Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.742
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511617

RESUMO

Objective:To disscuss the changes in indications, surgical opportunity and post-operative management of pediatric tracheotomy. Methods:Retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients undergoing tracheostomy between January 2016 and December 2020 at Children's Hospital of Fudan University. Ninety-five patients were divided into four groups according to their primary indication. Group A: neuromuscular disease(n=36, 37.9%), Group B: congenital abnormality(n=30, 31.6%), Group C: accidental injury(n=15, 15.8%), Group D: tumor(n=14, 14.7%). Results:By the comparison between four groups, children in group A had higher incidence of Severe pneumonia(47.2%), higher usage of mechanical ventilation(97.2%), longer hospitalization days(=84.9 days) and higher rate of Ventilator dependence(66.7%); children in group B had higher rate of emergency surgery(4.2%), lower age(median age 2 months) and lower usage of mechanical ventilation(30.0%); Mortality of the children in group D was the highest(42.9%). In the recent five years, we saw a increasing tendency in the proportion of group A(28.6%, 35.0%, 38.5%, 44.4%, 43.5%), and a decreasing tendency of group B(57.1%, 30.0%, 38.5%, 33.3%, 21.7%). On discharge, 50.5% of children(48 of 95)spontaneously breathe with the tracheos tomy in situ, 29.5% of children(28 of 95)had ventilator-dependence, tracheostomy decannulation was successful in 6.3% of children (6 of 95) and all-cause mortality was 13.7% (13 of 95). Conclusion:Most paediatric tracheotomies were performed due to chronic underlying diseases. Pediatric tracheostomy should be considered as a long-term intervention in many children. Earlier tracheotomy can shorten the duration of post-tracheotomy mechanical ventilation in several conditions.


