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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 43-47, dic.2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117899

RESUMO

La uroflujometría es un estudio no invasivo del tracto urinario inferior que entrega información objetiva del flujo urinario y es ampliamente recomendado por las guías europeas en el estudio de pacientes con sintomatología urinaria baja. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal cuyo propósito fue describir el uso de la uroflujometría en el estudio de síntomas del tracto urinario bajo en pacientes masculinos que acudieron a la consulta de Servicio de Urología del Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda de la ciudad de Barquisimeto, estado Lara durante el lapso 2018- 2019. La muestra estuvo conformada por 150 pacientes. Los resultados indican que el 62% de la muestra corresponde a pacientes entre 60 y 70 años de edad de los cuales 52% manifestaron síntomas urinarios leves. La uroflujometría evidenció que 56% de los pacientes tienen un flujo máximo entre 10 y 20 ml/seg lo cual sugiere una probable obstrucción al flujo de salida; 78% de los pacientes presentan un flujo promedio entre 0 a 10 ml/seg. El 53% de los pacientes mostró un volumen de vaciado < 300 ml y 49% un tiempo de flujo máximo entre 30 y 50 segundos. En conclusión, la uroflujometría es un examen simple y rápido que proporciona información útil sobre la salud de las vías urinarias inferiores(AU)


Uroflowmetry is a non-invasive study of the lower urinary tract that provides objective information on urinary flow and is widely recommended by European guidelines for the study of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study to describe the use of uroflowmetry for the study of lower urinary tract symptoms in males who attended the Servicio de Urología of the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda (Barquisimeto, Lara state) during the 2018- 2019 period. The sample was made up of 150 males. The results show that 62% of the sample included males between 60 and 70 years old and 52% complained of mild urinary symptoms. Uroflowmetry results showed that 56% of patients had a maximum flow between 10 and 20 ml/sec suggestive of urinary tract obstruction; 78% had an average flow between 0 and 10 ml/sec while 53% had a micturition volume < 300 ml and 49% had a maximum flow time between 30 and 50 seconds. Uroflowmetry is a simple and fast test which provides useful information about the health of lower urinary tract(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Obstrução Uretral , Sistema Urinário , Prostatismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Micção , Doenças Urológicas , Ultrassonografia
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(5): 599e-606e, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the arguments against early intervention for micrognathia in Pierre Robin sequence is the concept that the growth of the mandible will eventually "catch up." Long-term growth of the mandible and occlusal relationships of conservatively managed Pierre Robin sequence patients remain unknown. In this study, the authors evaluated the orthognathic surgery requirements for Pierre Robin sequence patients at skeletal maturity. METHODS: Orthognathic surgical requirements of conservatively managed Pierre Robin sequence and isolated cleft patients (aged ≥13 years) at two institutions were reviewed and analyzed using t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the Pierre Robin sequence patients (n = 64; mean age ± SD, 17.9 ± 2.9 years), 65.6 percent were syndromic (primarily Stickler and velocardiofacial syndrome), 96.9 percent had a cleft palate, and 39.1 percent required orthognathic surgery at skeletal maturity. Nonsyndromic and syndromic Pierre Robin sequence patients demonstrated no differences in occlusal relationships or mandibular surgery frequency. The majority of Pierre Robin sequence patients requiring mandibular advancement had a class II occlusion. Comparison of Pierre Robin sequence patients to isolated cleft palate patients (n = 17) revealed a comparable frequency of orthognathic surgery between the two; however, Pierre Robin sequence patients did require mandibular advancement surgery at a greater frequency than cleft palate patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that 39.1 percent of conservatively managed Pierre Robin sequence patients required orthognathic surgery at skeletal maturity, of which the vast majority required mandibular advancement for class II malocclusion. These data suggest that mandibular micrognathia in conservatively managed Pierre Robin sequence patients may not resolve over time and may require surgical intervention. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/terapia , Adolescente , Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/prevenção & controle , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/cirurgia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22934, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120850

