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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4298, 2022 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279671

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal changes in the quality of life (QOL) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents, and the interaction between their QOL and parental mental state during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Eighty-nine school-aged children and parents participated in surveys in May 2020 (T1) and May 2021 (T2). The parents completed questionnaires that assessed their QOL, depression, parenting stress, and living conditions. Children's temporary mood status was evaluated using the self-reported visual analog scale (VAS). Children's QOL and VAS at T2 were higher than their QOL at T1. Parents' QOL at T2 was lower than their QOL at T1. Severe parental depression at T1 had a synergistic effect on severe parenting stress and severe depressive state at T2. Additionally, children's high QOL at T1 had a synergistic effect on low parenting stress and children's high QOL at T2. Furthermore, children's low VAS scores and parents' low QOL at T2 were associated with deterioration of family economic status. Children and parents' QOL changed during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. Improvement in children's QOL was influenced by reduced maternal depressive symptoms. Public support for parental mental health is important to avoid decreasing QOL.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143947, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040968

RESUMO

Importance: Despite indices of impaired neurodevelopment in children of mothers with eating disorders, it remains unclear whether these children are at increased risk of developing neuropsychiatric diseases. Objective: To evaluate the association between maternal eating disorders, whether preexisting or ongoing during pregnancy, and offspring neuropsychiatric disease risk. Design, Setting and Participants: This population-based prospective cohort study used the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and identified singleton births registered between from January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2012. Children of exposed mothers with eating disorders were matched with comparator children of mothers without diagnoses of eating disorders. To adjust for unmeasured shared familial factors, a cluster of exposed children with full maternal cousin comparators was identified. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from August 31, 2020, to April 30, 2021. Exposures: Maternal eating disorder diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: All children were followed up from 1 year of age for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and from 3 years of age for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relative risk of ASD and ADHD was assessed among exposed children, stratified by eating disorder subtype and ongoing vs previous disease, adjusted for potential confounders, including parental socioeconomic status and comorbidities. Results: Among the 52 878 children included in the analysis, maternal eating disorder exposure (n = 8813) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD (hazard ratio [HR] for anorexia nervosa, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.23-1.63]; HR for bulimia nervosa, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.43-2.54]; and HR for unspecified eating disorder, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.72-2.32]) and ASD (HR for anorexia nervosa, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.58-2.63]; HR for bulimia nervosa, 2.70 [95% CI, 1.68-4.32]; and HR for unspecified eating disorder, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.49-2.54]). After adjustment for parental confounders, the risk of ADHD remained significantly increased, whereas the risk of ASD in children to mothers with bulimia nervosa was no longer significant. Ongoing anorexia nervosa was associated with a significantly higher risk of ADHD (HR, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.86-3.42]) and ASD (HR, 3.98 [95% CI, 2.49-6.27]) compared with previous disease (HRs, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.48] and 1.81 [95% CI, 1.38-2.38], respectively). Results based on the family cluster were similar to those of the main analysis for maternal exposure to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that children born to mothers with eating disorders, in particular disorders that were active during pregnancy, were at increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD. The association could not be fully explained by parental psychiatric comorbidities, and among children of mothers with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it could not be explained by unmeasured familial confounding.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(5): 2149-2155, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081298

