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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211069281, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of the novel 'TIB' Olfactory Test Device (TIB) and to determine its normative values. METHODS: The study stratified the study subjects into normosmic, hyposmic and anosmic groups according to their olfactory function. The olfactory function of the subjects was evaluated using both the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania of Smell Identification Test (UPSIT-TC) and the TIB. The normosmic group was used to retest with the UPSIT-TC and TIB at an inter-test interval of at least 7 days. The cut-off scores of TIB among the three different groups were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: This study enrolled 180 subjects: 60 in each group. The mean scores of TIB were 44.1 for the normosmic group, 27.5 for the hyposmic group and 10.9 for the anosmic group. The TIB scores were significantly different across the three groups. There was a significant correlation between the first and second TIB tests (r = 0.506). The cut-off scores were 41 for normosmic subjects and 24 for hyposmic subjects. CONCLUSION: The validity and test-retest reliability results suggest that the TIB is an appropriate olfactory test for the Taiwanese population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979611

RESUMO

Objective:The purpose of this study was to compare the olfactory function examination results of patients with post-viral olfactory dysfunction(PVOD) in different prognostic groups and analyze prognostic factors, especially the influence of olfactory bulb volume(OBV) on prognosis, so as to provide objective basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods:After approval by the hospital ethics committee, the patients with PVOD admitted to Beijing Anzhen Hospital's outpatient department from January 2019 to December 2019 were followed up for at least 1 year. These patients completed the Sniffin' Sticks test and MRI examination of the olfactory pathway before treatment. According to the results of the Sniffin' Sticks test after 1 year follow-up(threshold-discrimination-identification(TDI) score of the patients was increased at least 6 points), the patients were divided into two groups as the improvement group and the non-improvement group. The prognostic factors of PVOD patients were preliminarily determined by comparing the differences of various factors and the results of olfactory function examination between the two groups. Results:In this study, 47 patients with PVOD were included, with the smell improvement rate was 53.2%. Compared with the improvement group, the patients in the non-improvement group had longer duration, poorer initial olfactory function, higher olfactory threshold, and poorer olfactory discrimination and recognition ability(All P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in terms of gender, age, allergic rhinitis and smoking between the two groups(All P>0.05).The OBV of the non-improvement group was (59.48±23.92) mm³, which was significantly lower than that in the improvement group([92.77±14.35]mm³, P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prognostic factors included course of disease(OR 0.677, 95%CI 0.461-0.993, P=0.046), initial T value(OR 263.806, 95%CI 1.028-67 675.884, P=0.049) and OBV(OR 1.160, 95%CI 1.002-1.343, P=0.047). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC curve) of OBV was 0.888(0.797-0.979, P<0.001). The correct diagnostic index of OBV≥78.50 mm³was used to determine the prognosis of olfactory function, with a specificity of 0.818 and a sensitivity of 0.840. The ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve of duration was 0.822(0.703-0.940, P<0.001). The correct diagnostic index of the duration ≤6 months was used to determine the prognosis of olfactory function, with a specificity of 0.727 and a sensitivity of 0.800. The area of T score was 0.793(0.662-0.924, P=0.001). T score ≥1.25 was used as the correct diagnostic index to determine the prognosis of olfactory function. The specificity and sensitivity were 0.818 and 0.680, respectively. Conclusion:The prognosis of olfactory function in PVOD patients is related to the course of disease, the degree of olfactory loss and OBV. Those with no improvement in olfactory function have a longer disease course, aggravated olfactory damage and reduced OBV than those with improved olfactory function. The factors of Duration ≤6 months, T value ≥1.25 and OBV≥78.50 mm³suggested better prognosis, and the results of objective olfactory examination have greater value in evaluating the prognosis of olfactory function.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Olfato , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem , Condutos Olfatórios , Prognóstico
3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 95: 99-105, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the peripheral and central olfactory regions in children with epilepsy using cranial MRI. METHODS: In this retrospective study, cranial MRI images were obtained from 23 children with epilepsy and 23 healthy controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth in the peripheral olfactory region and insular cortex and corpus amygdala areas in the central olfactory region were measured. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the OB volume and OS depth in the peripheral olfactory regions in the two groups (p > 0.05). In the central olfactory region, the insular cortex and corpus amygdala areas in the epilepsy group were significantly smaller than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In both groups, the OS depth on the right side was significantly higher than that on the left side (p < 0.05). In the epilepsy group, there were positive correlations between each of the OB volumes, OS depths, insular cortex areas, and corpus amygdala areas bilaterally (p < 0.05). In both groups, there were positive correlations between the OB volume and OS depth, OS depth and insular cortex area and insular cortex area and corpus amygdala areas (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A change in the central olfactory region in epileptic patients may be related to central tissue damage due to epilepsy. This finding has important implications for epilepsy patients, with early diagnosis and treatment potentially preventing a reduction in the volumes/depths of components of the central olfactory region in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos do Olfato , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Bulbo Olfatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103170, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: New-onset olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) represents a well-acknowledged COVID-19 red flag. Nevertheless, its clinical, virological and serological features are still a matter of debate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cohort study, 170 consecutive subjects with new-onset OGD were consecutively recruited. Otolaryngological examination, OGD subjective grading, nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and serum samples (SS) collection for SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification were conducted at baseline and after one (T1), two (T2) and four weeks (T3). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 79% of patients. Specifically, 43% of positive patients were detected only by SS analysis. The OGD was the only clinical complaint in 10% of cases. Concurrent sinonasal symptoms were reported by 45% of patients. Subjective improvement at T3 was reported by 97% of patients, with 40% recovering completely. Hormonal disorders and RNA detectability in NS were the only variables associated with OGD severity. Recovery rate was higher in case of seasonal influenza vaccination, lower in patients with systemic involvement and severe OGD. Not RNA levels nor IgG titers were correlated with recovery. CONCLUSION: Clinical, virological and serological features of COVID-19 related OGD were monitored longitudinally, offering valuable hints for future research on the relationship between host characteristics and chemosensory dysfunctions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/imunologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/imunologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors (demographic, symptoms, comorbidities, and treatments) are associated with recovery of smell in patients with COVID-19 associated olfactory loss. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal questionnaires. SETTING: National survey. METHODS: A longitudinal web-based nationwide survey of adults with COVID-19 associated smell and taste loss was launched April 10, 2020. After completing an initial entry survey, participants received detailed follow-up questionnaires 14 days, and 1, 3 and 6 months later. RESULTS: As of June 25, 2021, 798 participants met study inclusion criteria and completed 6-month questionnaires. Of demographic characteristics only age <40 years was positively associated with smell recovery (p < .003). Of symptoms, difficulty breathing was negatively associated with smell recovery (p < .004), and nasal congestion positively associated with smell recovery (p < .03). Of pre-existing comorbidities only previous head injury (p < .017) was negatively associated with smell recovery. None of the queried medications used to treat COVID were associated with better rates of smell recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Age <40 and presence of nasal congestion at time of COVID-19 infection were predictive of improved rates of smell recovery, while difficulty breathing at time of COVID-19 infection, and prior head trauma predicted worsened rates of recovery. Further study will be required to identify potential mechanisms for the other observed associations. Such information can be used by clinicians to counsel patients suffering COVID-19 associated smell loss as to prognosis for recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960113

RESUMO

We identified associations between self-reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) and dietary attributes in participants aged ≥40 years (n = 6,356) from the nationally representative 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemosensory questionnaire and 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained interviewers. OD was defined as self-report of either smell problems in the last year, worse smell relative to age 25, or perceiving phantom odors. Dietary outcomes included Healthy Eating Index 2015 score (HEI) with adequacy and moderation components (higher scores indicated higher diet quality), dietary diversity, energy density, and intake of major food groups. Survey-weighted linear regression models estimated OD-diet associations, adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) between those with versus without OD, showed that adults with OD had significantly lower HEI moderation score (-0.67 (-1.22, -0.11)) and diets higher in energy density (0.06 (0.00, 0.11)), and percent energy from saturated fat (0.47 (0.12, 0.81)), total fat (0.96 (0.22, 1.70)), and added sugar (1.00 (0.33, 1.66)). Age and sex-stratified analyses showed that younger females (40-64 years) primarily accounted for the associations with diet quality and total/saturated fat intake. These findings inform dietary screening and recommendations for adults who report OD, including those experiencing transient or persistent smell loss with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato
8.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942008