RESUMO

INDUCTION: Liver transplantation (LT) is the only final therapy for patients with acute liver failure (ALF) that cannot be controlled by conservative treatment. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a recognized complication of ALF. The pathogenesis of AP in ALF patients has not yet been elucidated. The appearance of AP complicates the patients condition and causes a significantly increased risk of mortality. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report 2 fatal cases who were both admitted with yellowing of skin and sclera with general weakness lasting for 2 weeks. DIAGNOSIS: After admission, the laboratory examination of case 1 showed liver dysfunction with serum levels of total bilirubin (TB) 270 µmol/l, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 106 U/l. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed pelvic and peritoneal cavity fluids, occupation of left lateral lobe of liver and unclear margin of pancreas. The clinical laboratory findings of case 2 revealed TB 351.1 µmol/l, ALT 252 U/l, blood lactic acid 18 mmol/l, ammonia 209 µmol/l. And abdominal CT showed pancreatic exudation. They were both diagnosed with acute liver failure, hepatic encephalopathy and AP which was confirmed during the operation. INTERVENTIONS: They were both received a routine orthotopic LT. OUTCOMES: After the surgery, their liver functions recovered well, and they received conventional conservative treatment for pancreatitis. However, the treatment was not adequately effective, and the infection was too serious and both died of multiple organ failure despite emergency rescue efforts on day 21 and day 19 after LT. CONCLUSION: AP is a serious complication that can contribute to prohibitive morbidity and mortality in LT patients. For this reason, the vulnerable state of the pancreas and the scoring system must be defined to help clinicians decide whether a patient is suitable for liver transplantation, and the clinical experience in the treatment of pancreatitis after LT needs to be summarized as an optimal treatment guideline to facilitate better treatment.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Pancreatite/complicações , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/terapia , Prognóstico , Tomógrafos Computadorizados
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16461, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020541

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of and risk factors for recurrence ovarian endometrioma after conservative surgery in patients aged 40-49 years. This retrospective, single-center study included 408 women between January 2008 and November 2018. All patients underwent ovarian cyst enucleation, were pathologically diagnosed with ovarian endometrioma and were followed up for ≥ 6 months. Recurrence was defined as a cystic mass with diameter ≥ 2 cm detected by sonography. Recurrence rate after conservative surgery and risk factor of recurrence were analyzed. The median follow-up duration after surgery was 32.0 ± 25.9 months (range 6-125 months). Ovarian endometrioma recurred in 34 (8.3%) of included women and median time to recurrence was 22.4 ± 18.2 months. The cumulative recurrences rate at 12, 24, 36, and 60 months were 3.7%, 6.7%, 11.1%, and 16.7%, respectively. Recurrence was correlated with multilocular cysts (p = 0.038), previous surgical history of ovarian endometrioma (p = 0.006) and salpingectomy (p = 0.043), but not use or duration of post-operative medication. In multivariate analysis, large cyst size (> 5.5 cm) was only risk factor for recurrence in this age group. Post-operative medication did not reduce disease recurrence rate, and thus may be administered for endometriosis-associated pain rather than to prevent recurrence in patients aged 40-49 years.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistos Ovarianos/patologia , Cistos Ovarianos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Mulheres
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22896, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126342

RESUMO

Many patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) undergo a step-up approach with interventional procedures as first-line treatment and resection reserved for later stages. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for a significant clinical improvement (SCI) after surgical treatment.All patients operated for CP between September 2012 and June 2017 at our center was retrospectively reviewed. A prospective patient survey was conducted to measure patients postoperative outcome. The primary endpoint SCI was defined as stable health status, positive weight development and complete pain relief without routine pain medication. Additionally, risk factors for relaparotomy were analyzed.A total of 89 patients with a median follow-up of 38 months were included. In most cases, a duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (n = 48) or pancreatoduodenectomy (n = 28) was performed. SCI was achieved in 65.3% (n = 47) of the patients after the final medium follow-up of 15.0 months (IQR: 7.0-35.0 months), respectively. Patients with a longer mean delay (7.7 vs 4 years) between diagnosis and surgical resection were less likely to achieve SCI (P = .02; OR .88; 95%CI .80-98). An endocrine insufficiency was a negative prognostic factor for SCI (P = .01; OR .15; 95%CI .04-68). In total, 96.2% of the patients had a complete or major postoperative relief with a mean pain intensity reduction from 8.1 to 1.9 on the visual analogue scale.The results support that surgical resection for CP should be considered at early stages. Resection can effectively reduce postoperative pain intensity and improve long-term success.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Pancreatite Crônica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Pancreatite Crônica/enzimologia , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 801, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines, positive CIN2 p16 in women over the age of 25 should be managed with excisional treatment. However, excisional treatment is associated with physical, psychological and obstetric morbidity and can have a negative impact on sexual function. In our study we sought to identify a clear management strategy, addressing the impact of routine use of p16 immunohistochemistry in this population and identify appropriate criteria for patient selection with the aim of reducing over-treatment. METHOD: We studied the medical records of 130 patients who had undergone laser therapy for CIN2. Each patient underwent colposcopy, biopsy and HPV test and were tested for p16 protein,. Patients were divided based on HPV infection into: single infections, multiple infections. All patients underwent ZTA laser therapy with follow-up (2-year follow-up). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Contingency tables were created to evaluate the correlation between single, multiple and CIN2+ infections. Values with p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Single infections had a histological regression of 61.8% (21/34) and a histological persistence rate of 35.3% (12/34), which was greater than the multiple infection rate. The common characteristic that the women with persistence and progression had was the dimension of the lesion and the genotype 16. Ten cases of histological persistence and the only case of progression had one lesion greater than three quarters of the cervix. CONCLUSIONS: With the progress of our understanding of the natural history of infection from human papillomavirus and the increasing use of colposcopy, thanks to the addition of HPV genotyping and the technique of immunohistochemistry, conservative management of these lesions is now possible.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/complicações , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Terapia a Laser , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
9.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E431-E434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009897