RESUMO

In March 2020, many schools were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Japan, and it is predicted that many children, especially those with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), will be affected emotionally and behaviorally. Here, we examined the impact of school closures due to COVID-19 on school-aged children with NDDs using the Child Behavior Checklist. Totally, data on 121 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and/or intellectual disorder were analyzed and it was found that externalizing and aggressive behavior increased in all NDDs, regardless of the type of diagnosis. A clear prospect is important for children with NDDs children to lead a stable life, and more generous supports for children with NDDs and their families are needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
6.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 98 Suppl 1: S66-S72, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the literature about the environmental impact on children's mental, behavior, and neurodevelopmental disorders. SOURCES OF DATA: A nonsystematic review of papers published on MEDLINE-PubMed was carried out using the terms environment and mental health or psychiatric disorders or neurodevelopmental disorders. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: Psychopathology emerges at different developmental times as the outcome of complex interactions between nature and nurture and may impact each person in different ways throughout childhood and determine adult outcomes. Mental health is intertwined with physical health and is strongly influenced by cultural, social and economic factors. The worldwide prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is 13.4%, and the most frequent are anxiety, disruptive behavior disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression. Neurodevelopment begins at the embryonic stage and continues through adulthood with genetic differences, environmental exposure, and developmental timing acting synergistically and contingently. Early life experiences have been linked to a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine-immune circuitry which results in alterations of the brain during sensitive periods. Also, the environment may trigger modifications on the epigenome of the differentiating cell, leading to changes in the structure and function of the organs. Over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential due to the exposure to multiple risk factors, including poverty, malnutrition and unsafe home environments. CONCLUSIONS: Continued support for the promotion of a protective environment that comprises effective parent-child interactions is key in minimizing the effects of neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the lifetime.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
7.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113911, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767796

RESUMO

Nutritional inadequacy before birth and during postnatal life can seriously interfere with brain development and lead to persistent deficits in learning and behavior. In this work, we asked if protein malnutrition affects domains of social cognition and if these phenotypes can be transmitted to the next generation. Female mice were fed with a normal or hypoproteic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, offspring were fed with a standard chow. Social interaction, social recognition memory, and dominance were evaluated in both sexes of F1 offspring and in the subsequent F2 generation. Glucose metabolism in the whole brain was analyzed through preclinical positron emission tomography. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in the medial prefrontal cortex followed by gene-ontology enrichment analysis. Compared with control animals, malnourished mice exhibited a deficit in social motivation and recognition memory and displayed a dominant phenotype. These altered behaviors, except for dominance, were transmitted to the next generation. Positron emission tomography analysis revealed lower glucose metabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex of F1 malnourished offspring. This brain region showed genome-wide transcriptional dysregulation, including 21 transcripts that overlapped with autism-associated genes. Our study cannot exclude that the lower maternal care provided by mothers exposed to a low-protein diet caused an additional impact on social cognition. Our results showed that maternal protein malnutrition dysregulates gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, promoting altered offspring behavior that was intergenerationally transmitted. These results support the hypothesis that early nutritional deficiency represents a risk factor for the emergence of symptoms associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/psicologia , Cognição Social , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Desnutrição/psicologia , Camundongos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo
8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 929-936, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537103

RESUMO

Informal (unpaid) carers are an integral part of all societies and the health and social care systems in the UK depend on them. Despite the valuable contributions and key worker status of informal carers, their lived experiences, wellbeing, and needs have been neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Health Policy, we bring together a broad range of clinicians, researchers, and people with lived experience as informal carers to share their thoughts on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK carers, many of whom have felt abandoned as services closed. We focus on the carers of children and young people and adults and older adults with mental health diagnoses, and carers of people with intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental conditions across different care settings over the lifespan. We provide policy recommendations with the aim of improving outcomes for all carers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cuidadores/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Morbidade/tendências , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Apoio Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1835): 20200327, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420385

RESUMO

Millions of children are impacted by neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), which unfold early in life, have varying genetic etiologies and can involve a variety of specific or generalized impairments in social, cognitive and motor functioning requiring potentially lifelong specialized supports. While specific disorders vary in their domain of primary deficit (e.g. autism spectrum disorder (social), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (attention), developmental coordination disorder (motor) and developmental language disorder (language)), comorbidities between NDDs are common. Intriguingly, many NDDs are associated with difficulties in skills related to rhythm, timing and synchrony though specific profiles of rhythm/timing impairments vary across disorders. Impairments in rhythm/timing may instantiate vulnerabilities for a variety of NDDs and may contribute to both the primary symptoms of each disorder as well as the high levels of comorbidities across disorders. Drawing upon genetic, neural, behavioural and interpersonal constructs across disorders, we consider how disrupted rhythm and timing skills early in life may contribute to atypical developmental cascades that involve overlapping symptoms within the context of a disorder's primary deficits. Consideration of the developmental context, as well as common and unique aspects of the phenotypes of different NDDs, will inform experimental designs to test this hypothesis including via potential mechanistic intervention approaches. This article is part of the theme issue 'Synchrony and rhythm interaction: from the brain to behavioural ecology'.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Periodicidade , Tempo , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452535

