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1.
Rhinology ; 60(1): 56-62, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the brief version of Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (brief QOD). METHODS: A total of 372 patients participated in this study. Olfactory function was examined using the Sniffin' Sticks test. The brief version of QOD, including 4 items concerning parosmia (QOD-P), 7 items concerning quality of life (QOD-QOL), and 3 visual analog scales to rate disease burden, awareness of the disorder and issues related to professional life (QOD-VAS), was used to assess subjective information on olfactory dysfunction. We evaluated the split-half reliability, internal consistency and validity of the brief QOD. RESULTS: The split-half reliability was 0.60 (QOD-P), 0.87 (QOD-QOL), and 0.66 (QOD-VAS), respectively. The Cronbach's coefficient was 0.63 (QOD-P), 0.87 (QOD-QOL), and 0.71 (QOD-VAS), respectively. Olfactory function was found to be associated with QOD-P, QOD-QOL and QOD-VAS. CONCLUSIONS: The brief QOD is a suitable scale for the assessment of subjective severity of olfactory dysfunction for purposes such as treatment counseling, disability assessment, treatment control, and research in patients with olfactory disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Olfato , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20218, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642400

RESUMO

Post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction (PTOD) is associated with a significant decrease in quality of life. The present study aimed to explore whether PTOD is associated with depression and changes in sexuality. There were two groups in this case-control study. The patient group consisted of patients with PTOD (n = 55), and the control group comprised healthy individuals without the olfactory disorder (n = 115). Olfactory function, depression, partnership, and sexual satisfaction were assessed using the Iranian version of the Sniffin' Sticks test (Ir-SST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Enrich Couple Scale (ECS) and Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSSW). The BDI scores were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001). The SSSW score was lower in the patient group than in controls (p < 0.01), although the ECS score was not significantly different between patients and controls. Also, there was no significant difference in the severity of trauma between marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. However, the analysis showed a statistically significant difference in depression scores in connection with the head trauma severity. In the PTOD group, depression was increased and sexual satisfaction declined. Understanding the association of olfactory dysfunction with depression and sexuality allows patients and doctors to deal with less notable consequences of this disorder.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Orgasmo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 947-952, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To outline the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Five databases were searched for articles referring to the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The search was conducted for the period from November 2019 to April 2021. The search was conducted over one month (May 2021). RESULTS: Four studies that met the objective were included. Altogether, there were 1045 patients. Various questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Overall, the quality of life deficit affected 67.7 per cent of patients. Quality of life domains investigated include overall quality of life (four studies), food and taste dysfunction (two studies), mental health (two studies), cognitive function (one study), functional outcome (one study) and safety domains (one study). CONCLUSION: Quality of life deficit was reported to be 67.7 per cent among coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The high prevalence of persistent olfactory dysfunction prompts more serious research, as the long-standing consequences of olfactory dysfunction are detrimental.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia
4.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351415

RESUMO

Olfactory impairment is one of the more unique symptoms of COVID-19 infection and has therefore enjoyed increased public attention in recent months. Olfactory impairment has various implications and consequences ranging from difficulty detecting dangerous pathogens to hindering social functioning and social behaviors. We provide an overview of how olfactory impairment can impact 3 types of close social relationships: family relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. Evidence is divided into several categories representing potential mechanisms by which olfactory impairment can impact close social relationships: bonding disruptions, decreased social support, missed group-eating experiences, hygiene concerns, and altered sexual behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of emerging future research questions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 103001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between COVID-19 and chemosensory loss has garnered substantial attention, however to date little is known about the real-life consequences of impairment in this unique patient population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and personal safety deficits experienced by patients with COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal questionnaires. SETTING: National survey. METHODS: A longitudinal web-based nationwide survey of adults with COVID-19 and/or a sudden change in smell and taste was launched April 10, 2020. Previously published questions on chemosensory-related QOL and safety events were asked at the 6-month follow-up survey. RESULTS: As of February 10, 2021, 480 eligible respondents took the 6-month questionnaire, of whom 322 were COVID-19 positive. Impact on QOL was substantial with 96% of subjects reporting at least one of the defined deficits, and over 75% reporting at least 3 of these. "Reduced enjoyment of food" was the most common complaint (87%), while 43% of subjects self-reported depression. The prevalence of safety-related issues was common in this population, with over 57% reporting at least one, and 36% reporting 2 or more events. Of the events asked, the inability to smell smoke that others could perceive was the most common at 45%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 associated chemosensory losses have a real and substantial impact on both quality of life and safety, beyond mere inconvenience. The high prevalence of these issues despite a relatively short period of olfactory deficit should alert clinicians to the serious risks to an already vulnerable patient population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Paladar/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Paladar/psicologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 193-200, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The senses of taste and smell are essential determinants of food choice, which in turn may contribute to the development of chronic diseases, including diabetes. Although past studies have evaluated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and senses disorders, this relationship remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated taste and smell perception in DM2 patients and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, we analyzed the association of chemosensory impairments with anthropometric and clinical outcomes (e.g. Body Mass Index (BMI), Fasting blood glucose (FBG), drugs, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and hypertension) in DM2 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 94 DM2 patients and 244 HC. Taste recognition for 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), quinine, citric acid, sucrose, and sodium chloride (NaCl) compounds was assessed using a filter paper method, while smell recognition of 12 odorants was performed using a Sniffin' sticks test. We found that a higher percentage of DM2 patients showed identification impairment in salt taste (22% vs. 5%, p-value<0.0009) and smell recognition (55% vs. 27%, p-value = 0.03) compared to HC. We also observed that 65% of hypertensive DM2 subjects presented smell identification impairment compared to 18% of non-hypertensive patients (p-value = 0.019). Finally, patients with impairments in both taste and smell showed elevated FBG compared to patients without impairment (149.6 vs.124.3 mg/dL, p-value = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of taste and smell identification impairments was higher in DM2 patients compared to HC, and a possible relationship with glycemic levels emerged.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Percepção Olfatória , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Percepção Gustatória , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Olfato , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/psicologia
7.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 1221-1228, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321058

RESUMO

CONTEXT: White tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O.Ktze. (Theaceae)] is popular in Asia, but its benefits on olfactory injury are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The present study explores the effects of white tea on the olfactory injury caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice (WT) were exposed to CUMS. CUMS mice (CU) were intranasally treated with white tea extract [low tea (LT), 20 mg/kg; high tea (HT), 40 mg/kg] and fluoxetine (CF, 20 mg/kg) for 7 days. Several behavioural tests were conducted to assess depression and olfactory function. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR were performed separately to observe the changes of related structures and genes transcription level. RESULTS: The depressive behaviours of the LT and HT mice were reversed. The latency time of the buried food pellet test decreased from 280 s (CU) to 130 s (HT), while the olfactory sensitivity and olfactory avoidance test showed that the olfactory behaviours disorder of LT and HT mice were alleviated. The white tea increased the A490 nm values of the cortisol treated cells from 0.15 to 1.4. Reduced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in the olfactory bulb (OB), enhanced expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and olfactory marker protein (OMP) were observed in the LT and HT mice. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: White tea has the potential in curing the olfactory deficiency related to chronic stress. It lays the foundation for the development of new and reliable drug to improve olfactory.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Chá/química , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18019, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093474

RESUMO

Qualitative olfactory dysfunction is characterized as distorted odor perception and can have a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals. Parosmia and phantosmia represent the two main subgroups of qualitative impairment and are currently diagnosed based on patient history only. We have developed a test method which measures qualitative olfactory function based on the odors of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification subtest. The newly developed test is called Sniffin' Sticks Parosmia Test (SSParoT). SSParoT uses hedonic estimates of two oppositely valenced odors (pleasant and unpleasant) to assess hedonic range (HR) and hedonic direction (HD), which represent qualitative olfactory perception. HR is defined as the perceivable hedonic distance between two oppositely valenced odors, while HD serves as an indicator for overall hedonic perception of odors. This multicenter study enrolled a total of 162 normosmic subjects in four consecutive experiments. Cluster analysis was used to group odors from the 16-item Sniffin' Sticks Identification test and 24-additional odors into clusters with distinct hedonic properties. Eleven odor pairs were found to be suitable for estimation of HR and HD. Analysis showed agreement between test-retest sessions for all odor pairs. SSparoT might emerge as a valuable tool to assess qualitative olfactory function in health and disease.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Odorantes/análise , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Limiar Sensorial , Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transl Neurodegener ; 9(1): 30, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia can be predicted by clinical features and a combination of biomarkers may increase the predictive power. In the present study, we investigated whether the combination of olfactory function and plasma neuronal-derived exosome (NDE) Aß1-42 can best predict progression to AD dementia. METHODS: 87 MCI patients were enrolled and received the cognitive assessment at 2-year and 3-year follow-up to reevaluate cognition. In the meanwhile, 80 healthy controls and 88 AD dementia patients were enrolled at baseline as well to evaluate the diagnose value in cross-section. Olfactory function was evaluated with the sniffin sticks (SS-16) and Aß1-42 levels in NDEs were determined by ELISA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the risk factors for cognitive decline in MCI at 2-year and 3-year revisits. RESULTS: In the cross cohort, lower SS-16 scores and higher Aß1-42 levels in NDEs were found in MCI and AD dementia compared to healthy controls. For the longitudinal set, 8 MCI individuals developed AD dementia within 2 years, and 16 MCI individuals developed AD dementia within 3 years. The two parameter-combination of SS-16 scores and Aß1-42 level in NDEs showed better prediction in the conversion of MCI to AD dementia at 2-year and 3-year revisit. Moreover, after a 3-year follow-up, SS-16 scores also significantly predicted the conversion to AD dementia, where lower scores were associated with a 10-fold increased risk of developing AD dementia (p = 0.006). Similarly, higher Aß1-42 levels in NDEs in patients with MCI increased the risk of developing AD dementia by 8.5-fold (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: A combination of two biomarkers of NDEs (Aß1-42) and SS-16 predicted the conversion of MCI to AD dementia more accurately in combination. These findings have critical implications for understanding the pathophysiology of AD dementia and for developing preventative treatments for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/sangue , Transtornos do Olfato/sangue , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
11.
Laryngoscope ; 130(11): 2520-2525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the burden of depressed mood and anxiety in COVID-19, and associated disease characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of 114 COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed using RT-PCR-based testing over a 6-week period. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-2) were used to measure depressed mood and anxiety level, respectively, at enrollment and for participants' baseline, pre-COVID-19 state. Severity of smell loss, loss of taste, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea/mucus production, fever, cough, and shortness of breath (SOB) during COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: PHQ-2 and GAD-2 significantly (P < .001) increased from baseline to enrollment. PHQ-2 was associated with smell loss (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.40, 95% CI, 1.10-1.78, P = .006), age (aIRR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, P = .006), and baseline PHQ-2 score (aIRR = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.09-1.76, P = .007). GAD-2 score was associated with smell loss (aIRR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.02-1.62, P = .035), age (aIRR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, P = .025) and baseline GAD-2 score (aIRR = 1.55, 95% CI, 1.24-1.93, P < .001). Loss of taste also exhibited similar associations with PHQ-2 and GAD-2. PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores were not associated with severities of any other symptoms during the COVID-19 course. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the occurrence of symptoms-such as SOB-associated with severe manifestations of COVID-19, only the severities of smell and taste loss were associated with depressed mood and anxiety. These results may raise the novel possibility of emotional disturbance as a CNS manifestation of COVID-19 given trans-olfactory tract penetration of the central nervous system (CNS) by coronaviruses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 130:2520-2525, 2020.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Depressão/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Paladar/psicologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
12.
Laryngoscope ; 130(9): 2213-2219, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-ratings seem to be the most effortless strategy for assessment of patients' chemical senses. Notably, although flavor perception strongly relies on olfaction, the relationship between self-reported flavor perception and orthonasal olfactory tests have hitherto not been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-perceived olfactory function (SO), taste (ST), and flavor perception (SF) and smell test results in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD). METHODS: We included 203 patients with quantitative OD. Group comparison, bivariate correlation, and ordinal logistic regression were employed to quantify the relationships between predictor variables (age, gender, reason for OD, and orthonasal olfaction-summed scores of threshold, discrimination, and identification [TDI]) and outcomes of SO and SF ("impaired," "average," or "good"). RESULTS: Group comparison revealed significant differences between SO and SF (P < .001). Stronger correlations were found between SO and TDI (r = 0.64), compared to SF and TDI (r = 0.27). No relevant correlation was found between ST and TDI (r = 0.10). Higher TDI was associated with odds of higher SO in univariate (odds ratio = 1.25) and multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio = 1.23), and both models showed good fit of data. Conversely, regression models on the associations between TDI and changes in SF did not meet the assumption of goodness of fit. CONCLUSION: We found that higher orthonasal olfactory performance was associated with odds of higher SO in patients with OD, even after controlling for olfactory-relevant factors. To the contrary, similar models based on flavor perception failed to describe these relationships. This indicates for SF and ST to be less represented by the TDI compared to SO. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:2213-2219, 2020.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Cavidade Nasal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S99-S106, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405083

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a multi-organ disease due to an infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus. It has become a pandemic in early 2020. The disease appears less devastating in children and adolescents. However, stress, quarantine and eventually mourning have major impacts on development. It is difficult to describe what this pandemic implies for a child psychiatrist, other than by giving a first-hand account. I propose to go through the main ethical questions that have arisen; to describe how my hospital team has reorganized itself to meet the new demands and questions, in particular by opening a unit dedicated to people with autism and challenging behaviors affected by COVID-19; and to address, in a context of national discussion, how the discipline has sought to understand the conditions of a certain well-being during quarantine. Finally, I will try to conclude with more speculative reflections on re-opening.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Psiquiatria Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente/ética , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , COVID-19 , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Psiquiatria Infantil/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/psicologia , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Exposição Ambiental , França , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Reestruturação Hospitalar , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/ética , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Ludoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prática Profissional/ética , Equipamentos de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
15.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(5): R901-R916, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160005

RESUMO

When offered glucose and fructose solutions, rodents consume more glucose solution because it produces stronger postoral reinforcement. Intake of these sugars also conditions a higher avidity for glucose relative to fructose. We asked which chemosensory cue mediates the learned avidity for glucose. We subjected mice to 18 days of sugar training, offering them 0.3, 0.6, and 1 M glucose and fructose solutions. Before and after training, we measured avidity for 0.3 and 0.6 M glucose and fructose in brief-access lick tests. First, we replicated prior work in C57BL/6 mice. Before training, the mice licked at a slightly higher rate for 0.6 M fructose; after training, they licked at a higher rate for 0.6 M glucose. Second, we assessed the necessity of the glucose-specific ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) taste pathway for the learned avidity for glucose, using mice with a nonfunctional KATP channel [regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) knockout (KO) mice]. Before training, SUR1 KO and wild-type mice licked at similar rates for 0.6 M glucose and fructose; after training, both strains licked at a higher rate for 0.6 M glucose, indicating that the KATP pathway is not necessary for the learned discrimination. Third, we investigated the necessity of olfaction by comparing sham-treated and anosmic mice. The mice were made anosmic by olfactory bulbectomy or ZnSO4 treatment. Before training, sham-treated and anosmic mice licked at similar rates for 0.6 M glucose and fructose; after training, sham-treated mice licked at a higher rate for 0.6 M glucose, whereas anosmic mice licked at similar rates for both sugars. This demonstrates that olfaction contributes significantly to the learned avidity for glucose.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Discriminação Psicológica , Preferências Alimentares , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Percepção Olfatória , Olfato , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transtornos do Olfato/genética , Transtornos do Olfato/metabolismo , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Receptores de Sulfonilureias/genética , Receptores de Sulfonilureias/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086921

RESUMO

Objective:The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of dysosmia in patients with and without nasal polyps, and the impact of dysosmia on the quality of life and mental health in patients with Sinusitis. Method:A total of 105 randomly selected patients with Sinusitis were divided into two groups based on the results of the Sniffin's Sticks olfactory examination: The dysosmia group and the non dysosmia group, the quality of life (Qol) of olfaction quality of life scale and SCL-90 symptom checklist-90(SCL-90) were scored respectively. Result:The incidence of olfactory disorders in chronic sinusitis patients with nasal polyps was significantly higher than those without nasal polyps(χ²=37.133, P<0.001). The quality of life score of the olfactory disturbance scale the quality of life score of the olfactory disturbance group(26.5±5.9) was significantly higher than that of the non olfactory disturbance group(11.76±3.58)(t=14.30, P<0.0001). Life quality score(30.2±4.9) of female patients with olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher than that of male patients(22.3±4.0)(P<0.001), The score of SCL-90 of chronic sinusitis patients with olfactory dysfunction(n=64) is 6.6(6.0-8.0), while the score of SCL-90 of chronic sinusitis patients without olfactory dysfunction(n=41) is 7.0(6.2-7.6), and there was no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). Conclusion:The risk of dysosmia in patients with Sinusitis polyps was significantly higher than that in patients without nasal polyps, and the quality of life in patients with Sinusitis was significantly lower than that in patients without sinusitis, women also had a greater impact on their quality of life than men, and Sinusitis patients with dysosmia had no significant impact on their mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Pólipos Nasais/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sinusite/psicologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 25(2): 126-138, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856651

RESUMO

Introduction: Evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients have olfactory dysfunctions, but the relationship between olfactory identification, hedonic judgement, and negative symptomatology remains unclear. Few studies have investigated whether co-activation of pleasant and unpleasant emotions are more prevalent in schizophrenia patients.Methods: Thirty schizophrenia outpatients with prominent negative symptoms (PNS), 30 outpatients without PNS, and 30 controls completed the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, and were asked to identify the odourants and to rate their emotions. The effects of gender and medications on olfactory function were examined.Results: Schizophrenia patients exhibited olfactory identification impairments, even after accounting for gender and medication effects. Patients with PNS demonstrated larger magnitude of deficit than those without. Patients with PNS reported less pleasure to positive-valenced odourants, and less unpleasantness to negative-valenced odourants than controls. Olfactory anhedonia in patients with PNS disappeared after controlling for medication effect. Schizophrenia patients do not exhibit affective ambivalence in olfaction.Conclusions: Schizophrenia patients with PNS exhibit deficits in olfactory identification and hedonic judgement, even after controlling for gender and medication effects. Our findings support the close relationship between olfactory dysfunctions and negative symptoms. Further studies should investigate the effect of dopamine-blocking agents on the olfactory hedonic judgment in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Olfato/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent data have shown that olfactory dysfunction is strongly related to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) that is often preceded by olfactory deficits suggesting that olfactory dysfunction might represent an early indicator of future cognitive in prediabetes. METHODS: We have applied to a group of normal (n=15), prediabetic (n=16) and type 2 diabetic outpatients (n=15) olfactory testing, 1.5-T MRI scanner and detailed cognitive evaluation including the standard Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) form, Short Blessed Test (SBT), Letter Fluency Test (LFT) and the category fluency test with animal, Fruit and Vegetable Naming (CFT). RESULTS: We have shown that Odour Threshold (OT), Discrimination (OD), and Identification (OI) scores and most cognitive test results were significantly different in the prediabetes and diabetes group compared to those in the control group. OD and OT were significantly different between the prediabetes and diabetes group, although the cognitive test results were only significantly different in the prediabetes and diabetes group compared to those in the control group. In evaluating the association between OI, OT, OD scores and specific cognitive tests, we have found, that impaired olfactory identification was the only parameter that correlated significantly with the SBT both in the pre-diabetes and diabetes group. Although spot glucose values were only correlated with OT, HbA1c levels were correlated with OT, OD, and OI, as well as results of the letter fluency test suggesting that HbA1c levels rather than the spot glucose values play a critical role in specific cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to demonstrate a strong association between olfactory dysfunction and specific memory impairment in a population with prediabetes and diabetes suggesting that impaired olfactory identification might play an important role as a specific predictor of memory decline.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/sangue , Transtornos do Olfato/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cognição/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Olfato/fisiologia
19.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 164: 229-246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604550

RESUMO

The senses of smell and taste are largely underappreciated by laypersons and medical professionals alike. Unlike vision, hearing, balance, and touch, they are rarely evaluated quantitatively in the clinic, even though hundreds of thousands of persons seek medical help annually for disorders of these senses. Chemosensory disorders impact quality of life, including the flavor of foods and beverages, and compromise the ability to detect such environmental hazards as fires, leaking natural gas, and spoiled foodstuffs. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction can be a harbinger for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, and is known to triple the likelihood of mortality in older persons over the course of 4 or 5 years. Without accurate testing, one cannot establish the veracity of a patient's complaint, the probability of malingering, the impact of treatments, and whether the degree of dysfunction is normal relative to a patient's age and sex. This chapter provides basic information as to how to measure both the senses of smell and taste, as well as normative data for several clinical smell and taste tests.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/psicologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia
20.
Rhinology ; 57(5): 375-384, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop a new psychophysical test to assess intranasal trigeminal chemosensory function. METHODOLOGY: The test is similar to the Sniffin’ Sticks test, but using pens impregnated with substances preferentially activating trigeminal afferents. Our test comprises detection threshold, discrimination, identification and lateralization tasks. In a first study, we evaluated healthy controls. In a second study, we evaluated the potential usefulness of this test in patients with rhinological conditions. RESULTS: Study 1: 86 controls were included. Threshold, identification and lateralization performance decreased with age. Test-retest reliability was similar to that of olfactory tests. Study 2: results of the controls group were compared to those of 59 patients (14 allergic rhinitis, 11 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), 9 without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and 25 with an olfactory disorder (OD)). Controls had 1) lower detection thresholds compared to CRSwNP, CRSsNP and OD, 2) better discrimination and identification scores compared to OD, and 3) better lateralization scores compared to CRSwNP and CRSsNP. CONCLUSIONS: Our test allows to identify age-related changes in trigeminal chemosensory function. Trigeminal function seems to be differently affected in different pathologies. Further studies are necessary to validate our results and evaluate the impact of olfactory co-activation on the observed results.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Transtornos do Olfato , Rinite , Sinusite , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/complicações , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Olfato
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