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) injuries can be extremely challenging to manage. This scoping review (8438 citations) offers a number of recommendations. If diagnosis and therapy are rapid, patients with major hepatic injuries who present in physiologic extremis have high survival rates despite prolonged hospital stays. Nonoperative management of major liver injuries, as diagnosed using computed tomography, is typically successful. Adjuncts (e.g., angioembolization, laparoscopic washouts, biliary stents) are essential in managing high-grade injuries. Injury to the extrahepatic biliary tree is rare. Cholecystectomy is indicated for all gallbladder trauma. Full-thickness common bile duct injuries require a hepaticojejunostomy, although damage control remains closed suction drainage. Injuries to the pancreatic head often involve concurrent trauma to regional vasculature. Damage control necessitates drainage after stopping hemorrhage. Injury to the left pancreas commonly requires a distal pancreatectomy. Outcomes for high-grade pancreatic and liver injuries are improved by involving an HPB team. Complications are multidisciplinary and should be managed without delay.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Sistema Biliar/lesões , Fígado/lesões , Pâncreas/lesões , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Tratamento Conservador/normas , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21001, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature on epidural pneumatosis (pneumorrhachis, or air in epidural cavity) associated with forceful vomiting in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has consisted of individual case reports without comprehensive syndrome characterization due to syndromic rarity, with the largest previous literature review comprising 6 cases. Presumed pathophysiology is air escaping from alveolar rupture from forceful vomiting via tissue planes to cause epidural pneumatosis. AIM: Systematically review literature to facilitate syndromic diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A new illustrative case is reported. METHODS: Systematic review of literature using 2 independent readers, 2 computerized databases, and the following medical terms/keywords: ["epidural pneumatosis" OR "pneumorrhachis"] AND ["diabetes" OR "diabetic ketoacidosis" or "DKA"]. Discrepancies between 2 readers were resolved by consensus using prospectively developed study inclusion criteria. Two readers independently abstracted case report. Prospective review protocol and patients, problems, intervene, comparison group, outcomes discussed in Methods section of paper. RESULTS-SYSTEMATIC-LITERATURE-REVIEW: Revealed 10 previously reported cases plus 1 new case (see below) that shows this syndrome presents rather stereotypically with the tentatively proposed following pentad (% of patients fulfilling individual criterion): 1-forceful vomiting (100%), 2-during DKA (100%), 3-pneumomediastinum from forceful alveolar rupture (100%), 4-epidural pneumatosis from air escape from pneumomediastinum (100%), and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or of focal neurological deficits (100%). Pentad is pathophysiologically reasonable because forceful vomiting can cause alveolar rupture, pneumomediastinum, and air entry into epidural space. RESULTS-ILLUSTRATIVE-CASE-REPORT: Epidural pneumatosis occurred in a 33-year-old-male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 who presented with forceful vomiting while in DKA. Radiologic findings also included subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and small pneumothorax. The patient rapidly improved while receiving acute therapy for DKA, and was discharged after 2 hospital days. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Limited number of analyzed, retrospectively reported cases. Case reports subject to reporting bias. Specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value not meaningfully analyzed in this homogeneous population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on systematic review, syndrome is tentatively proposed as a pentad with: 1-forceful vomiting, 2-during DKA, 3- pneumomediastinum, 4-epidural pneumatosis, and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or focal neurological deficits. Proposed pentad should be prospectively tested in a larger population including patients with this versus closely related syndromes.