Assuntos
Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(2): 363-368, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discover the factors that may affect the use of selective tracheostomy among patients who have undergone head and neck surgeries with free flap reconstruction, so that the patients will not need tracheostomy nor receive the unnecessary treatment. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-three patients who had undergone head and neck surgery with free flap reconstruction operated by the same team of surgery at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Peking University School of Stomatology from 2015 to 2016 were reviewed. Three hundred and twenty-one (60.2%) of these patients underwent selective tracheostomy. All the patients' demographic information, operation-related information, prior treatments, comorbidities and complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The patients with defects of the tongue, mouth floor, oropharynx and bilateral mandible, who underwent neck dissection and with previous radiotherapy and smoking habit were more likely to get selective tracheostomy. Usage of bulky soft tissue flap might also add to the risk of airway obstruction and the need of selective tracheostomy, while other factors were not significantly related to the risk of postoperative airway obstruction and the patients could be kept safe without selective tracheostomy. Most cases without tracheostomy were kept safe except one case, while 8.39% of the patients with tracheostomy suffered from tracheostomy related complications, mainly pneumonia and hemorrhage of the tracheostomy wound, yet none led to serious consequences or even death. CONCLUSION: Selective tracheostomy is not necessary for patients who have undergone head and neck surgeries with free flap reconstruction except that there are defects at the tongue, oropharynx and mandible. Neck dissection, bulky soft tissue flap reconstruction, previous radiotherapy and smoking habit may also add to the risk of postoperative airway obstruction, while a favorable decision would involve a combination of all the above factors to assure the safety of the postoperative airway for the patients undergone head and neck surgeries with free flap reconstruction.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Traqueostomia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 90, 2022 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from conventional reusable bronchoscopes, single-use bronchoscopes (SUB) were recently introduced. Data suggest that SUB might prevent from the risk of cross contamination (i.e. multiresistant pathogens, SARS CoV-2) and save costs. We aimed to investigate visualization, ventilation, handling characteristics, changes in patients' gas exchange, and costs associated with both types of bronchoscopes during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, noninferiority study, 46 patients undergoing PDT were randomized 1:1 to PDT with SUB (Ambu aScope) or reusable bronchoscopes (CONV, Olympus BF-P60). Visualization of tracheal structures rated on 4-point Likert scales was the primary end-point. Furthermore, quality of ventilation, device handling characteristics, changes in the patients' gas exchange, pH values, and costs were assessed. RESULTS: Noninferiority for visualization (the primary endpoint) was demonstrated for the SUB group. Mean visualization scores (lower values better) were 4.1 (95% confidence intervals: 3.9;4.3) for SUB vs. 4.1 (4.0;4.2) for CONV. Noninferiority of ventilation (estimated by minute volume and SpO2) during the procedure could be shown as well. Mean score was 2.6 (2.0;3.1) for SUB vs. 2.4 (2.1;2.7) for CONV (lower values better). No significant differences regarding handling (SUB: 1.2 (1.0;1.4), CONV: 1.3 (1.1;1.6)), blood gas analyses and respiratory variables were found. Cost analysis in our institution revealed 93 € per conventional bronchoscopy versus 232.50 € with SUB, not considering an estimate for possible infection due to cross-contamination with the reusable device. CONCLUSION: In our study, visualization and overall performance of the SUB during PDT were noninferior to reusable bronchoscopes. Therefore, PDT with SUB is feasible and should be considered if favored by individual institution's cost analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03952247 . Submitted for registration on 28/04/2019 and first posted on 16/05/2019.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios , COVID-19 , Dilatação , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Traqueostomia/métodos
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 130, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection is common yet serious complication in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). We aimed to evaluate the predicators of pulmonary infection in STBI patients undergoing tracheostomy, to provide evidence for the clinical nursing care of STBI patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort design. STBI patients undergoing tracheostomy treatment from January 1, 2019 to August 31, 2021 in our hospital were included. The characteristics of pulmonary infection and no pulmonary infection patients were analyzed. RESULTS: A total 216 STBI patients undergoing tracheostomy were included, the incidence of pulmonary infection was 26.85%. Diabetes (r = 0.782), hypoproteinemia (r = 0.804), duration of coma(r = 0.672), duration of mechanical ventilation(r = 0.724) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.655), length of hospital stay post tracheostomy (r = 0.554), mortality (r = 0.598) were all correlated with pulmonary infection (all p < 0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae (33.87%) and Staphylococcus aureus (29.03%) were the most commonly seen pathogens in the pulmonary infection of TBI patients. Logistic regression analyses indicated that diabetes (OR 2.232, 95% CI 1.215-3.904), hypoproteinemia with plasma total protein < 60 g/L (OR 1.922, 95% CI 1.083-3.031), duration of coma ≥ 22 h (OR 2.864, 95% CI 1.344-5.012), duration of mechanical ventilation ≥ 5 days (OR 3.602, 95% CI 1.297-5.626), length of hospital stay ≥ 21 days (OR 2.048, 95% CI 1.022-3.859) were the risk factors of pulmonary infection in TBI patients undergoing tracheostomy (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Further investigations on the early preventions and treatments targeted on those risk factors are needed to reduce the pulmonary infection in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hipoproteinemia , Pneumonia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Coma/etiologia , Humanos , Hipoproteinemia/etiologia , Tempo de Internação , Pneumonia/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Anesth Prog ; 69(1): 42-45, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377936

RESUMO

Traditional retrograde intubation consists of tracheal intubation performed over a guide wire inserted into the trachea inferior to the vocal cords and then passed transorally or transnasally. This intubation technique is reserved for patients with a difficult airway when other methods such as blind nasal intubation or video laryngoscopy fail. A guide wire passed blindly in a retrograde fashion, however, is not without its own constraints. This case report presents the anesthetic management of a 23-year-old Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient with substantial scarring from a previous tracheostomy stoma and limited mouth opening. The patient underwent a retrograde fiber-optic transnasal intubation without the use of a guide wire for a tracheostomy revision procedure, followed by a second tracheostomy revision and retrograde fiber-optic transoral intubation 7.5 months later. This report demonstrates a novel technique for intubating patients with difficult airways. The use of a flexible fiber-optic bronchoscope for a retrograde intubation mitigates complications that can arise using traditional retrograde intubation over a guide wire and increases the likelihood of successful intubation.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios , Broncoscopia , Adulto , Broncoscopia/métodos , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(5): 322-325, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to prove efficiency of tracheal resection in the cohort of patients of our clinic and to introduce our own modification of T-cannula as a surgical alternative if tracheal resection is contraindicated. BACKGROUND: Benign tracheal stenosis, the most often represented by post tracheostomy (PTTS) and post intubation (PITS) stenosis, is a rare, but serious and potentially life-threatening medical condition. We present our experience with the management of the patients, who were referred with a benign tracheal stenosis. METHODS: In the retrospective study, patient's outcome was evaluated after tracheal resection or treatment with T-cannula from all the patients presented with a benign tracheal stenosis from January 2015 to January 2021. RESULTS: The cohort consists of forty-eight patients. Thirty-one (64,6 %) patients underwent a tracheal resection and seventeen (35,4 %) were treated with tracheostomy and T-tube insertion. In the series of patients after tracheal resection, we observed no mortality, complications occurred in ten (32,2 %) patients. They were spread proportionally; anastomotic complications were noticed in 5 (16,1 %) patients, as well as non-anastomotic complications. CONCLUSION: Tracheal resection is a safe and effective procedure with good results. T- tube insertion presents a surgical alternative if bronchoscopy is unavailable or failed (Tab. 4, Fig. 2, Ref. 20).


