Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 277
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 199: 111621, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610434

RESUMO

In the current study, the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using the leaf extract of Cyanometra ramiflora and zinc acetate precursor is presented. The phyto-components of the extract aided the reduction and the formation of nanoparticles. The purified ZnONPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDS, XRD, BET, and FTIR techniques. A sharp absorption maximum at 360 nm in the UV-Vis data affirmed the formation of ZnONPs. SEM image revealed the nanoflower morphology and EDS showed strong signals for zinc and oxygen elements. XRD spectrum confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of size 13.33 nm. A significant large surface area of 16.27 m2/g with mesopores, was affirmed using BET analysis. FTIR substantiated the existence of the characteristic zinc and oxygen bonding vibrations at 557 cm-1, 511 cm-1 and 433 cm-1. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnONPs was examined using the pollutant dye, Rhodamine B. A remarkable degradation efficiency of 98% within 200 min was achieved under sunlight irradiation and a degradation constant of 0.017 min-1 was obtained. Therefore, ZnONPs synthesized using a cheap and abundant source - the leaf extract of C.ramiflora possibly will play a promising part in the degradation of toxic dyes present in the wastewater.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Rodaminas/química , Traqueófitas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise , Química Verde/métodos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluição Química da Água
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 279, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in hospital and community settings often result into treatment failure, thus leading the clinicians with fewer treatment options. Cyathea gigantea, an ethnomedicinally important fern used in cuts and wound infections. So, if this medicinal plant is used in treating the MDR infections then it might bring certain relief in future treatment options. METHODS: Antibacterial activity of C. gigantea against MDR bacteria was assed using well diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameters of growth inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Synergistic activity was also determined with the conventional antibiotics by disc diffusion method followed by FIC index of each of the tested antibiotic was calculated. The active extract was then subjected to fractionation by column chromatography and antibacterial activity was done with each of the collected fractions. RESULTS: Crude extract of C. gigantea was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The MIC was 200 µg/ml against Gram-positive i.e., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and 400 µg/ml against Gram-negative i.e., Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, while the MBC was 400 µg/ml in case of Gram-positive and 800 µg/ml for Gram-negative. The synergistic activity revealed that the plant extract increased the antibacterial property of the studied antibiotics and the FIC index showed that significant synergistic activity was shown by ciprofloxacin followed by tetracycline, ampicillin and oxacillin. Antibacterial activity with the fractionated extract showed that the FR II, FR III and FR IV were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas FR I, FR V and FR VI did not show antibacterial property against any of the tested bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of C. gigantea was found active against both selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and thus offers the scientific basis for the traditional use of the fern. The present study also provides the basis for future study to validate the possible use against multidrug resistant organisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traqueófitas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
3.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623197

RESUMO

The lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid chlojaponilactone B (1), isolated from Chloranthus japonicus, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of 1. RNA-seq analyses revealed the significant changes in the expression levels of genes related to multiple inflammatory pathways upon treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages with 1. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to confirm the modulations in the expression of essential molecules related to inflammatory responses. Compound 1 inhibited toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) activation upon LPS stimulation, influencing the expression of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory mediators. Molecular docking studies showed that 1 bound to TLR4 in a manner similar to that of TAK-242, a TLR4 inhibitor. Moreover, our results showed that 1 suppressed inflammatory responses by inhibiting TLR4 and subsequently decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, downregulating the NF-κB, thus reducing the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines iNOS, NO, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-α; these effects were similar to those of TAK-242. We proposed that 1 should be considered as a potential anti-inflammatory compound in future research.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/química , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(10): 996-1003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389311