Assuntos
Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Doenças do Mediastino/complicações , Pneumorraque/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Vômito/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pneumorraque/fisiopatologia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura/complicações , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S305-S310, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A primary concern in the use of EBP in these patients is the possibility of seeding the virus in the CNS. Another important concern is related to the known hypercoagulable state in COVID-19 positive patients and associated organ dysfunction that may alter the metabolism of anticoagulants. The safety of the providers performing the EBP, the position of the patient and choices for image guidance (blind, fluoroscopic) are also key considerations to review. It is also important to explore the current state of knowledge about using allogenic instead of autologous blood as well as emerging techniques to eliminate the coronavirus from the blood. OBJECTIVES: In this article we pose the questions of how to manage PDPH in the COVID-19 positive patient and more specifically, the use of epidural blood patch (EBP). METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: EBP is usually considered after the failure of conservative and pharmacological treatments. Because of the additional risks of EBP in COVID-19 patients it is important to also consider less traditional pharmacological treatments such as theophylinnes and cosyntropin that may offer some additional benefit for COVID-19 patient. Finally, other interventions other than EBP should also be considered including occipital nerve blocks, sphenopalatine ganglion blocks (infratemporal or transnasal). LIMITATIONS: A narrative review with paucity of literature. CONCLUSION: Going forward, an effective treatment for COVID-19 or a safe vaccine and a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of the virus will certainly change the risk calculus involved in performing an EBP in a COVID-19 patient.


Assuntos
Placa de Sangue Epidural/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural/terapia , Punção Espinal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 12(3): 379-385, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904013

RESUMO

Backgroud: Volar plate avulsion fractures of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint are a common hand injury and have been treated conservatively with favorable results. We assumed that conservative treatment of volar plate avulsion fractures of the PIP joint would be unsuccessful if the fracture fragment, even if small, was much displaced or rotated and that delayed excision of the avulsion fractures would result in good outcomes. We report clinical and radiological outcomes of conservative treatment of volar plate avulsion fractures of the PIP joint and risk factors for failure of conservative treatment. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological outcomes of 88 volar plate avulsion fractures (85 patients) treated conservatively at first. In 18 of these fractures, delayed excision of the fracture fragment was required after an average of 75 days of conservative treatment for limited motion or pain of the joint. We compared parameters between failed cases and successful cases after conservative treatment. Results: Compared to the successful cases, the failed cases had a higher prevalence of joint dislocation at the time of injury and greater pain, larger flexion contracture, and less further flexion after conservative treatment. The shape, comminution, and size of the fracture fragments were not related with the need for operation, but the operative cases had greater displacement and rotation of the fracture fragments than the conservative cases. After fragment excision, postoperative protection of the joint was not necessary, pain was reduced, and the mean range of motion increased. Conclusions: The presence of joint dislocation and greater displacement and rotation of the fragments may be associated with the failure of conservative treatment of volar plate avulsion fractures. Failed cases after conservative treatment could be resolved by delayed fragment excision with favorable results. Therefore, it might be appropriate to consider conservative treatment at first in almost all volar plate avulsion fractures of stable PIP joints.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Fratura Avulsão/terapia , Traumatismos da Mão/terapia , Placa Palmar/lesões , Falha de Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fratura Avulsão/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Palmar/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contenções , Adulto Jovem
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 811-822, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925633

RESUMO

Nine percent of adult women experience episodes of fecal incontinence at least monthly. Fecal incontinence is more common in older women and those with chronic bowel disturbance, diabetes, obesity, prior anal sphincter injury, or urinary incontinence. Fecal incontinence negatively affects quality of life and mental health and is associated with increased risk of nursing home placement. Fewer than 30% of women with fecal incontinence seek care, and lack of information about effective solutions is an important barrier for both patients and health care professionals. Even among women with both urinary and fecal incontinence presenting for urogynecologic care, the rate of verbal disclosure of fecal incontinence symptoms remains low. This article provides an overview of the evaluation and management of fecal incontinence for the busy obstetrician-gynecologist, incorporating existing guidance from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. The initial clinical evaluation of fecal incontinence requires a focused history and physical examination. Recording patient symptoms using a standard diary or questionnaire can help document symptoms and response to treatment. Invasive diagnostic testing and imaging generally are not needed to initiate treatment but may be considered in complex cases. Most women have mild symptoms that will improve with optimized stool consistency and medications. Additional treatment options include pelvic floor muscle strengthening with or without biofeedback, devices placed anally or vaginally, and surgery, including sacral neurostimulation, anal sphincteroplasty, and, for severely affected individuals for whom other interventions fail, colonic diversion.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Incontinência Fecal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Comorbidade , Tratamento Conservador/instrumentação , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes
16.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1178-1184, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonoperative management of adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) results in resolution for the majority of patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that outcomes for patients with ASBO are improved when patients are admitted to a surgical service, but the effect of general surgery resident coverage is unclear. This study measures quality outcomes for patients with ASBO after the establishment of a new general surgery residency program. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of admissions for ASBO was conducted following the implementation of a protocol for ASBO nested within a newly developed resident-run emergency general surgery (EGS) service. Patients successfully treated without operative intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 612 patients were admitted for ASBO. After initiation of the residency, 74% of ASBO were admitted to a surgical service compared with 35% prior to residency (P < .01). Length of stay was reduced by 0.77 days (P = .016), average direct total cost per patient was reduced by 24% (P = .002), and 30-day readmissions were reduced by 35.7% (P = .046). There was no significant difference in mortality (1.4% vs 1.0%). DISCUSSION: Admission to a resident-run surgical service was associated with statistically significant improvement in outcomes for patients with ASBO. These data corroborate prior studies demonstrating the positive impact of residency programs on patient outcomes and provide additional evidence that general surgery residency programs improve outcomes for patients with surgical disease.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22307, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957393