RESUMO

It was late 2015 when Northeast Brazil noticed a worrying increase in neonates born with microcephaly and other congenital malformations. These abnormalities, characterized by an abnormally small head and often neurological impairment and later termed Congenital Zika Syndrome, describe the severity of neurodevelopmental and nephrological outcomes in early childhood, and the implication of microcephaly at birth. The purpose of the study was to describe the neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to Zika virus during fetal life, with and without microcephaly at birth. The systematic review included research studies about the neurodevelopmental outcomes with and without microcephaly, as well as nephrological outcomes in early childhood. We searched PubMed, Crossref, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Google Scholar publications and selected 19 research articles published from 2018 to 2021. Most studies have linked the severity of microcephaly in childbirth to the neurodevelopmental and urinary outcomes in early childhood. However, most children without microcephaly at birth develop typically, while others may be at risk for language impairment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/virologia , Doenças Urológicas/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/psicologia , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Doenças Urológicas/psicologia , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia
11.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 428-438, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Italy by specifically looking at the psychosocial response of children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) and their parents, and explored which factors could potentially contribute to increasing or mitigating stress-related behaviors in children/adolescents as well as their parents' stress. METHOD: An online anonymous survey was designed to investigate family demographic characteristics, COVID-19 outbreak and restriction-related variables, children/adolescents' behavioral regulation problems, parental stress, and resilience. Data were collected from 1,472 parents (83.1% mothers) of 1632 NDD children/adolescents (33.7% females). RESULTS: Compared to pre-emergency, parents reported a significant increase in their children's behavioral regulation problems: Anxious/depressed behavior, Attention problems, and Aggressive behavior (p < .001), and they reported feeling more Overwhelmed and Burdened (p < .001) as parents but less Unfulfilled, Numbness, Devastated, and Angry (p < .001). A hierarchical stepwise regression analysis revealed that both behavioral regulation problems in NDD children/adolescents and parental stress are-at least partially-buffered by resilience factors in parents (Perception of self, Planned future, Family cohesion). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that behavioral regulation problems in children/adolescents with NDD and parental stress increased. However, parental resilience can act as a protective factor, counterbalancing parental difficulties in the care of their NDD children during the emergency. Identifying risk and protective factors impacting the psychosocial response ofchildren/adolescents with NDD and their parents is essential to implement appropriate support interventions both for parents and children/adolescents with NDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1506(1): 5-17, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342000

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, have strong genetic risk components, but the underlying mechanisms have proven difficult to decipher. Rare, high-risk variants may offer an opportunity to delineate the biological mechanisms responsible more clearly for more common idiopathic diseases. Indeed, different rare variants can cause the same behavioral phenotype, demonstrating genetic heterogeneity, while the same rare variant can cause different behavioral phenotypes, demonstrating variable expressivity. These observations suggest convergent underlying biological and neurological mechanisms; identification of these mechanisms may ultimately reveal new therapeutic targets. At the 2021 Keystone eSymposium "Neuropsychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Harnessing Rare Variants" a panel of experts in the field described significant progress in genomic discovery and human phenotyping and raised several consistent issues, including the need for detailed natural history studies of rare disorders, the challenges in cohort recruitment, and the importance of viewing phenotypes as quantitative traits that are impacted by rare variants.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Variação Genética/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Penetrância , Relatório de Pesquisa , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1775-1789, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant public health problem that is associated with a broad range of physical, neurocognitive, and behavioral effects resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been an important tool for advancing our knowledge of abnormal brain structure and function in individuals with FASD. However, whereas only a small number of studies have applied graph theory-based network analysis to resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data in individuals with FASD additional research in this area is needed. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI data were collected from adolescent and young adult participants (ages 12-22) with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and neurotypically developing controls (CNTRL) from previous studies. Group independent components analysis (gICA) was applied to fMRI data to extract components representing functional brain networks. Functional network connectivity (FNC), measured by Pearson correlation of the average independent component (IC) time series, was analyzed under a graph theory framework to compare network modularity, the average clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and global efficiency between groups. Cognitive intelligence, measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), was compared and correlated to global network measures. RESULTS: Group comparisons revealed significant differences in the average clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and global efficiency. Modularity was not significantly different between groups. The FAS and ARND groups scored significantly lower than the CNTRL group on Full Scale IQ (FS-IQ) and the Vocabulary subtest, but not the Matrix Reasoning subtest. No significant associations between intelligence and graph theory measures were detected. CONCLUSION: Our results partially agree with previous studies examining global graph theory metrics in children and adolescents with FASD and suggest that the exposure to alcohol during prenatal development leads to disruptions in aspects of functional network segregation and integration.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/psicologia , Humanos , Inteligência , Testes de Linguagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Análise de Componente Principal , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202394