RESUMO

Abstract:Throughout the last decade, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing a percutaneous catheter ablation and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator technique for patients suffering from ventricular arrhythmia. Antiarrhythmic drug efficacy for preventing arrhythmias remains disappointing because of adverse cardiovascular effects. Allocryptopine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely present in medicinal herbs. Studies have indicated that allocryptopine exhibits potential anti-arrhythmic actions in various animal models. The potential therapeutic benefit of allocryptopine in arrhythmia diseases is addressed in this study, focusing on multiple ion channel targets and reduced repolarization dispersion. The limitations of allocryptopine research are clear given a lack of parameters regarding toxicology and pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy in patients with ventricular arrhythmias. Much remains to be revealed about the properties of allocryptopine.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides de Berberina , Plantas Medicinais/química , Traqueófitas/química , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/química , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides de Berberina/química , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30463-30471, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444721

RESUMO

The remotion of hexavalent chromium in the form of chromate in aqueous solution was done using the aquatic plant Salvinia sp as biosorbent. The chemical modification of the Salvinia surface was performed by organosolv adapted method. The untreated Salvinia and the modified were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, Boehm titration, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive system, point of zero charge, surface area analysis, and porosity. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to observe the effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration, and temperature on the metal removal process. The characterization results show the chemistry modifically changed the modified Salvinia structure compared with untreated Salvinia. The adsorption test results showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 26.03 mg g-1. The kinetic equilibrium was reached in about 3 h, and the better temperature and pH were 298 K and 7, respectively. The adsorption and kinetic models were Freundlich and pseud-second order, respectively. This study showed the Salvinia sp after the chemical treatment can be used with biosorbent for hexavalent chromate in the form of chromate, being a natural material with low cost and plentiful in the environment.


Assuntos
Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Traqueófitas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Brasil , Cromo/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Soluções , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Temperatura Ambiente , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405094

RESUMO

The Yi River, the second longest river in Shandong Province, China, flows through Linyi City and is fed by three tributary rivers, Beng River, Liuqing River, and Su River in the northeastern part of the city. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in water, sediment, and aquatic macrophyte samples collected from the junction of the four rivers and evaluated the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals in water were in low concentrations with the water quality index (WQI) below 1, suggesting low metal pollution. The sediments showed low heavy metal concentrations, suggesting a low ecological risk based on the potential ecological risk index (RI) and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The aquatic plant species Potamogeton crispus accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals, which were closely related to the metal concentrations of the sediment. The plant species Salvinia natans also showed an excellent metal accumulation capability. Based on our results, the junction of the four rivers is only slightly polluted in terms of heavy metals, and the plant species P. crispus is a suitable bioindicator for sediment heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Rios , Traqueófitas/química , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247918

RESUMO

Bone metabolism is a homeostatic process, imbalance in which leads to the onset of diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopenia. Although several drugs are currently available to treat such conditions, they are associated with severe side effects and do not enhance bone formation. Thus, identifying alternative treatment strategies that focus on enhancing bone formation is essential. Herein, we explored the osteogenic potential of Turpinia formosana Nakai using human osteoblast (HOb) cells. The plant extract was subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain six compounds, including one new compound: 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (1). Compounds 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (1), gentisic acid 5-O-ß-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucopyranoside (2), strictinin (3), and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-ß-d-allopyranoside (6) displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward HOb cells, and thus their effects on various osteogenic markers were analyzed. Results showed that 1-3 and 6 significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity up to 120.0, 121.3, 116.4, and 125.1%, respectively. Furthermore, 1, 2, and 6 also markedly enhanced the mineralization process with respective values of up to 136.4, 118.9, and 134.6%. In addition, the new compound, 1, significantly increased expression levels of estrogen receptor-α (133.4%) and osteogenesis-related genes of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteopontin (OPN), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (Col-1), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) by at least 1.5-fold. Our results demonstrated that compounds isolated from T. formosana possess robust osteogenic potential, with the new compound, 1, also exhibiting the potential to enhance the bone formation process. We suggest that T. formosana and its isolated active compounds deserve further evaluation for development as anti-osteoporotic agents.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traqueófitas/química , Biomarcadores , Expressão Gênica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(1): 198-204, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115578