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells and caused by genetic mutation or deletion. It rarely occurs in seminal vesicles. The optimal therapic strategy for asymptomatic cases is still unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old man presented no clinical symptoms. A mass in his left seminal vesicle was found incidentally in a computed tomography scan and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed the mass was schwannoma. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as schwannoma of the seminal vesicle with no significant extension to the surrounding tissues. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans periodically to estimate the alteration of the lesion and further strategy. OUTCOMES: After 20-month follow-up, computed tomography scans showed no significant alteration to the lesion and no clinical symptoms were reported by the patient. LESSONS: Conservative strategy might be an effective treatment option for asymptomatic patients with seminal vesical schwannoma. The period of follow-up depends on the size of the tumor.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/terapia , Neurilemoma/terapia , Adulto , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Clin Sports Med ; 39(4): 845-858, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892971

RESUMO

Peroneal tendinosis and subluxation are lifestyle-limiting conditions that can worsen if not properly diagnosed and treated. Adequate knowledge of ankle anatomy and detailed history and comprehensive physical examination is essential for diagnosis. Peroneal tendinopathy is likely to result from overuse, whereas subluxation often precipitates from forceful contraction of peroneals during sudden dorsiflexion while landing or abruptly stopping. In athletes, conservative measures remain first-line treatment of tendinopathy, but surgery is often immediately indicated in cases of recurrent symptomatic subluxation or dislocation. Surgical technique varies on the type, mechanism, and severity of injury, but most procedures have a high success rate.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/terapia , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico , Luxações Articulares/terapia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Tendões/terapia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/fisiopatologia , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico , Tendinopatia/fisiopatologia , Tendinopatia/terapia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/fisiopatologia , Tendões/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Sports Med ; 39(4): 877-891, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892973

RESUMO

Recreational athletes are susceptible to experiencing pain in the Achilles tendon, affecting their ability to complete daily activities. Achilles tendinosis is a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation, which can be categorized by location into insertional and noninsertional tendinosis. This condition is one that can be treated conservatively with great success or surgically for refractory cases. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best treatment options. This review aims to explore both conservative and operative treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy and Achilles tendon rupture.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Volta ao Esporte , Ruptura/terapia , Tendinopatia/terapia , Tendão do Calcâneo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/etiologia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Ruptura/diagnóstico , Ruptura/etiologia , Ruptura/fisiopatologia , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico , Tendinopatia/etiologia , Tendinopatia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(7): 504-509, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to establish the natural history of elderly patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer who underwent non-operative management in comparison with those who underwent operative management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients aged 80 years and above diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2007 and 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in the Southwest of England was done. Patients were divided into non-operatively managed and operatively managed groups. Clinical demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index, location of the tumour and overall survival between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients were studied; 132 were treated non-operatively and 275 operatively. The non-operative group included fewer right-sided colon cancers (28.7% vs 54.9%), but significantly more rectal cancers were managed non-operatively (43.9 vs 23.6%, respectively). The two and five year overall survival was 38.9% and 11.3% respectively in the non-operative group, significantly lower than patients in the operative group where the two and five year survival was 78.9% and 59.6% respectively (p = .0001). The median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 7.99 for the non-operative group and 7.49 in the operative group (p = 0.109). Patients treated non-operatively were deemed unfit without objective frailty assessment and only 43/132(32.6%) had formal anaesthetic assessment before being deemed unfit for surgery. CONCLUSION: The survival of octa- and nonagenarians with non-metastatic colorectal cancer managed conservatively is significantly less than counterparts managed operatively. Our present strategy of deciding and denying treatment of the elderly patient with colorectal cancer is arbitrary, highlighting the need for robust geriatric and frailty assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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