RESUMO

Approximately 5% of the general population is affected by functional anosmia with approximately additional 15% exhibiting decreased olfactory function. Many of these individuals ask for help. Because the subjective rating of olfactory function is biased, assessment of olfactory function is important. Olfactory measurements are needed for patient counseling and the tracking of changes in the sense of smell over time. The present review provides an overview of frequently used psychophysical tests for olfactory function, discusses differences between threshold and suprathreshold aspects of olfactory function, and gives examples on how to apply psychophysical tests.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Olfato
9.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 173-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819431

RESUMO

Background Loss of smell and/or taste have been described in COVID-19 patients. Studies have not been conducted to evaluate the loss of smell and/or taste in the context of Nepal. Objective To investigate the prevalence of Ear, Nose and Throat related symptoms and assess smell and taste disorders in laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients. Method This prospective cross-sectional study evaluated patients from September 2020 to March 2021 with preceding COVID-19 diagnosis from a tertiary centre in Kathmandu. COVID-19 positive patients visiting out-patient department, quarantined or admitted were included. Patients were given questionnaire consisting of demographic data, history of smoking and evaluation of presenting symptoms. Loss of smell and taste were subjectively tested and followed up via telephone for ten weeks to evaluate for recovery time and degree of recovery. Result A total of 226 patients participated in the study, 18-92 years old (mean age, 36.77 ± 15.23 years; 53.5% males, 69% non-smokers). Majority of the patients had Myalgia (n = 128, 56.6%) as their presenting symptoms followed by fever (n = 122, 53.9%), loss of smell (n = 117, 51.7%), cough (n = 107, 47.34) and sore throat (n = 102, 45.1%). Loss of sense of smell and taste was reported in 51.8% and 42% respectively. The association between loss of sense of smell and taste was statistically significant (p < .001). All patients had some degree of recovery with 64.1% recovery of smell and 64.2% recovery of taste within 14 days of onset of symptoms. The mean recovery time for sense of smell and taste was 14.34 ± 9.82 days and 15.03 ± 10.06 days, respectively. Conclusion Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are cardinal features of COVID-19. They recover spontaneously along with other symptoms within few weeks. The absence of smell or taste in times of pandemic can be suggestive of potential COVID-19 infection and be used as a screening tool for early diagnosis and reduce transmission of the infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Otolaringologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anosmia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(5): 443-449, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734580

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the olfactory function in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients and investigate its correlation with dry eye parameters. Methods: Thirty-eight pSS patients (49.47 ± 10.06 years) and 20 healthy volunteers (47.40 ± 8.92 years) were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent ENT and eye examinations including a modified Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) test, tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface staining (OSS) and Schirmer test. The parameters were compared between the two groups using Student-t test, and Pearson test was used to evaluate the correlations. Results: Mean Schirmer and TBUT values were 2.39 ± 1.48 mm/5 min and 3.66 ± 1.5 sec in pSS and 18.30 ± 6.16 mm/5 min and 14.60 ± 3.64 sec in healthy subjects (p < 0.001, both). There was a significant decrease in mean odour threshold, odour identification, CCCRC and VAS scores in the pSS group (p < 0.001). Dry eye parameters showed moderate correlations with CCCRC parameters (r = 0.4-0.6, p < 0.001) and olfaction VAS score (r = 0.4-0.75, p < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a mild clinical impairment in smell sense in patients with pSS which seems to be correlated with dry eye parameters. Therefore, smell complaints should be queried in pSS patients suffering from severe dry eye.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Transtornos do Olfato , Síndrome de Sjogren , Síndromes do Olho Seco/complicações , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Olfato , Lágrimas
11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10600-10606, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common and detrimental in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. There are close associations between olfactory dysfunction, depression, and malnutrition, but how they correlate in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy remains unclear. METHODS: Two hundred and one cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were recruited to this study. Their risk of malnutrition was assessed using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ); odor identification was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks test; self-measurement of olfaction was assessed by Self-reported Mini Olfactory Questionnaire (Self-MOQ); and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlation analyses and mediation analyses were used to explore the relationships between olfaction, depression, and risk of malnutrition. RESULTS: The SNAQ score was negatively correlated with the Self-MOQ score and BDI score, and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) scores and odor identification. The Self-MOQ score was negatively correlated with odor identification and positively correlated with BDI scores, and the duration of chemotherapy was negatively correlated with odor identification. Mediation analyses suggested that BDI scores exhibited a partial mediation effect on the relationship between Self-MOQ score and SNAQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of olfactory dysfunction on risk of malnutrition is mediated by depressive symptoms in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Early intervention of olfactory dysfunction and depressive symptoms may be helpful in reducing the risk malnutrition in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias , Transtornos do Olfato , Depressão , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Olfato/induzido quimicamente , Olfato
12.
HNO ; 69(12): 1019-1032, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762159