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of striatisporolide A (SA) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the underlying mechanism. Antibacterial activity was evaluated according to the inhibitory rate and zone of inhibition. The antibacterial mechanism was investigated by analyzing alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and ATP leakage, protein expression, cell morphology and intracellular alterations in E. coli. The results demonstrated that SA exerted bacteriostatic effects on E. coli in vitro. AKP activity and ATP leakage analysis revealed that SA damaged the cell wall and cell membrane of E. coli. SDS­PAGE analysis indicated that SA notably altered the level of 10 and 35 kDa proteins. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed marked alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of E. coli following treatment with SA. The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effects of SA against E. coli may be attributed to its actions of disrupting the cell membrane and cell wall and regulation of protein level. The findings of the present study provide novel insight into the antimicrobial activity of SA as a potential natural antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueófitas/química , 4-Butirolactona/química , 4-Butirolactona/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030052

RESUMO

Data pre-processing is an important strategy in chemometrics and related fields because in many cases the transformation of data has a great effect on the performance of the method (model). However, a careful examination of the literature clearly points out that only very few systematic studies are dedicated to the effect of the derivative spectra on the performance of the pattern recognition methods. This comprehensive study compares the impact of the order of derivative spectra and other data pre-processing procedures (normalization and standardization) on the performance of cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis applied for characterization and classification of medicinal plants according to their phylum using UV spectra. The efficiency of the pre-processing methods was estimated by comparing the accuracy of classification and prediction measured by internal cross-validation. Derivatization method (1st order) resulted in the best classification (100%) of medicinal plants according to their phylum (Pteridophyte, Magnoliophyte and Spermatophyte) as compared to other pre-processing methods (normalized spectra-71.4%, standardized spectra-76.2% and original spectra-78.6%).


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Traqueófitas/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Traqueófitas/classificação
10.
J Helminthol ; 94: e50, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973122

RESUMO

New therapeutic approaches are necessary to control strongyloidiasis due to the side effects of, and resistance to, currently available drugs thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This study examined the anthelmintic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from Siparuna guianensis against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae, using the egg hatching test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT). Albendazole (0.025 mg/ml) and ivermectin (0.316 mg/ml) were used as the positive controls for the EHT and LMT assays, respectively. Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs or larvae (±50 specimens) were treated with ethanol extract (0.05-1.0 mg/ml), ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (0.05-0.8 mg/ml), essential oil (0.2-1.0 mg/ml) and α-bisabolol (0.2-1.0 mg/ml) from S. guianensis, and analysed by optical microscopy after 48 h (EHT), or after 24, 48 and 72 h (LMT). All the tested compounds exhibited ovicidal activity equivalent to the positive control and changed the morphology of the eggs. The S. guianensis ethanol extract and aqueous fraction were as effective as the positive control. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract and fractions revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids. Therefore, S. guianensis is effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, and can be considered as a potential alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Strongyloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueófitas/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , /farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Fitoterapia ; 136: 104147, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022439

RESUMO

One new flavanonol, demethylmatteucinol (1), and nine new flavanone glucoside derivatives, matteflavosides H-J (2-4) and matteuinterates A-F (5-10), were isolated from the rhizomes of Matteuccia intermedia C.Chr., along with 21 known flavanones (11-31). Notably, all of them contain C-methylation in the A-ring. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. The α-glycosidase inhibition assay indicated that compounds 12-17 showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 12.4-69.7 µM, which suggested their hypoglycemic effect.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Rizoma/química , Traqueófitas/química , China , Glucosídeos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Metilação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
12.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 20-33, ene. abr. 2019. ilus., graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048986