Assuntos
Estenose Traqueal , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueia/cirurgia , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(5): 947-952, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional surgical teaching advocates converting emergency cricothyroidotomies to tracheostomies to mitigate the risk of subglottic stenosis. A conversion procedure that may risk losing a tenuous airway should have clear benefits over risks. We aimed to evaluate the necessity of routine cricothyroidotomy to tracheostomy conversion by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of contemporary literature. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a systematic review of experimental and observational studies (published between January 1, 2008, and March 1, 2021) reporting hospital outcomes of adults aged ≥18 years who underwent emergency cricothyroidotomies or tracheostomies. We followed PRISMA guidelines and assessed quality of data using GRADE methodology. Meta-analysis pooled incidence of procedure-specific complications (bleeding, subglottic stenosis, and others) using Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and sensitivity analysis addressed survival bias. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies including 1246 patients were analyzed. Incidence of bleeding (5 [1 to 11]% vs 3 [1 to 7]%), subglottic stenosis (0 [0 to 3]% vs 0 [0 to 0]%) and other complications (12 [8 to 16]% vs 13 [5 to 23]%) were similar among patients undergoing emergency cricothyroidotomy or tracheostomy. Sensitivity analysis evaluating the incidence of complications among only survivors found similar results. Only one study reported complications attributable to cricothyroidotomy to tracheostomy conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Subglottic stenosis, the main harm conversion seeks to avoid, appears to be a rare complication after cricothyroidotomy. We did not find evidence supporting routine need to convert cricothyroidotomies to tracheostomies; for many patients, conversion is unlikely to rectify complications attributable to emergency cricothyroidotomy. However, our findings cannot be generalized to patients who require prolonged or permanent airway cannulation. Providers should consider performing cricothyroidotomy to tracheostomy selectively when the benefits clearly outweigh the risks of disrupting a secured airway.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Cricoide , Traqueostomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Cartilagem Cricoide/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/métodos
8.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 101-107, 20220000. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368478

RESUMO

Introducción: El virus SARS-CoV-2, se presentó en la ciudad de Wuhan, una provincia de Hubei en China, a finales del mes de diciembre de 2019, como un brote de neumonía viral consecuencia de un nuevo tipo de coronavirus B, el cual fue denominado COVID-19; posteriormente, de manera oficial, se declarará al virus como SARS-Cov-2. Los cirujanos de cabeza y cuello realizan traqueostomías en pacientes con COVID-19, lo que supone mayor exposición de aerosolización para estos especialistas. El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad describir la técnica quirúrgica de la traqueostomía abierta con la adecuada protección del equipo de cirugía de cabeza y cuello en los pacientes con SAR-CoV-2-. Métodos: Este estudio se realizó en el Centro Médico Docente la Trinidad, a cargo del servicio de cabeza y cuello. El equipo multidisciplinario estuvo conformado por cirujanos de cabeza y cuello, intensivistas y enfermeros especialistas del área. La traqueostomía fue abierta y fue realizada en los pacientes ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos con resultado positivo de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, en el periodo entre agosto de 2020 a agosto de 2021, previa discusión con el equipo multidisciplinario y con el consentimiento de los familiares del paciente, idealmente, entre el día 15 y 21. Resultados: Se realizaron 14 traqueotomías abiertas, la primera traqueostomía se llevó a cabo el 01/08/2020 y la ultima el 28/08/2021. Todas fueron realizadas en la unidad de terapia intensiva. El personal médico fue el mínimo posible y consto de: Cirujano de cabeza y cuello, primer y segundo ayudante, instrumentista, intensivista, residente de terapia intensiva y enfermera de terapia intensiva. En todos los casos se llevó a cabo la adecuada higiene de manos y colocación del equipo de protección personal. Conclusiones: Mantener a los pacientes relajados durante el procedimiento, desinflar el manguito del tubo endotraqueal y cerrar el circuito previo a la incisión y rápidamente luego de la incisión en tráquea, insertar el traqueostomo y conectar el sistema de circuito cerrado, parece ser una técnica que preserva la seguridad del equipo quirúrgico


Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus appeared in the city of Wuhan, a province of Hubei in China, at the end of December 2019, as an outbreak of viral pneumonia because of a new type of coronavirus B, the was called COVID-19; later, officially, the virus will be declared as SARS-Cov-2. Head and neck surgeons perform tracheostomies in patients with CIVD-19, which results in increased aerolization exposure. The present work aims to describe the surgical technique of open tracheostomy with adequate protection of the head and neck surgery team in patients with SAR-CoV-2. Methods: This study was carried out at the La Trinidad Teaching Medical Center, in charge of the head and neck service. The multidisciplinary team was made up of head and neck surgeons, intensivists, and specialist nurses in the area. The technique was open tracheostomy in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the period between August 2020 to August 2021, after discussion with the multidisciplinary team and with the consent of the patient's relatives, ideally between the 15th and 21st. Results: 14 open tracheostomies were performed, the first tracheostomy was performed on 01 / 08/2020 and the last one on 08/28/2021. All tracheostomies were performed in the intensive care unit. The medical staff was the minimum possible and consisted of: Head and neck surgeon, first and second assistant, scrub nurse, intensivist, intensive care resident and intensive care nurse. In all cases, proper hand hygiene and placement of personal protective equipment was carried out. Conclusions: Keeping patients relaxed during the procedure, deflating the endotracheal tube cuff, and closing the circuit prior to the incision and quickly after the incision in the trachea and inserting the tracheostoma, connecting the closed-circuit system, seems to be a technique that preserves the safety of the surgical team


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Proteção Pessoal/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , COVID-19
9.
Surg Clin North Am ; 102(2): 267-283, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344697

RESUMO

Patients with head and neck cancer account for a large proportion of perioperative airway events. Further, these patients frequently require tracheostomy placement, which is one of the most common surgical procedures. This article reviews updated techniques in managing a difficult airway in patients with head and neck cancer, such as strategies for intubation/extubation, methods of tubeless laryngeal surgery, and techniques and relevant topics in tracheostomy management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Traqueostomia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos
10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 94, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite surgical advances, acute type A aortic dissection remains a life-threatening disease with high mortality and morbidity. Tracheostomy is usually used for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, data on the risk factors for requiring tracheostomy and the impact of tracheostomy on outcomes in patients after Stanford type A acute aortic dissection surgery (AADS) are limited. METHODS: A retrospective single-institutional study including consecutive patients who underwent AADS between January 2016 and December 2019 was conducted. Patients who died intraoperatively were excluded. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify independent risk factors for postoperative tracheostomy (POT). A nomogram to predict the probability of POT was constructed based on independent predictors and their beta-coefficients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was performed to assess the discrimination of the model. Calibration plots and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test were used to evaluate calibration. Clinical usefulness of the nomogram was assessed by decision curve analysis. Propensity score matching analysis was used to analyze the correlation between requiring tracheostomy and clinical prognosis. RESULTS: There were 492 patients included in this study for analysis, including 55 patients (11.2%) requiring tracheostomy after AADS. Compared with patients without POT, patients with POT experienced longer ICU and hospital stay and higher mortality. Age, cerebrovascular disease history, preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count and renal insufficiency, intraoperative amount of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and platelet transfusion were identified as independent risk factors for POT. Our constructed nomogram had good discrimination with an AUC = 0.793 (0.729-0.856). Good calibration and clinical utility were observed through the calibration and decision curves, respectively. For better clinical application, we defined four intervals that stratified patients from very low to high risk for occurrence of POT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for POT and found that requiring tracheostomy was related to the poor outcomes in patients undergoing AADS. The established prediction model was validated with well predictive performance and clinical utility, and it may be useful for individual risk assessment and early clinical decision-making to reduce the incidence of tracheostomy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Traqueostomia , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Humanos , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270675