RESUMO

With increasing age, structures of the internal and external nose change. Many elderly patients complain about rhinitis with nasal obstruction, endonasal crusting, epistaxis, intermittent rhinorrhea, and olfactory disorders. These symptoms are mainly caused by atrophy of the mucosa and the olfactory epithelium, but may also be an expression of drug side effects. Additionally, there are changes in the shape of the nose (continuous growth, altered elasticity of supporting structures) and in the dermis, which may develop tumors due to its sun-exposed position. These multiple internal and external changes of the nose can be summarized by the collective term "aging nose," whose treatment options are complex. These range from conservative (nasal care, medication changes, hemostatic measures) to surgical lines of therapy (septorhinoplasty, tumor excision, vascular ligation) and will require further scientific study in the future.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Transtornos do Olfato , Rinite , Rinoplastia , Idoso , Humanos , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Nariz/cirurgia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752471

RESUMO

Olfactory loss has been identified as one of the common symptoms related to COVID-19 infection. Although olfactory loss is recognized, our understanding of both the extent of loss and time to olfactory recovery following infection is less well known. Similarly, knowledge of potential impactful patient factors and therapies that influence olfactory recovery is desirable but is not overtly clear in the literature. Our systematic review sought to fill this knowledge gap. We included studies that: involved either an observational or an interventional design that reported data on patients with olfactory dysfunction due to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) diagnosed COVID-19 infection; and reported data regarding olfactory recovery measured by an objective olfactory test, Likert scale and/or visual analog scale (VAS). The study methods were determined a priori and registered in PROSPERO (Registration Number CRD42020204354). An information specialist searched Medline, Embase, LitCovid and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to March 2021, and two reviewers were involved in all aspects of study selection and data collection. After screening 2788 citations, a total of 44 studies of assorted observational designs were included. Patients had undergone objective COVID-19 testing, and most were adult patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Olfactory recovery was found to occur as early as 7 days, with most patients recovering olfaction within 30 days. Few studies included prolonged follow-up to 6 months or longer duration. Poor olfaction at initial presentation was associated with poor recovery rates. Only a small number of studies assessed olfactory retraining and steroid therapy. Additional trials are underway.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Olfato/fisiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Escala Visual Analógica
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6431-6438, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause smell and taste dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the general community's interest in smell dysfunction (SD) and taste dysfunction (TD) using Google Trends to compare results with more common symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as fever and cough. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative Search Volumes (RSVs) for the English terms "Smell", "Taste", "Fever" and "Cough", filtered by the category "Health", were collected from 2018 through 2020. Moreover, RSVs using synonyms of "Taste" and "Smell" in 5 European languages were analyzed. RESULTS: The worldwide mean RSVs for "Fever", "Cough", "Smell", and "Taste" during 2020 were 49%, 34%, 8% and 9%, respectively. RSVs associated with the search terms "Fever" and "Cough" showed a peak between February and March 2020, as did "Smell" and "Taste". Even though RSVs were much lower, they were highly correlated (r=0.890). RSVs obtained from "Smell" and "Taste" in five European languages (German, English, French, Italian and Spanish) had similar temporal trends. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the level of the general population's interest for early symptoms, suggesting that their interest in SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, such as SD and TD, was scarce but peaked during the pandemic outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Humanos
15.
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1209-1216, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess olfactory abilities using a culturally adapted Sniffin' Sticks smell test in different age groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Secondary Science School, and Children Learning Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from August 2019 until December 2021. RESULTS: In 450 healthy participants, the cut-off points of the threshold discrimination identification (TDI) scores at the 10th percentile for olfactory abilities were 19 in children, 30.1 in adolescents, 32.1 in young adults, 31.1 in middle-aged adults, and 28.6 in older adults. The children had significantly lower olfactory abilities, with the Bonferroni post-hoc tests of p<0.001. The young adults had higher olfactory abilities than older adults (p<0.05). The results showed that the identification score was highest in middle-aged adults (p<0.001). The discrimination score was the highest in young adults (p<0.001). The best odor threshold performance was observed in adolescents (p<0.001). The TDI score showed a significant difference in olfactory abilities between men and women (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Using a culturally adapted smell test, our population was able to identify, discriminate, and perceive odorants better than the European population. This data will help clinicians and researchers with a tool to reliably establish the correct results of olfactory function in our population. Women had better olfactory abilities than men.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Olfato , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 274-275, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734907

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide and is caused by infection from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pathogen. While COVID-19 most commonly affects the respiratory system, multiple neurological complications have been associated with this pathogen. We report a case of Wernicke encephalopathy in a young girl with poor oral intake secondary to anosmia and dysgeusia after a COVID-19 infection. CASE REPORT: After a recent infection of COVID-19, a 15-year-old girl developed an overwhelming noxious metallic tase resulting in a 30 lb weight loss from being unable to tolerate oral foods. She presented to the hospital 3 months later with bilateral horizontal conjugate gaze palsies, up beating vertical nystagmus, difficulty with limb coordination and gait ataxia. She was found to have a thiamine level of 51 nmol/L (reference range: 70 to 180 nmol/L) and her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging changes in the periaqueductal gray and dorsomedial thalami suggestive of Wernicke encephalopathy. She was started on parenteral thiamine replacement and had significant neurological improvement. CONCLUSIONS: As this pandemic continues to progress, more long-term neurological sequelae from COVID-19 such as Wernicke encephalopathy can be expected. Strong clinical suspicion for these complications is needed to allow for earlier diagnosis and faster treatment initiation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Deficiência de Tiamina , Encefalopatia de Wernicke , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , SARS-CoV-2 , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/etiologia
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(20): 3795-3805, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609841

RESUMO

The occurrence of anosmia, the loss or change in sense of smell, is one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 experienced by almost 53% of those affected. Several hypotheses explain the mechanism of anosmia in patients suffering from COVID-19. This study aims to review the related mechanisms and answer the questions regarding COVID-19-related anosmia as well as propose a new strategy for treatment of long-term anosmia as a result of COVID-19 infection. This paper covers all of the studies investigating olfactory disorders following COVID-19 infection and explains the possible reasons for the correlated anosmia, including olfactory cleft syndrome, local inflammation in the nasal epithelium, early apoptosis of olfactory cells, changes in olfactory cilia and odor transmission, damage to microglial cells, effect on olfactory bulbs, epithelial olfactory injury, and impairment of olfactory neurons and stem cells. The key questions that arise in this field have been discussed, such as why prevalent anosmia is varied among the age categories and among sexes and the correlation of anosmia with mild or severe COVID-19 infection. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor is a significant player in the mechanism of anosmia in COVID-19 patients. Based on current studies, a novel approach to treat long-COVID-19 with ongoing anosmia has been proposed. The fields of smart drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell therapy provide a hypothesized strategy that can minimize the side effects of current treatments and support efficient recovery of the olfactory system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Anosmia , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
18.
Physiol Behav ; 242: 113605, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600920