RESUMO

Parents are important agents in shaping children's eating habits. However, the associations between children's and parents' eating behaviors are complex and may be convoluted for various reasons, such as parenting feeding styles, stressful mealtimes, and children's neurodevelopmental disorders (ND), such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to analyze associations between parents and their children's fussy eating, in a cross-sectional sample of children, with and without ND. Ninety-seven parents answered screening questionnaires prior to an intervention study. Associations were investigated using two-way ANOVAs and chi-square analyses. Overall, children with ND accepted fewer food items and consumed unhealthier foods more frequently than children without ND. Fussy eating parents had children who accepted fewer food items and consumed unhealthier foods more frequently than children whose parents were not fussy eaters. Interaction effects were not significant. A higher proportion of fussy eating parents, than non-fussy eating parents, had children who had difficulties with combined foods and hidden ingredients. The findings highlight the need for further investigation into the relationships between parents' influence on their children's eating behavior and food consumption, as well as possible reciprocal impacts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Seletividade Alimentar , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15132, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302021

RESUMO

Maternal obesity in pregnancy predicts offspring psychopathology risk in childhood but it remains unclear whether maternal obesity or underweight associate with adult offspring mental disorders. We examined longitudinally whether maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy predicted mental disorders in her offspring and whether the associations differed by offspring birth year among 68,571 mother-child dyads of Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank, Scotland. The offspring were born 1950-1999. Maternal BMI was measured at a mean 15.7 gestational weeks and classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderate obesity and severe obesity. Mental disorders were identified from nationwide registers carrying diagnoses of all hospitalizations and deaths in Scotland in 1996-2017. We found that maternal BMI in pregnancy was associated with offspring mental disorders in a time-dependent manner: In offspring born 1950-1974, maternal underweight predicted an increased hazard of mental disorders [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.74; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01-3.00)]. In offspring born 1975-1999, maternal severe obesity predicted increased hazards of any mental (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08-2.38) substance use (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.03-3.57) and schizophrenia spectrum (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.40-5.63) disorders. Our findings of time-specific associations between maternal prenatal BMI and adult offspring mental disorders may carry important public health implications by underlining possible lifelong effects of maternal BMI on offspring psychopathology.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Magreza/complicações
16.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(4): 205-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic forced parents and children to modify their habits with a radical change in the family routine and consequent increase in psychological stress. Children with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDDs) are particularly vulnerable to new and unexpected situations; moreover, the parents of these children generally show high levels of psychological stress due to the greater commitment that this condition imposes on them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the disease status of NDDs children before and during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to evaluate the psychological effects related to measures of social distancing on these children and their families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one children with NDDs, were enrolled in this study and followed up at the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit of the University Hospital Consortium Corporation Polyclinic of Bari (Italy) along with their parents. Parents were evaluated before national lockdown (baseline) and recontacted during the SARS-CoV-2 emergency almost after a year. The changes in emotional/behavioral problems of children and parenting stress before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic were assessed with Child Behaviour CheckList (CBCL) and Parent Stress Index - short form (PSI). RESULTS: The analysis of the emotional and behavioral problems of children with NDDs did not show statistically significant differences between the before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic period. The evaluations conducted on parents highlights an increase in parental stress during the pandemic. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in three subscales: Parenting Distress (PD) scale, Dysfunctional Interaction Parent-Child (P-CDI) scale and Defensive responding scale (DF). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the increase in parental stress and a more difficult parent-child interaction with NDDs in the period of lockdown due to the pandemic; identification of these risk targets can be useful for interventions in similar situations. Therefore, it is necessary to provide caregivers information to manage and overcome challenges experienced during a pandemic and providing psychological support for caregivers of children with NDDs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Quarentena , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
17.
Aval. psicol ; 20(2): 139-150, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1285431