RESUMO

Rehabilitation outcomes of difficult-to-wean tracheostomized patients have been reported in relatively small case studies and described for a limited time span. This study describes the characteristics and clinical outcomes of a large cohort of tracheostomized patients admitted to a specialized weaning unit over 10 years. We retrospectively analyzed data collected from January 2010 to December 2019 on difficult-to-wean tracheostomized patients who underwent comprehensive rehabilitation. Clinical characteristics collected at admission were the level of comorbidity (by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS) and the clinical severity (by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-SAPS II). The proportions of patients weaned, decannulated, and able to walk; the change in autonomy level according to the Bristol Activities of Daily Living (BADL) Scale; and the setting of hospital discharge was assessed and compared in a consecutive 5-year time period (2010-2014 and 2015-2019) subgroup analysis. A total of 180 patients were included in the analysis. Patient anthropometry and preadmission clinical management in acute care hospitals were similar across years, but the categories of underlying diagnosis changed (p < 0.001) (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD-decreased), while the level of comorbidities increased (p = 0.003). The decannulation rate was 45.6%. CIRS and SAPS II at admission were both significant predictors of clinical outcomes. The proportion of patients whose gain in BADL score increased ≥ 2 points decreased over time. This study confirms the importance of rehabilitation in weaning units for the severely disabled subset of tracheostomized patients. Comorbidities and severity at admission are significantly associated with rehabilitation outcomes at discharge.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Desmame do Respirador , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia
12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319567

RESUMO

Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Traqueostomia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
13.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (3): 36-43, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 10-year experience of treating the cicatricial tracheal stenosis (CTS) in a regional multi-field hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 120 CTS patients aged 13-75 years. In 8 (6.7%) patients, CTS was combined with tracheoesophageal fistula (TPF). Post-intubation stenosis was diagnosed in 16 (13.3%) cases, post-tracheostomy - in 102 (85%) ones, post-traumatic - in 2 (1.7%) patients. CTS length ranged from 1.2 to 8 cm. Fifty (41.7%) patients had cervical CTS, 40 (33.3%) patients - cervico-thoracic tracheal stenosis, 11 (9.2%) patients - tracheal stenosis at the thoracic level. Nineteen (15.8%) patients had multifocal stenoses. We used endoscopic techniques, circular tracheal resection (CTR) and laryngotracheal reconstruction. RESULTS: Postoperative mortality rate was 0.83%. CTR was performed in 33 patients, laryngotracheal reconstruction - 77, endoscopic stenting - 6 patients. In 4 cases, local CTS was eliminated by bougienage and argon plasma exposure. CTS was successfully disconnected with TEF using CRT in 3 cases, laryngotracheoplasty and stenting - in 5 cases. The fenestrated tracheal defect was closed by a three-layer autologous flap in 59 patients. Of these, autologous flap was reinforced with porous nickel-titanium implants in 17 patients. Postoperative complications after CRT occurred in 6 (16.7%) patients (anastomotic leakage - 2, anastomositis - 1, restenosis - 2). No patients died. Postoperative complications after laryngotracheal reconstruction were observed in 18 (23.4%) patients including 5 ones with restenosis who underwent CTR with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: CTS treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. Each surgery has certain indications and place in treatment algorithm. CTR is highly effective, but may be accompanied by complications associated with tracheal anastomosis. Decrease of postoperative morbidity will improve immediate and long-term results of CTS treatment. The chosen treatment algorithm ensured good and satisfactory results in 98% of patients.


Assuntos
Estenose Traqueal , Fístula Traqueoesofágica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traqueia/cirurgia , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/diagnóstico , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/etiologia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/cirurgia , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(5): 1145-1156, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with tracheostomy are frequently admitted to the hospital for tracheostomy-associated respiratory infections (TRAINs). However, there remains a paucity of evidence to direct the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TRAINs. An important first step to addressing this knowledge gap is to synthesize existing data regarding TRAINs to inform current practice and facilitate innovation. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception to October 2020. Original research articles and published abstracts including children and young adults 0-21 years of age with tracheostomy were included. Included studies assessed the clinical definitions of and risk factors for TRAINs, microbiologic epidemiology and colonization of tracheostomies, and treatment and outcomes of TRAINs. DATA SYNTHESIS: Out of 5755 studies identified in the search, 78 full-text studies were included in the final review. A substantial number of studies focused on the detection of specific pathogens in respiratory cultures including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several different definitions of TRAIN including clinical, microbiologic, and laboratory testing results were utilized; however, no uniform set of criteria were identified. The few studies focused on treatment and prevention of TRAIN emphasized the role of empiric antimicrobial therapy and the use of inhaled antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a growing number of research articles studying TRAINs, there is a paucity of prospective interventional trials to guide the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of respiratory disease in this vulnerable population. Future research should include studies of interventions designed to improve short- and long-term respiratory-related outcomes of children with tracheostomy.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Traqueostomia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/métodos
15.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 35(2): 130-136, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131969

