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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1114-1134, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic had intense social and economic effects. Patients infected with COVID-19 may present with a series of conditions. A considerable number of patients express taste and smell disturbances as a prodromal, coexistent, or as the only manifestation of COVID-19 infection. The objective of the present review is to review the hypothetical mechanisms of action and etiopathogenesis of dysgeusia in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple scientific databases were explored, including PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane-library, LILACS, Livivo and OpenGrey. All types of articles that discussed the pathogenesis of dysgeusia were included, while articles that described dysgeusia without detail about its mode of action were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 47 articles, with different designs, were included in this review. These articles suggested direct viral neural invasion to olfactory and gustatory nerves, viral cytotoxicity to taste buds, angiotensin II imbalance, augmented pro-inflammatory cytokines, and disturbances in salivary glands and sialic acid. COVID-19 induced-dysgeusia was also associated with systemic diseases, medications, zinc, chemicals, and disinfectants. CONCLUSIONS: The most likely cause of transient dysgeusia in COVID-19 is peripheral neurotropism and direct toxicity to taste buds or olfactory epithelium. Other factors may also play a contributory role in dysgeusia, such as a defect in the quality and quantity of saliva, pro-inflammatory cytokines, angiotensin II accumulation, systemic diseases, hypozincemia, and excessive use of chemicals.


Assuntos
/complicações , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/metabolismo , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/metabolismo , Disgeusia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
2.
Rhinology ; 59(1): 91-97, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory training (OT) represents a therapeutic option for multiple etiologies of olfactory dysfunction (OD) that also benefits normosmic subjects. In this retrospective study, we report the effectiveness of OT and factors associated with relevant changes in olfactory function (OF) in large groups of normosmic participants and patients with OD, including a control group that performed no training. METHODS: This was a retrospective pooled analysis including 2 treatment cohorts of 8 previously published studies. Adult participants that either presented with the major complaint of quantitative OD or normosmic volunteers were recruited at various ENT clinics and received OT or no training. The outcome was based on changes in objective olfactory test scores after OT. RESULTS: A total of 601 patients with OD or normosmic subjects were included. OT was more effective compared to no training. No interaction was found between OT and OF. In multivariate analysis, higher baseline OF (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 0.93) and posttraumatic (aOR, 0.29) or idiopathic OD (aOR, 0.18) compared to postinfectious causes were significantly associated with lower odds of relevant improvements in patients with OD receiving OT. Subgroup analysis of normosmic participants receiving OT further revealed a significant association of lower age and baseline olfactory function with improvements of overall OF. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that OT was more effective than no training in patients with various causes of OD. Additionally, baseline olfactory performance and etiology of OD were identified as important factors associated with relevant improvements after OT.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(1): 50-56, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect whether the adverse effects of post-operative radioactive iodine therapy following differentiated thyroid cancer on smell, taste and nasal functions were associated with radioactive iodine dose. METHODS: Fifty-one patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy because of differentiated thyroid cancer were divided into two groups depending on the post-operative radioactive iodine therapy dose: low dose group (50 mCi; 21 patients) and high dose group (100-150 mCi; 30 patients). The Sniffin' Sticks smell test, the Taste Strips test and the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test were performed on all patients one week before therapy, and at two months and one year following therapy. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were detected in the Sniffin' Sticks test results, total odour scores, total taste scores and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test results between the assessment time points. There was no statistically significant difference between the low and high dose groups in terms of odour, taste or Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores either before or after therapy. CONCLUSION: Radioactive iodine therapy has some short- and long-term adverse effects on nasal functions and taste and odour sensations, which affect quality of life. These effects are not dose-dependent.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Doenças Nasais/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Nasais/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos
4.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(2): 411-415, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is known that the COVID-19 disease, which has affected the whole world, causes symptoms, such as cough, fever, shortness of breath, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, headache and sore throat, in addition to various clinical findings, such as loss of smell and taste. In this study, we aimed to reveal the loss of sense of taste and smell in COVID-19 patients and to investigate whether these sensory losses are permanent in the healing process of the disease. METHOD: This prospective study included 94 COVID-19 patients. Smell and taste tests were applied to all patients. Ten days after the first test, a second test was applied to the patients with an impaired sense of smell to compare the results. RESULTS: Of the 94 patients, 55.3% were male, and the mean age was 53 ± 19.6 (21-90) years. There were 67 patients with smell and taste impairment, of whom 34 (50.7%) had smell impairment only, 3 (4.4%) had taste impairment only, and 30 (44.7%) had both smell and taste impairment. It was found that the smell scores of 55 patients with smell and taste impairment in the first evaluation were significantly higher at the second measurement; and their tasting period was significantly shortened compared to the first measurement (p˂0.001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients may present to medical centers with a broad variety signs and symptoms. This study shows that impairment in the senses of smell and taste is common in this disease and strongly associated with COVID-19 infection. However, smell and taste impairment is mostly temporary and improves during the recovery period.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Distúrbios do Paladar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Olfato , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are more than 400 million of native Spanish speakers around the world, being the second most spoken language in regard to the number of native speakers. For this reason, a valid questionnaire to access the olfaction of our patients is necessary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the svQOD-NS questionnaire to the Spanish language. Internal consistency of svQOD-NS measured with Cronbach α. RESULTS: 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. 41 ± 153 (range 21-82), and 32 (80%) were female. 20 patients (57,1%) were male and 15 (42,9%) were female. There was a normal distribution among patients included according to the Shapiro-Wilk test (p = 0.175). Internal consistency of svQOD-NS measured with Cronbach α was 0.861. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.849 (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.766-0.911). CONCLUSION: The Spanish Language is the second most spoken language with regard to the number of native speakers and the svQOD-NS translation represents a valid option for the Spanish-speaking medical community, from which a large number of patients can benefit.