RESUMO

Published evidence reports the existence of two routes for the transformation of 7-dehydrocholecalciferol into previtamin D3: a photochemical route with the participation of UVB photons and another route that occurs in the darkness. Several reports appears to support the presence of these two routes in some mammals, birds, nonvascular plants (e.g.: mosses), vascular plants (e.g.: angiosperms) and lichens. The reviewed evidence suggests that in the darkness, the synthesis of vitamin D3 follows the same scheme of the photochemical pathway, but at a reduced rate respect to the synthesis under UVB radiation. The process of vitamin D synthesis in the dark, then, may be taken as an insurance for survival, at least for mammals and birds. The low rate of the synthesis of vitamin D3 in the absence of light produce low concentrations of vitamin D3 metabolites in plasma. Long term survival under these circumstances might be possible through upregulation of vitamin D receptors (VDRs). In mole rats (South African rodents that live in the dark in underground tunnels), the reduced rate of vitamin D3 synthesis produce low levels of plasma vitamin D3 and their metabolites 25(OH) D3 and 1α,25OH2 D3 . The fact that Kd and ßmax of the complex 1α,25(OH)2 D3 -VDR from the intestinal mucosa, kidneys and the Harderian glands of the mole rat Heterocephalus glaber are significantly different in each one of these tissues, is interpreted as an indicator that the VDRs are, in each tissue, adapted to the maintenance of normal physiological functions. (AU)


Varios trabajos publicados han informado que existen dos mecanismos para la transformación de 7-dehidrocolecalciferol en previtamina D3 : uno iniciado con el auxilio de fotones UVB y un segundo que ocurre en la oscuridad, sin el auxilio de radiación ultravioleta. Una serie de publicaciones contienen información que apoya la presencia de estos dos mecanismos en mamíferos, pájaros, plantas no vasculares (musgos), vasculares (angiospermas) y líquenes. La evidencia revisada sugiere que, en la oscuridad, la síntesis de vitamina D3 sigue el mismo esquema que la ruta fotoquímica y generalmente ocurre a una tasa reducida respecto de la síntesis bajo irradiación ultravioleta. La operación de la síntesis de vitamina D3 en la oscuridad, por lo menos para mamíferos y pájaros, puede tomarse como un reaseguro de sobrevida. La reducida tasa de síntesis de vitamina D en ausencia de luz produce bajas concentraciones en plasma de los metabolitos de la vitamina. La sobrevida saludable en estas condiciones sería posible mediante upregulation de los receptores. En las ratas topo Heterocephalus glaber (roedores sudafricanos que viven en permanente oscuridad, en túneles subterráneos), la reducida tasa de síntesis de vitamina D3 es la causa de los bajos niveles plasmáticos de la vitamina y sus metabolitos: 25(OH)D3 y 1α,25OH2 D3 . El hecho de que el Kd y ßmax del complejo 1α,25(OH)2 D3 -Vitamina-D-Receptor del intestino, riñón y glándulas de Harder de Heterocephalus glaber sean significativamente diferentes entre sí indicaría que los receptores se han modificado para mantener funciones fisiológicas normales en cada tejido. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vitamina D/síntese química , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/biossíntese , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Escuridão , Briófitas/química , Traqueófitas/química , Líquens/química , Mamíferos/fisiologia
13.
Magn Reson Chem ; 57(9): 626-637, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868626

RESUMO

Consumption of fresh-cut vegetables has rapidly increased over the past decades. Among salads, escarole is one of the most popular varieties. Specific packaging limits gas exchange and consequently water loss and bacterial respiration, increasing the shelf life of salads. Although the major cause of quality loss for minimally processed salads is the leaf textural changes, this aspect has rarely been investigated. Therefore, investigating structural changes of leaves during storage is important in order to understand and minimize quality loss of salads. In this study, we focused on the impact of storage duration and temperature on the escarole leaf structure. The complex leaf structure was investigated by relaxation NMR, via transverse relaxation times, which allows the specific description of vacuolar water compartment of the cell. The storage duration (maximum 12 days) and temperatures (4°C, 7°C, 10°C, and 12°C) have been chosen in order to represent the conditions registered in factory. The results showed that the temperature did not have significant impact on the salad structure during the first week. During the second week, changes in the water distribution and changes in the relaxation time T2 have been observed. The changes in transverse relaxation times associated with vacuolar water are related to lost of cell membrane and wall integrity. The NMR results confirmed the effect of storage temperature on the degradation process of the cell before visual detection of the salad leaf degradation. The present study confirmed the sensibility of NMR relaxometry for monitoring water changes in the leaf.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Verduras/química , Água/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alface/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueófitas/química
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(15): 14920-14929, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911970