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss or compromise of artificial airways in critically ill adults can lead to serious adverse events, including death. In contrast to primary emergency airway management, the optimal management of such scenarios may not be well defined or appreciated. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotracheal tube cuff leaks may compromise both oxygenation and ventilation, and supraglottic cuff position must first be recognized and distinguished from other reasons for gas leakage during positive pressure ventilation. Although definitive management involves tube exchange, if direct visualization is possible temporizing measures can often be considered. Unplanned extubation confers variable and context-specific risks depending on patient anatomy and physiological status. Because risk factors for unplanned extubation are well established, bundled interventions can be employed for mitigation. Tracheostomy tube dislodgement accounts for a substantial proportion of death and disability related to airway management in critical care settings. Consensus guidelines and algorithmic management of such scenarios are key elements of risk mitigation. SUMMARY: Management of lost or otherwise compromised artificial airways is a key skill set for adult critical care clinicians alongside primary emergency airway management.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Intubação Intratraqueal , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 35(2): 236-241, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131970

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to undergo early tracheostomy in critically ill patients has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years, including several meta-analyses and a large-scale examination of the National in-patient Sampling (NIS) database. The research has focused on different patient populations, and identified common outcomes measures related to ventilation. At the crux of the new research is the decision to undergo an additional invasive procedure, mainly tracheostomy, rather than attempt endotracheal tube ventilation with or without early extubation. Notably, recent research indicates that neurological and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients seem to have an exaggerated benefit from early tracheostomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies of patients undergoing early tracheostomy have shown decreases in ventilator associated pneumonia, ventilator duration and duration of ICU stay. However, these studies have shown mixed data with respect to mortality and length of hospitalization. Such advantages only become apparent with large-scale examination. Confounding the overall discussion is that the research has focused on heterogeneous groups, including neurosurgical ICU patients, general ICU patients, and most recently, intubated COVID-19 patients. SUMMARY: Specific populations such as neurosurgical and COVID-19 patients have clearly defined benefits following early tracheostomy. Although the benefit is less pronounced, there does seem to be an advantage in general ICU patients with regards to ventilator-free days and lower incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. In these patients, large-scale examination points to a clear mortality benefit.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/métodos
17.
Crit Care Med ; 50(5): 819-824, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the 30- and 90-day outcomes of COVID-19 patients receiving tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Multisite, inpatient. PATIENTS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who received tracheostomy and PEG at four Boston hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Tracheostomy and PEG placement. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was mortality at 30 and 90 days post-procedure. Secondary outcomes included continued device presence, place of residence, complications, and rehospitalizations. Eighty-one COVID-19 patients with tracheostomy and PEG placement were included. At 90 days post-device placement, the mortality rate was 9.9%, 2.7% still had the tracheostomy, 32.9% still had the PEG, and 58.9% were at home. CONCLUSIONS: More than nine-in-10 patients in our population of COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy and PEG were alive 90 days later and most were living at home. This study provides new information regarding the outcomes of this patient population that may serve as a step in guiding clinicians, patients, and families when making decisions regarding these devices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastrostomia , Boston , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 98: 162-167, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tracheostomy is performed in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation, who suffered catastrophic neurologic insult or upper airway obstruction. Thus far, there is no consensus on the optimal timing in performing a tracheostomy. This study aims to test whether early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients in a neurosurgical setting would be associated with a shorter time of mechanical ventilation as compared to standard tracheostomy. METHODS: This single-center prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre from July 2019 to July 2021. The likelihood of prolonged ventilation was determined objectively using the TRACH score and the patient's clinical presentation. The outcomes measured were days of mechanical ventilation post-tracheostomy, days of neuro-intensive care unit stay, and days of hospital stay. Tracheostomy-related complications were collected. The data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: In all, 39 patients were randomly assigned. Of these, 20 were allocated to the early tracheostomy group (ET) and 19 were allocated to the standard tracheostomy group (ST). The demographic characteristics were similar between the groups. The primary outcome, mean (SD) days of mechanical ventilation post-tracheostomy, was statistically different in the 2 groups- early 11.9 (9.3) days, standard 18.9 (32.5) days; p = 0.014. There were comparable tracheostomy-related complications in both groups. CONCLUSION: Early tracheostomy is associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation in a neurosurgical intensive care unit setting.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Traqueostomia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...