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi adaptar e validar o Questionnaire on Resources and Stress-Short Form (QRS-F), desenvolvido para medir o estresse de pais de crianças com transtornos do desenvolvimento (TD), criando uma versão para a população brasileira, o Questionário de Estresse para Pais de Crianças com Transtornos do Desenvolvimento (QE-PTD). Participaram do estudo 360 pais de crianças com (TD), com idade média de 32,13 anos (DP = 8,19), sendo 65,6% crianças com paralisia cerebral. Após a análise fatorial o resultado, foi o QE-PTD com 32 itens e quatro fatores (Fator I: Incapacidades da Criança; Fator II: Problemas Familiares; Fator III: Restrições Comportamentais; Fator IV: Sobrecarga Emocional). Os quatro fatores explicam 46% da variância com Kuder-Richardson 20 de 0,88 para a escala total. O QE-PTD mostrou correlações moderadas com o Questionário de Saúde Geral e com o Inventário Beck de Depressão. Os resultados mostram índices de confiabilidade e validade satisfatórios. (AU)


The aim of the study was to adapt and validate the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress-Short Form (QRS-F), developed to assess the stress of parents of children with developmental disorders (DD), creating a version for the Brazilian population, the Questionnaire of Stress for Parents of Children with Developmental Disorders (QE-PTD). Study participants were 360 parents of children with DD, with a mean age of 32.13 years (SD = 8.19), 65.6% of whom had children with cerebral palsy. Through factor analysis, the QE-PTD was found to have 32 items and four factors (Factor I: Child's Disabilities; Factor II: Family Problems; Factor III: Behavioral Restrictions; and Factor IV: Emotional Overload). The four factors explained 46% of the variance with a Kuder-Richardson formula 20 value of .88 for the total scale. The QE-PTD presented moderate correlations with the General Health Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. The results obtained showed satisfactory reliability and validation indices. (AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue adaptar y validar el Questionnaire on Resources and Stress-Short Form (QRS-F), creado para medir el estrés de padres de niños con trastornos del desarrollo (TD), originando una versión brasileña: el Cuestionario de Estrés para Padres de Niños con Trastornos del Desarrollo (QE-PTD). Participaron en el estudio 360 padres de niños con TD, con una edad media de 32,13 años (DS = 8,19), de los cuales 65,6% eran niños con parálisis cerebral. Tras el análisis factorial, el resultado fue el QE-PTD con 32 ítems y cuatro factores (Factor I: Discapacidades del niño; Factor II: Problemas familiares; Factor III: Restricciones conductuales; Factor IV: Sobrecarga emocional) Los cuatro factores explican el 46% de la varianza con Kuder-Richardson 20 de 0,88 para la escala total. El QE-PTD presentó correlaciones moderadas con el Cuestionario de Salud General y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck. Los resultados muestran índices de fiabilidad y validez satisfactorios. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Relações Pais-Filho , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral , Depressão , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Psicometria , Brasil , Adaptação Psicológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
18.
Mod Trends Psychiatry ; 32: 40-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032644