RESUMO

In 2008, the Mulberry River, a National Wild and Scenic River, was listed as impaired due to low pH (below pH 6.0). Over the last 50 years, the volume of conifers in the Ozark region has increased 115% since 1978 which may result in the acidification of nearby aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine if differences exist in soil and litter chemical properties between deciduous and coniferous tree stands. Aboveground litter (n = 200) and soil (n = 400) at 0- to 5- and 5- to 15-cm depths were collected at paired deciduous and coniferous stands at 10 locations within the Mulberry River watershed and analyzed for a suite of chemical parameters. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in several measures of soil acidity between deciduous and coniferous stands. Litter collected from the coniferous stands was more acidic than deciduous litter (4.4 vs 4.7; P < 0.05). Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca and Mg, and water-soluble P and Mg contents differed (P < 0.05) by stand and depth. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable Ca and Mg were greatest in the 0- to 5-cm depth interval of the coniferous stands. Water-soluble P and Mg contents were greatest within the 0- to 5-cm depth interval which did not differ (P > 0.05) between stand but were greater than the 5- to 15-cm depth interval. Although limited to the top 15-cm of soil, the similarity in soil acidity between stands suggests that conifer growth may not be a substantial source of acidity to the Mulberry River.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Traqueófitas , Arkansas , Cálcio/análise , Cátions/análise , Ecossistema , Magnésio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Traqueófitas/química , Árvores
15.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836721

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium are frequently present among poultry and are associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis. The study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from Aloysia triphylla, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, Mentha piperita, Syzygium aromaticum against S. Enteritidis and S. Thyphimurium strains previously isolated from poultry. A 1:1 mixture of C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum was also tested. The activity of all compounds was evaluated against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly used as probiotic. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for C. zeylanicum (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 1.26 mg/mL to 0.63 mg/mL), S. aromaticum (MICs from 2.637 mg/mL to 0.164 mg/mL) and the mixture (MICs from 1.289 mg/mL to 0.322 mg/mL). No activity was recorded against S. cerevisiae. The results suggest a possible use of C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum, alone or in combination, in the farm environment for disinfection and in poultry diet, combined with S. cerevisiae administration, for an integrated approach to avoid Salmonella intestinal colonization.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Cymbopogon/química , Quimioterapia Combinada , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorogrupo , Syzygium/química , Traqueófitas/química
16.
J AOAC Int ; 102(5): 1263-1270, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890207

RESUMO

Background: To effectively safeguard the food-allergic population and support compliance with food-labeling regulations, the food industry and regulatory agencies require reliable methods for food allergen detection and quantification. MS-based detection of food allergens relies on the systematic identification of robust and selective target peptide markers. The selection of proteotypic peptide markers, however, relies on the availability of high-quality protein sequence information, a bottleneck for the analysis of many plant-based proteomes. Method: In this work, data were compiled for reference tree nut ingredients and evaluated using a parsimony-driven global proteomics workflow. Results: The utility of supplementing existing incomplete protein sequence databases with translated genomic sequencing data was evaluated for English walnut and provided enhanced selection of candidate peptide markers and differentiation between closely related species. Highlights: Future improvements of protein databases and release of genomics-derived sequences are expected to facilitate the development of robust and harmonized LC-tandem MS-based methods for food allergen detection.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Nozes/química , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Árvores/química , Alérgenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores/análise , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteômica , Traqueófitas/química
17.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917556