Assuntos
/complicações , Idioma , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Traduções , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 763-770, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697344

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), has kept the globe in disquiets due to its severe life-threatening conditions. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, sore throat, and shortness of breath. According to the anecdotal reports from the health care workers, it has been suggested that the virus could reach the brain and can cause anosmia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and hypopsia. Once the SARS-CoV-2 has entered the central nervous system (CNS), it can either exit in an inactive form in the tissues or may lead to neuroinflammation. Here, we aim to discuss the chronic infection of the olfactory bulb region of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 and how this could affect the nearby residing neurons in the host. We further review the probable cellular mechanism and activation of the microglia 1 phenotype possibly leading to various neurodegenerative disorders. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 might probably infect the olfactory bulb neuron enervating the nasal epithelium accessing the CNS and might cause neurodegenerative diseases in the future.


Assuntos
/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 110-112, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039267

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is often characterized by abnormal olfactory and gustatory symptoms in adults; however, detailed studies on pediatric patients with COVID-19 are extremely limited. A 13-year-old Japanese girl presented with fever and cough, and after 2 days, her olfactory and taste sensations suddenly disappeared. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed using a nasopharyngeal swab. Because a positive result was seen, she was admitted on the 7th day of illness. On admission, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for smell and taste was 0 of 100%. An intravenous olfaction test using prosultiamine (Alinamin test) was performed on the 15th day of illness to evaluate olfaction, and an increase in latency (33 seconds) and a decrease in duration (55 seconds) were observed. In the odor identification test using 12 different odor cards, only 7 odors were correctly identified. On the 18th day of illness, SARS-CoV-2 tested negative in the RT-PCR test; simultaneously, the VAS score for smell and taste fully improved to 100 of 100%. On the 77th day of illness, full recovery was confirmed in the Alinamin test (latency, 7 seconds; duration, 82 seconds). In this present case, an improvement in olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions was observed with negative results in RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Olfato , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease known with one of the symptoms is sudden onset anosmia. This symptom sometimes may be the only sign of the disease, therefore it must be research widely. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate odor dysfunction in COVID-19 patients objectively and safely without any risk of transmitting the disease. METHODS: The odor threshold test was performed on 105 patients hospitalized at the XXXX Training and Research Hospital on the COVID-19 pandemic service before any treatment began. Odor threshold was tested using a modification of the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center olfactory function test. COVID-19 signs and symptoms, PCR test results, thorax computed tomography (CT) findings, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Odor tests were scored between 0-8, 0-1 anosmia, 2-3 severely hyposmia, 4 moderate hyposmia, 5 mild hyposmia, 6 and above normosmia. RESULTS: Forty-one (39%) of the 105 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 after the PCR results. Patients with an odor threshold score < 5 were classified as "Smell-Impaired Group", patients with an odor threshold score ≥ 5 were placed in "Smell Intact Group". The incidence of female patients in smell-impaired group was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05). The proportion of patients who were PCR-positive for COVID-19 in smell-impaired group was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05) than in smell intact group. Among patients with an odor threshold score from 0 to 1 (anosmic; n = 15), 12 (80%) demonstrated PCR positivity (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Anosmia can be predictive for coronavirus disease. Odor threshold test can be helpful for diagnosis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 781-792, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142605