RESUMO

The dynamic population of microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in orchestrating several aspects of host physiology and health, including but not limited to nutrient extraction and metabolism, as well as the regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Gut microbes interact with the host in a bi-directional manner as the microbiota can support the development and education of the innate and adaptive immune systems, thereby conferring protection against pathogens and harmful stimuli while training the host to maintain a homeostatic tolerance towards commensal symbiotics. Recent advances in the field have highlighted the importance of the host-microbiota relationship in neurodevelopment and behaviour, with relevant implications for the onset and progression of brain disorders of inflammatory origin. Microbial modulation of brain function is achieved throughout complex neuro-immune-endocrine pathways of the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Changes in the composition of the gut microbiota or perturbation in microbial-derived metabolites and neuroactive compounds are sensed by the afferent branches of the sympathetic and vagal innervation and transmitted to the central nervous system, which in turn produces behavioural responses. Here, we focus on how the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the immune system modulates the development and function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Specific attention is afforded to the involvement of host-microbe neuroimmune interactions in the pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric and neuroinflammatory disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, and depression, as well as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/imunologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Neuroimunomodulação
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1805-1815, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694030

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The use of psychotropic drugs in the paediatric population has not been the subject of many studies, due to the fact that this population is generally not included in clinical trials and these drugs are not authorized for use on minors. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to provide an accurate description of psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents in the North of Europe and Catalonia. METHODS: Data from 2008 to 2017 on psychotropic drug consumption in children and adolescents were retrieved from the databases of Catalonia, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Psychotropic drugs were divided into antipsychotics, anxiolytics (also hypnotics and sedatives), antidepressants and psychostimulants. Data were stratified by group of age (0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19/15-17 for Denmark and Catalonia) and sex. RESULTS: Overall, the group of anxiolytics shows the highest consumption and the group of antipsychotics the lowest. In 2017, Sweden was the country with the highest consumption of psychotropic drugs (6.67‰) and has the highest increase in consumption (152.8%), and Denmark has the lowest consumption for all groups (3.13‰). Catalonia shows a decrease in psychotropic drugs (-15.9%). Girls consume more than twice as many antidepressants as boys while the opposite is true for psychostimulants. Risperidone and quetiapine are among the most consumed antipsychotics in the Nordic countries, whereas in Catalonia they are risperidone and aripiprazole. Among antidepressants, sertraline is the most consumed. No differences are found among the psychostimulants. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic consumption in younger populations is increasing, although there are differences between the countries as far as which drugs are used. Nordic countries show a higher prevalence of use than Catalonia. Psychotropic drug consumption increases with age, except for psychostimulants, which have the highest utilization rate among 10-14-year-olds.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 16, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic research on neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly involving minors, combines and amplifies existing research ethics issues for biomedical research. We performed a review of the literature on the ethical issues associated with genomic research involving children affected by NDDs as an aid to researchers to better anticipate and address ethical concerns. RESULTS: Qualitative thematic analysis of the included articles revealed themes in three main areas: research design and ethics review, inclusion of research participants, and communication of research results. Ethical issues known to be associated with genomic research in general, such as privacy risks and informed consent/assent, seem especially pressing for NDD participants because of their potentially decreased cognitive abilities, increased vulnerability, and stigma associated with mental health problems. Additionally, there are informational risks: learning genetic information about NDD may have psychological and social impact, not only for the research participant but also for family members. However, there are potential benefits associated with research participation, too: by enrolling in research, the participants may access genetic testing and thus increase their chances of receiving a (genetic) diagnosis for their neurodevelopmental symptoms, prognostic or predictive information about disease progression or the risk of concurrent future disorders. Based on the results of our review, we developed an ethics checklist for genomic research involving children affected by NDDs. CONCLUSIONS: In setting up and designing genomic research efforts in NDD, researchers should partner with communities of persons with NDDs. Particular attention should be paid to preventing disproportional burdens of research participation of children with NDDs and their siblings, parents and other family members. Researchers should carefully tailor the information and informed consent procedures to avoid therapeutic and diagnostic misconception in NDD research. To better anticipate and address ethical issues in specific NDD studies, we suggest researchers to use the ethics checklist for genomic research involving children affected by NDDs presented in this paper.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/ética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Criança , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Privacidade/psicologia
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