenges to usual care were identified, these include difficulty providing 1) neurobehavioral and cognitive assessments; 2) psychoeducation for caregivers and rapport building; and 3) return to academic instruction and home. Solutions during the pandemic for the first two areas focus on the varying service provision models that include 1) face-to-face care with personal protective equipment (PPE) and social distancing and 2) provision of care via remote methods, with a focus on telehealth. During the pandemic,neuropsychologists generally combine components of both the face-to-face and remote care models. Solutions to the final challenge focus on issues specific to returning to academic instruction and home after an inpatient stay.Conclusions: By considering components of in-person and telehealth models of patient care during the pandemic, neuropsychologists successfully serve patients within the rehabilitation setting, as well as the patient's family who may be limited in their ability to be physically present due to childcare, illness, work-related demands, or hospital restrictions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/reabilitação , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telemedicina/tendências , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: More than 4 decades of research indicate that parenting interventions are effective at preventing and treating mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatric primary care is a viable setting for delivery of these interventions. OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses have shown that behavioral interventions in primary care can improve clinical outcomes, but few reviews have been focused specifically on the implementation of parenting interventions in primary care. We aimed to fill this gap. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed 6532 unique peer-reviewed articles published in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included if at least part of the intervention was delivered in or through primary care; parenting was targeted; and child-specific mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes were reported. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were reviewed in Covidence by 2 trained coders, with a third coder arbitrating discrepancies. RESULTS: In our review of 40 studies, most studies were coded as a primary. Few researchers collected implementation outcomes, particularly those at the service delivery system level. LIMITATIONS: Including only published articles could have resulted in underrepresentation of implementation-related data. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting interventions delivered and implemented with fidelity in pediatric primary care could result in positive and equitable impacts on mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes for both parents and their children. Future research on the implementation strategies that can support adoption and sustained delivery of parenting interventions in primary care is needed if the field is to achieve population-level impact.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
11.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(6): 321-328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535594

RESUMO

Balanced chromosomal rearrangements are usually associated with a normal phenotype, although in some individuals, phenotypic alterations are observed. In these patients, molecular characterization of the breakpoints can reveal the pathogenic mechanism, providing the annotation of disease-associated loci and a better genotype-phenotype correlation. In this study, we describe a patient with a balanced reciprocal translocation between 4q27 and 7p22 associated with neurodevelopmental delay. We performed cytogenetic evaluation, next-generation sequencing of microdissected derivative chromosomes, and Sanger sequencing of the junction points to define the translocation's breakpoints at base pair resolution. We found that the PCDH10 and TNRC18 genes were disrupted by the breakpoints at chromosomes 4 and 7, respectively, with the formation of chimeric genes at the junction points. Gene expression studies in the patient's peripheral blood showed reduced expression of TNRC18, a gene with unknown function and clinical significance. PCDH10 plays a role in the development of the nervous system and might be involved with the patient's neurodevelopmental delay. In this study, the full molecular characterization of the junction points was shown as an efficient tool for fine breakpoint mapping in balanced translocations in order to unmask gene disruptions and investigate the potential pathogenic role of the disrupted genes.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
12.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(86): e81-e104, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198540

RESUMO

Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo, como el autismo, aunque presentes principalmente en la infancia, son una afección de por vida. Uno de los principales retos en el campo de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo es que estas entidades se hagan visibles. Y un terreno esencial para trabajar por su visualización son los medios de comunicación, siendo el cine un recurso esencial. El proyecto Cine y Pediatría apuesta por el objetivo de mejorar la humanización de nuestra práctica clínica a través de la prescripción de películas. Y en este artículo proponemos 22 películas sobre trastornos del neurodesarrollo en la infancia y adolescencia para vivir las emociones y reflexiones que nos devuelven sus protagonistas y familias. Estas son las películas prescritas que abordan el trastorno del espectro autista: Mater amatísima, Rain Man, Paraíso oceánico, Un viaje inesperado, Mozart y la ballena, Ben-X, El niño de Marte, Mary and Max, María y yo, Mi nombre es Khan, Tan fuerte, tan cerca, La sonrisa verdadera, Especiales. Y estas son las películas prescritas que versan sobre otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo: El milagro de Anna Sullivan, Forrest Gump, Estrellas en la Tierra, El primero de la clase, Gabrielle, Cromosoma 5, La historia de Marie Heurtin, Línea de meta, Dora y la revolución sexual. La observación narrativa de estas películas argumentales nos permitirá acercarnos a este apasionante mundo, pero sobre todo a las extraordinarias personas y familias que hay detrás del frío nombre de cada entidad médica. Y aunque hemos "prescrito" 22 historias "de cine", seguro que en los trastornos del neurodesarrollo quedan muchos guiones por escribir


Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, although most commonly present in childhood, can be lifelong conditions. One of the main challenges in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders is that these entities become visible. For that purpose, media is playing a relevant role in order to achieve such a challenge, and cinema is one of the essentials. Cine y Pediatría project aims to improve the humanization of our clinical practice through the prescription of films. In this article we propose 22 films whose protagonists are children or adolescents with neurodevelopment disorders, essential to experience the emotions and reflections that their heroes and families give us back. These are the prescribed movies regarding autism spectrum disorder: Mater amatísima, Rain Man, Ocean Heaven, Miracle Run, Mozart and the Whale, Ben-X, Martian Child, Mary and Max, María y yo, My name is Khan, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Closer, La sonrisa verdadera and Hors normes. And these are the prescribed movies regarding other neurodevelopmental disorders: The Miracle Worker, Forrest Gump, Taare Zameen Par, Front of the class, Gabrielle, Cromosoma 5, Marie Heurtin, Línea de meta and Dora or The Sexual Neuroses of Our Parents. The narrative observation of these main plot films will allow us to approach this exciting world, but above all the extraordinary people and families behind the cold name of each medical entity. And although we have "prescribed" 22 "cinema" stories, surely in neurodevelopmental disorders there are many scripts to write


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Filmes Cinematográficos/classificação , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia
13.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (VPT) are at an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) disorders. Our aim for this study was to assess rates of MH disorders in children born VPT and term at 13 years of age and stability of MH disorders between ages 7 and 13 years by using a diagnostic measure. METHODS: Participants were from the Victorian Infant Brain Study longitudinal cohort and included 125 children born VPT (<30 weeks' gestational age and/or <1250 g) and 49 children born term (≥37 weeks' gestational age) and their families. Participants were followed-up at both 7 and 13 years, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment was administered to assess for MH disorders. RESULTS: Compared with term peers, 13-year-olds born VPT were more likely to meet criteria for any MH disorder (odds ratio 5.9; 95% confidence interval 1.71-20.03). Anxiety was the most common disorder in both groups (VPT = 14%; term = 4%), whereas attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder carried the greatest differential elevated risk (odds ratio 5.6; 95% confidence interval 0.71-43.80). Overall rates of MH disorders remained stable between 7 and 13 years, although at an individual level, many participants shifted in or out of diagnostic categories over time. CONCLUSIONS: Children born VPT show higher rates of MH disorders than their term peers, with changing trajectories over time. Findings highlight the importance of early identification and ongoing assessment to support those with MH disorders in this population.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Doenças do Prematuro/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia
14.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 74(6): 453-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186228

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of specific learning disorder (SLD), comorbid disorders, and risk factors in primary school children for the first time in two-stage design in Turkey.Materials and methods: Participants were 1041 pupils in 28 primary schools and aged from 7 to 11. The Mathematics, Reading, Writing Assessment Scale (MOYA) teacher and parent forms were used in the screening stage and parents and teachers of each child completed MOYA. Ninety-five children were screen positive and eighty-three of these children participated in the interview. SLD diagnoses were based on DSM V criteria. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used for the comorbid psychiatric disorders.Results and conclusions: The prevalence rate of the SLD was 6.6%, impairment in reading was 4%, in mathematics was 3.6%, and in written expression was 1.8%. About 62.75% of children with SLD had one or more comorbid diagnoses. ADHD was the most common comorbid mental disorder in SLD (54.9%). SLD prevalence was higher among males. The prevalence of SLD in primary school children in Turkey is consistent with previous studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/diagnóstico , Turquia/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4697, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170216

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrate an association between activation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy and increased risk of neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. Relatively recent findings also suggest that the gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping brain development and behavior. Here we show that maternal immune activation (MIA) accomplished by infection with a mouse-adapted influenza virus during pregnancy induced up-regulation of frontal cortex serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) density in the adult offspring, a phenotype previously observed in postmortem frontal cortex of schizophrenic subjects. 5-HT2AR agonist-induced head-twitch behavior was also augmented in this preclinical mouse model. Using the novel object recognition (NOR) test to evaluate cognitive performance, we demonstrate that MIA induced NOR deficits in adult offspring. Oral antibiotic treatment of prepubertal mice prevented this cognitive impairment, but not increased frontal cortex 5-HT2AR density or psychedelic-induced head-twitch behavior in adult MIA offspring. Additionally, gut microbiota transplantation from MIA mice produced behavioral deficits in antibiotic-treated mock mice. Adult MIA offspring displayed altered gut microbiota, and relative abundance of specific components of the gut microbiota, including Ruminococcaceae, correlated with frontal cortex 5-HT2AR density. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of basic mechanisms by which prenatal insults impact offspring brain function, and suggest gut-brain axis manipulation as a potential therapeutic approach for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Maturidade Sexual , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Memória , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Esquizofrenia/etiologia
16.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(1): 5-16, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193560

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La escala CBCL de Achenbach completada por padres evalúa un amplio rango de problemas conductuales y emocionales de inicio en la infancia. Sus subescalas "retraimiento-depresión" y principalmente "problemas de pensamiento" se han propuesto como medida de detección de riesgo de psicosis en adolescentes. Dentro de los posibles endofenotipos de la esquizofrenia se plantean la disfunción ejecutiva y la alteración en el lenguaje pragmático. OBJETIVOS: Identificar mediante ambas subescalas de la CBCL un subgrupo de niños y adolescentes con puntuaciones elevadas entre los pacientes que consultan en psiquiatría infantil por trastornos del neurodesarrollo y que tienen antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los padres completan la escala CBCL de Achenbach, CCC-Childrens Communication Checklist- (evaluación del lenguaje pragmático) y BRIEF-2 (evaluación conductual de la función ejecutiva). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 21 niños (16 niños: 5 niñas). Edad media 11,4 años. Los diagnósticos principales fueron TDAH (66,7%), trastorno de aprendizaje (9,5%) y TEA (9,5%). Las dos subescalas de la CBCL "retraimiento-depresión" y "problemas de pensamiento" discriminan dos grupos, uno con afectación (n=11) con puntuaciones por encima del Pc70 y otro sin afectación (n=10) con puntuaciones inferiores al Pc70. Los casos con afectación mostraron más dificultades en el lenguaje pragmático y función ejecutiva que los del grupo sin afectación. CONCLUSIONES: Realizar una evaluación dimensional más completa de la psicopatología, como la que ofrece la CBCL, en niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo y antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia puede ayudar a describir mejor las dificultades premórbidas e identificar casos susceptibles de seguimiento longitudinal e intervención precoz


INTRODUCTION: The CBCL is a standardized form that parents fill out to describe their children ́s behavioral and emotional problems. Previous studies have suggested that two subscales, "withdrawal-depressed" and mainly "thought problems" may have utility as a psychosis risk screening measure in youth. Executive function and higher-order language dysfunctions have been postulated as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: To identify by means of the two CBCL subscales mentioned above, a group of children and adolescents with higher ratings amongst those patients attending an outpatient psychiatric clinic, who present a neurodevelopmental disorder and a family history of schizophrenia MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents filled out CBCL, CCC-Childrens Communication Checklist- (evaluates pragmatic language) and BRIEF-2 (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function). RESULTS: Twenty-one children were included (16 males; 5 females). Mean age 11,4 y/o. Main diagnoses were ADHD (66,7%), Learning Disorder (9,5%) and ASD (9,5%). CBCL subscales "withdrawn-depressed" and "thought problems" discriminated two groups. One with higher ratings (above Pc70) showing the presence of symptoms (n=11) and the other with lower ratings (below Pc70) indicating symptom absence (n=10). The first group showed more pragmatic language difficulties as well as poorer executive function. CONCLUSIONS: A more comprehensive dimensional evaluation of the psychopathology of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and family history of schizophrenia, by means of CBCL, may provide a better description of premorbid difficulties, helping to identify more vulnerable cases for long term follow up and early intervention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Função Executiva , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Anamnese , Psicopatologia/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Comunicação , Deficiências da Aprendizagem
17.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(1): 17-28, ene.-mar. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193561

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: TDAH y TEA son dos trastornos del neurodesarrollo con entidades diagnósticas independientes, que comparten manifestaciones comunes a las que presentan personas con daño cerebral o disfunción en la corteza prefrontal, asociados a alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas. OBJETIVO: Analizar y comparar el perfil de funciones ejecutivas de niños con TDAH versus niños TEA evaluadas por la familia y la escuela. MÉTODO: No experimental o ex post facto. Descriptivo. PARTICIPANTES: 25 padres y 31 profesores evaluaron a 56 niños. Instrumento de recogida de datos. BRIEF-P evalúa las funciones ejecutivas en niños entre 2 años a 5 años y 11 meses en el contexto escolar y familiar por parte de informantes. Análisis de datos. Se compararon las puntuaciones obtenidas en los diferentes trastornos del neurodesarrollo en las escalas clínicas e índices, aplicando análisis no paramétrica: (I) Cuando los informantes son los padres en: escala clínica de Flexibilidad (U = 116.000, p =.023) y en el índice de Flexibilidad (U = 111.500, p <.041). (II) Cuando los informantes son los profesores en: escala clínica de Flexibilidad (U = 201.000, p=.000), en la escala clínica Control Emocional (U =164.500, p < .039) y en el índice de Flexibilidad (U = 190.500, p < .001). CONCLUSIONES: Estimamos que BRIEF-P puede ser utilizado por padres y profesores en el proceso de evaluación del funcionamiento ejecutivo en niños con TDAH y TEA. Hay diferencias significativas entre ambos trastornos del neurodesarrollo en flexibilidad (padres y profesores) y control emocional (sólo profesores)


INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two neurodevelopmental disorders, with independent diagnostic features, which share common symptoms with patients suffering from brain damage or dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, that are associated with alterations in executive functions. OBJECTIVE: To analyse and compare the profiles of executive functioning in children with ADHD versus children with ASD. METHOD: Non-experimental or ex post facto design; descriptive study. Participants. 25 parents and 31 teachers evaluated 56 children. Data collection instrument. BRIEF-P evaluates the executive functions in children aged between 2 to 5 years and 11 months via parents, teachers or other regular caregivers of the child. BRIEF-P analyses the development (hetero-report format) of executive functions in the school and family contexts by means of informant's reports. Analysis of data. The scores obtained in the different clinical scales and indices were compared for type of neurodevelopmental disorder, by applying parametric


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Função Executiva , Psicometria , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pais/psicologia
19.
Behav Ther ; 51(1): 27-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005338

RESUMO

Sleep problems are common in school-age children and linked to numerous negative outcomes. Sleep disturbances are particularly common in children with mental health disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety. Despite frequent use of nonpharmacological pediatric sleep interventions to treat common sleep problems, there is a paucity of research on whether these interventions are effective. Further, it is unclear whether by targeting sleep, these interventions lead to broader improvements in the domains of functioning that are commonly affected by poor sleep. The present review includes 20 studies that evaluated nonpharmacological sleep treatments for school-aged youth, including 5 studies specifically focused on youth with externalizing or internalizing problems. Multimodal approaches consisting of psychoeducation and sleep hygiene in combination with other components were effective at treating insomnia and general sleep problems in typically developing samples. The addition of behavioral parent training to sleep interventions was effective for youth with externalizing problems, whereas incorporating cognitive strategies into sleep interventions for youth with internalizing problems was found to be ineffective. A variety of secondary outcomes were examined, with the strongest support emerging for improvement in anxiety and behavioral problems. Implications for clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Behav Ther ; 51(1): 69-84, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005341

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for child anxiety disorders, but 40%-50% of youth do not respond fully to treatment, and time commitments for standard CBT can be prohibitive for some families and lead to long waiting lists for trained CBT therapists in the community. SmartCAT 2.0 is an adjunctive mobile health program designed to improve and shorten CBT treatment for anxiety disorders in youth by providing them with the opportunity to practice CBT skills outside of session using an interactive and gamified interface. It consists of an app and an integrated clinician portal connected to the app for secure 2-way communication with the therapist. The goal of the present study was to evaluate SmartCAT 2.0 in an open trial to establish usability, feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of brief (8 sessions) CBT combined with SmartCAT. We also explored changes in CBT skills targeted by the app. Participants were 34 youth (ages 9-14) who met DSM-5 criteria for generalized, separation, and/or social anxiety disorder. Results demonstrated strong feasibility and usability of the app/portal and high satisfaction with the intervention. Youth used the app an average of 12 times between each therapy session (M = 5.8 mins per day). At posttreatment, 67% of youth no longer met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, with this percentage increasing to 86% at 2-month follow-up. Youth showed reduced symptom severity over time across raters and also improved from pre- to posttreatment in CBT skills targeted by the app, demonstrating better emotion identification and thought challenging and reductions in avoidance. Findings support the feasibility of combining brief CBT with SmartCAT. Although not a controlled trial, when benchmarked against the literature, the current findings suggest that SmartCAT may enhance the utility of brief CBT for childhood anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/tendências , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Portais do Paciente/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Smartphone/tendências , Telemedicina/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...