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, and it is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The classic symptoms of the disease have been well defined by the World Health Organization; however, olfactory/gustatory disorders have been reported in some studies, but there are still several missing points in the understanding and in the consensus about the clinical management of these cases. Objective: To identify evidence in the scientific literature about olfactory/gustatory disorders, their clinical presentation, prevalence and possible specific treatments associated with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to April 25, 2020 was performed in Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine and Reasearch Gate. Inclusion criteria: (1) Studies on patients with COVID-19; (2) Records of COVID-19 signs/symptoms, and olfactory/gustatory functions. Exclusion criteria: (1) Studies on non-human coronavirus; (2) Review articles; (3) Experimental studies (in animals or in vitro); (4) Olfactory/gustatory disorders initiated prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk assessment of bias of the selected studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: Six articles from the 1788 records met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 1457 patients of different ethnicities were assessed; of them, 885 (60.7%) and 822 (56.4%) had smell and taste disorders, respectively, with women being most often affected. There were olfactory/gustatory disorders even without nasal obstruction/rhinorrhea and beginning even before the signs/symptoms of COVID-19; the recovery of smell/taste, when it occurs, usually happened in the first two weeks after COVID-19 resolution. There is evidence that olfactory/gustatory disorders are strong predictors of infection by SARS-CoV-2, and it is possible to recommend patient isolation, as early as of the medical consultation, preventing the spread of the virus. No scientific evidence has been identified for effective treatments for any of the disorders. Conclusion: Olfactory/gustatory disorders may occur at varying intensities and prior to the general symptoms of COVID-19 and should be considered as part of the clinical features of COVID-19, even in mild cases. There is still no scientific evidence of specific treatments for such disorders in COVID-19 disease.


Resumo Introdução: O vírus SARS-CoV-2 causa a COVID-19 e é responsável pela maior pandemia desde o surto de influenza H1N1 de 1918. Os sintomas clássicos da doença já foram bem definidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde; entretanto, distúrbios olfativo-gustativos têm sido relatados em alguns estudos, mas ainda com várias lacunas no entendimento e no consenso sobre a condução clínica desses casos. Objetivo: Identificar evidências na literatura científica sobre os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos acerca da apresentação clínica, prevalência e possíveis tratamentos específicos associados à COVID-19. Método: Revisão sistemática de artigos publicados até 25 de abril de 2020 nas bases de dados: Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus e Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine e Research Gate. Foram critérios de inclusão: 1) Estudos com indivíduos com COVID-19; 2) Registro dos sinais/sintomas da COVID-19 e das funções olfativo-gustativa. Foram critérios de exclusão: 1) Estudos sobre coronavírus não humano; 2) Artigos de revisão; 3) Estudos experimentais (em animais ou in vitro); 4) Distúrbios olfativos-gustativos iniciados previamente à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. A avaliação de risco de viés dos estudos selecionados foi feita por meio da escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Seis artigos dos 1.788 registros foram selecionados. Um total de 1.457 pacientes de diversas etnias foi avaliado; desses, 885 (60,7%) apresentaram perda do olfato e 822 (56,4%) perda do paladar, sendo as mulheres as mais afetadas. Os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos estiveram presentes mesmo sem obstrução nasal/rinorreia e com início mesmo antes dos sinais/sintomas clínicos da COVID-19; a recuperação do olfato/paladar, quando ocorre, geralmente se dá nas duas primeiras semanas após a resolução da doença. Há evidências de que os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos sejam fortes preditores de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, podendo-se recomendar o isolamento do paciente, já a partir da consulta médica, para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Não foram identificadas evidências científicas para tratamentos eficazes para qualquer dos distúrbios. Conclusão: Podem ocorrer distúrbios olfativo-gustativos em intensidades variáveis e prévios aos sintomas gerais da COVID-19, devem ser considerados como parte dos sintomas da doença, mesmo em quadros leves. Não há ainda evidências científicas de tratamentos específicos para tais distúrbios na COVID-19.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Pandemias , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Olfato , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Betacoronavirus
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 82(Pt A): 166-172, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, the endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas has been widely adopted among neurosurgeons. However, olfactory disturbances have been observed after this procedure, and few studies on long-term (>6 mo) olfactory disturbance after endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery have been conducted. Although we perform minimally invasive endoscopic surgery, some patients continue to experience hyposmia, with some even experience long-term hyposmia. This impairment results in a considerable loss in quality of life. We present a series of patients who underwent minimally invasive single-nostril TSS for pituitary adenoma, including evaluation of their olfactory function. We further investigated the related risk factors for long-term olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred sixty-one consecutive patients who met the study criteria underwent the single-nostril endoscopic transsphenoidal approach by the senior author. The Smell Diskettes Olfaction Test was used to evaluate olfactory function. RESULTS: Postoperative olfactory disturbance in patients treated with endoscopic transnasal TSS is frequent. Of the study population, 67.1% of the patients were hyposmic or anosmic and 14.9% had long-term olfactory dysfunction. We also performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to compare the characteristics of patients with long-term olfactory dysfunction. Nasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 6.77) and smoking (OR, 14.77) were associated with long-term olfactory dysfunction after transnasal TSS. CONCLUSIONS: Significant disturbances in olfactory performance occur after single-nostril transnasal TSS for pituitary adenoma. Furthermore, preoperative nasal disease and smoking appear to be risk factors for long-term olfactory dysfunction. Physicians should address clinical findings related to olfactory function and provide appropriate care.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Qualidade de Vida , Olfato , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 942, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a therapeutic role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients are adults with self-reported new-onset olfactory dysfunction of any duration associated with laboratory-confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Exclusion criteria include patients with pre-existing olfactory dysfunction, history of chronic rhinosinusitis or history of sinus surgery, current use of nasal steroid sprays or omega-3 supplementation, fish allergy, or inability to provide informed consent for any reason. The trial is conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group will receive 2000 mg daily of omega-3 supplementation in the form of two "Fish Oil, Ultra Omega-3" capsules (product of Pharmavite®) daily. The comparator group will take 2 placebo capsules of identical size, shape, and odor daily for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Each subject will take a Brief Smell Identification Test at study enrolment and completion after 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be change in Brief Smell Identification Test over the 6-week period. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized by the Investigational Drug Pharmacy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Sinai via a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 allocation to treatment or control arms. BLINDING (MASKING): Both participants and researchers will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There will be 88 participants randomized to each group. A total of 176 participants will be randomized. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1, 8/3/2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started 8/5/2020 with estimated completion 11/30/2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with Protocol Identifier: NCT04495816 . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495816 . Registered 3 August 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193965

RESUMO

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Terapia Combinada , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
13.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 93-97, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140943

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that loss of smell is a serious symptom that requires careful differential diagnosis. There is convincing evidence that a violation of the sense of smell is not so much a sign of the pathology of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, but it can be a manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. Some patients with the identified SARS-CoV-2 virus have neurological symptoms. Most of them are not specific - headache, dizziness, fatigue, myalgia. A small percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection have convulsions, impaired consciousness, and the presence of 2019-NCoV RNA was found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Data on the development of new symptoms of the disease, in the form of anosmia and dysgeusia, are presented.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Olfato
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(12): 66-69, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247646

RESUMO

COVID-19 is certainly the greatest global health problem now and for the foreseeable future. Clinicians and scientists from all over the world have been producing evidence to understand the epidemiology, clinical profile and prognostic factors of COVID-19. In the last six months a large list of COVID-19 symptoms including loss of taste and smell have emerged which can be used for screening and risk stratification. Robust workup of this evidence will help to reach strong conclusions to advance clinical medicine, epidemiology, public health, immunology and evidence-based treatment options in the spectrum of disease that we now know as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 79: 275-276, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070912

RESUMO

Since the outbreak with novel corona virus in December 2019, a myriad of different neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 infection have been reported. We present a case of non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in the olfactory gyrus in a patient who tested positive for SARS-COV-2. The area of hemorrhage is not a common location for spontaneous hemorrhage. Given that loss of smell is considered a relatively common symptom of this pandemic, it is an intriguing association of COVID-19 and olfactory gyrus ICH for neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 for olfactory bulb and glia cells through nasal mucosa. Future studies will need to elucidate the exact mechanism of anosmia from COVID-19 and potential mechanisms leading to ICH.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Olfato
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22936, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120852

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a rare inherited genetic disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hyposmia/anosmia. Early diagnosis is the key to timely treatment and improvement of prognosis in patients with KS. As the most common complication of KS, renal agenesis can provide clues to early diagnosis and treatment for KS. In this article, we report a case of KS with 8 rare urinary disorders for the first time. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old Chinese man presented with 8 rare urinary disorders and a history of bilateral cryptorchidism came to us for micropenis, hyposmia, and delayed puberty. DIAGNOSIS: The patient presented with hyposmia, low levels of sex hormones and showed a weak response to the GnRH stimulation test leading to a diagnosis of KS. Two missense mutations were found in further whole-exome sequencing: 1) Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL1) gene in exon11, c.1600G > A, p. Val534Ile; 2) Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) gene in exon 2, c.533G > A, p. Trp178Ser. which led to a diagnosis of KS. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent replacement therapy of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). The patient had previously undergone six surgeries for cryptorchidism and urinary disorders. OUTCOMES: The patient's puberty retardation was effectively alleviated. His serum testosterone (T) reached a normal level (8.280 nmol/mL). During the follow-up period, he presented with Tanner stage II pubic hair development. CONCLUSION: In this article, we report 8 rare urinary disorders with missense mutations of KAL1 and PROKR2 in a case of KS. Among them, bilateral giant kidneys, urinary extravasation of right renal, bilateral megalo-ureters, left ureteral terminal obstruction, bilateral renal cyst and bladder emptying disorder are reported for the first time, which enrich the integrity of urinary disorder types and provide clues to genetic counseling in patients with KS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Kallmann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kallmann/genética , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia , Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico , Criptorquidismo/etiologia , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Éxons , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Síndrome de Kallmann/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pênis/anormalidades , Puberdade Tardia/diagnóstico , Puberdade Tardia/etiologia , Doenças Raras , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Chem Senses ; 45(7): 509-511, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034353

RESUMO

Soon after the outbreak of COVID-19, reports that smell and taste are disrupted by the illness drew the attention of chemosensory scientists and clinicians throughout the world. While other upper respiratory viruses are known to produce such disruptions, their occurrence with the deadly and highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus raised new questions about the nature of the deficits, their cause, and whether they might serve as indicators of the onset of the disease. Published in the July and August 2020 issues of Chemical Senses are 2 innovative, large-scale survey studies that were quickly devised and launched by separate multinational groups to address these questions in olfaction, taste, and chemesthesis. The surveys, which took different approaches and had somewhat different goals, add significant new data on the incidence and severity of smell loss in COVID-19, and the potential for olfactory dysfunction to serve as an indicator of the spread and severity of the disease. Less definitive evidence of the frequency, characteristics, and magnitude of disruptions in taste and chemesthesis point to the need for future survey studies that combine and refine the strengths of the present ones, as well as clinical studies designed to selectively measure deficits in all 3 chemosensory systems.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
20.
Neurologia ; 35(9): 633-638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly throughout the world. Smell and/or taste disorders have emerged as a very frequent symptom as the disease has spread in Europe. Spain is one of the European countries with the highest number of infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical progression of smell and taste disorders in Spanish patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients who presented sudden smell and/or taste disorders during the 2 months of total lockdown due to COVID-19 in Spain. RESULTS: In our sample, 91.18% of respondents with impaired smell and/or taste and who were able to undergo PCR testing were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anosmia and ageusia presented in isolation in 6.5% of participants. The remaining 93.5% presented other mild symptoms: headache (51.6%), cough (51.6%), myalgia (45.2%), asthaenia (38.7%), nasal congestion or rhinorrhoea (35.5%), fever (41.9%), low-grade fever (29.0%), odynophagia (25.8%), or diarrhoea (6.5%). The mean duration of anosmia was 8.33 days, with patients subsequently manifesting hyposmia; complete resolution occurred after a mean of 17.79 days. In 22.6% of respondents, olfactory deficits persisted. All participants recovered their sense of taste. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in mild COVID-19. Most patients do not present associated nasal congestion or rhinorrhoea and a small group of patients present these alterations in isolation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espanha , Avaliação de Sintomas
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