RESUMO

COVID-19 reached pandemic level in March 2020 and the number of confirmed cases continued to increase worldwide. The clinical course of the disease has not yet been fully characterized, and some specific symptoms related to smell, taste, and feeding behavior require further examination. The present study aimed to assess the presence of symptoms related to the feeding behavior occurred during and/or after COVID-19 in adults residing in Portugal and to link them to disease severity using a multivariate approach. Data were collected from May to September 2020, through a questionnaire answered online containing questions about general and specific symptoms before, during and after COVID-19. 362 participants were included: 201 were symptomatic, being 15 hospitalized and 186 non-hospitalized. Cluster analysis grouped the symptomatic non-hospitalized participants as mild and severe cases. For these patients, the most frequent symptoms related to the feeding process were smell disorders in 40% and 62%, taste disorders in 37% and 60%, and dry mouth, in 23% and 48% of the mild and severe cases, respectively. Dry mouth was significantly associated with difficulty to swallow, pain during swallow, choking when eating or drinking, and preference for mushy/pasty foods (p < 0.01; Chi-squared test). Among the severe cases, the incidence of coughing during the meal (31%), difficulty (19%) and pain during swallow (17%), preference for mushy/pasty foods (10%) and choking when eating or drinking (6%) were clinically relevant and may indicate the presence of swallowing disorders. This group also showed a higher frequency of general symptoms, such as fever, headache, abdominal pain, tiredness, diarrhea, nausea, and shortness of breath (p < 0.05; Chi-squared test). Smell disorders, taste disorders and dry mouth were the most frequent symptoms related to the feeding behavior for both mild and severe cases. Dry mouth was significantly associated with swallowing difficulties and future research should investigate it as a frequent symptom and as a predictive of the presence of eating and swallowing disorders in COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar
19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO6204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with olfactory dysfunction in the scenario of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study selected patients with loss of smell, previously screened by telemonitoring system of the Municipal Health Department of Goiânia (GO), Brazil, who agreed to answer a questionnaire about COVID-19 symptoms and findings of exams. The interviews were conducted by six otolaryngologists, who applied the specific questionnaire, over the phone. RESULTS: A total of 13,910 patients underwent telemonitoring, and 627 (4.51%) had olfactory loss complaints. Out of them, 330 were included in the survey. We observed a higher prevalence of altered smell in women (67%), and in patients aged under 50 years (86%). In most cases the manifestations had a sudden onset (70%), and in the first 5 days of illness (80%). The most prevalent associated symptom was a change in taste (89%), and only 2.7% of interviewed patients required hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Anosmia in COVID-19 is more prevalent in females and individuals aged under 50 years. It is a relevant initial symptom predictive of the disease, together with dysgeusia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 93: 31-35, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hyposmia is among the most common symptoms of COVID-19 patients. Previous research has mainly described this issue at the disease's early stages. Because olfactory impairment can indicate neurological degeneration, we investigated the possibility of permanent olfactory damage by assessing hyposmia during the late recovery stage of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Ninety-five patients were assessed with the Brief Smell Identification Test for Chinese (B-SITC) and Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS) after 16 weeks from disease onset. Five weeks later, 41 patients were retested with B-SITC. RESULTS: At the first visit, hyposmia was identified in 26/82 (31.7%) and 22/95 (23.2%) of participants by HRS (HRS score ≤22) and B-SITC (B-SITC score <8), respectively. The rates of hyposmia in patients who performed B-SITC after 14-15 weeks, 16-17 weeks, and ≥18 weeks from disease onset were 7/25 (28%), 8/35 (23%) and 7/35 (20%), respectively, which demonstrated a trend of olfaction improvement as recovery time prolonging. Hyposmia percentages decreased from the first visit (34.1%) to the second visit (24.4%) for the 41 patients who completed 2 visits. B-SITC scores of the first-visit hyposmia participants increased significantly at the second visit (5.29 ± 2.02 to 8.29 ± 2.40; n = 14, P = 0.001). Severe cases tended to recover less than common cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hyposmia was present in up to one-third of COVID-19 patients after about 3 months from disease onset. Notable recovery of olfactory function was observed at a next 5-weeks follow-up. Clinical severity had little influence on olfactory impairment and recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Anosmia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
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