RESUMO

Polyphenols are one of the largest and most widespread groups of secondary metabolites in the plants world. These compounds are of particular interest due to their occurrence and the properties they possess. The main sources of phenolic compounds are fruits and vegetables, but lately, more and more studies refer to woody vascular plants, especially to bark, as an important source of phenolic compounds with a potential biological effect. This study aims to bring together information on the phenolic compounds present in the bark of woody vascular plants by discussing extraction methods, the chemical composition of the extracts and potential biological effects. The literature data used in this paper were collected via PubMed (2004⁻2019). Search terms were: bark, rhytidome, woody vascular plant, polyphenols, phenolic compounds, biologic activity, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumoral. This paper intends to highlight the fact that the polyphenolic extracts obtained from the bark of woody vascular plants represent sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial properties, etc. Future research directions should be directed towards identification and isolation of bioactive compounds. Consequently, biologically active compounds obtained from the bark of woody plants could be exploited on an industrial scale.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/farmacologia , Traqueófitas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química
18.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 378-381, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880242

RESUMO

A new iridoid glycoside, named camptoside (1), together with three known compounds as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), aesculetin (3) and vajicoside (4), have been isolated from Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr. (Aspleniaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR data, and by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 1-3 exhibited inhibitions of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 11.2, 8.3 and 9.4 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueófitas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome de Chilaiditi , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 62: 101-108, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711039

RESUMO

Due to the emergence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant microbes, natural antimicrobials from herbal origins have been given more attention as an alternative therapy. This study provides an in vitro research framework to investigate the antibacterial activities of 5 herbal (marjoram, garlic, onion, cinnamon and black seed) oil extracts against 16 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and virulent P. multocida serogroup A isolates recovered from dead and clinically diseased rabbits. Pathogenicity of the screened isolates was further proven experimentally and was verified by PCR analyses of 5 randomly selected virulence genes encoding attachment and colonization proteins (ptfA, pfhA, and omp87), sialidases (nanB) and dermonecrotoxin (toxA). A total of 12 P. multocida isolates were highly pathogenic with the possession of all examined virulence genes, while the other 4 isolates were of lower pathogenicity with expression of the target genes except toxA. In vitro anti-P. multocida activities of the 5 extracts and their synergism rates with 4 antibiotic drugs revealed that marjoram and cinnamon extracts had the highest antibacterial activities and the highest synergism rates against the screened isolates. Pasteurella multocida virulence gene expression profiles were assessed via real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in response to marjoram extract. The quantitative analyses showed less than five-fold reduction in the targeted virulence genes expression in presence of marjoram extract compared with the control. The findings from this study document a novel molecular inhibitory activity of marjoram against P. multocida multiple virulence genes and provide a proof of concept for its implementation as an alternative candidate for the treatment of pasteurellosis in farm animals in future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella multocida/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traqueófitas/química , Doenças dos Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
Contact Dermatitis ; 80(1): 9-17, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colophonium is a common contact allergen that is present not only in household products but also in occupational settings. OBJECTIVES: To describe the sources of occupational exposure to colophonium and the occupations at risk of colophonium allergy. METHODS: We reviewed patch test files from the years 2002 to 2017 at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health for patients with allergic reactions to colophonium and abietic acid. We analysed the patch test, occupation and exposure data of 39 patients diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) caused by colophonium. RESULTS: Of the patients examined for suspected occupational dermatitis, 4.6% (n = 118) reacted positively to colophonium. The majority of the OACD patients worked in the wood industry, as machinists, or were involved in soldering or agriculture. The most common occupational sources of exposure were coniferous wood and wood-derived materials, followed by glues, metalworking fluids, and soldering materials. Colophonium is not always mentioned in safety data sheets (SDSs), and the sources of colophonium exposure are often materials for which there are no SDSs. CONCLUSION: OACD caused by colophonium is quite common and occurs in a variety of occupations. SDSs provide poor information for exposure assessment. Patch testing with the patient's own materials was often useful in establishing the diagnosis.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Adesivos/química , Adulto , Agricultura , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Metalurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes do Emplastro , Traqueófitas/química , Madeira/química , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA