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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24093, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429774

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is an acute small vessel vasculitis. It is the most common vasculitis in children. In majority of the cases, the disease is self-limited. Relapses can occur, in particular during the first year of the disease. There is no consensus on a specific treatment. The efficacy and safety of steroidal treatment in treating HSP is still controversial. Immunosuppressive treatment of HSP nephritis is used in patients with severe renal involvement (nephrotic range proteinuria and/or progressive renal impairment). The literature on immunosuppressive treatment of severe HSP without kidney involvement is scanty. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We report 2 case reports of 2 adolescents affected from Henoch-Schönlein Purpura and severe gastrointestinal involvement. Both patients presented a poor response to steroids treatment. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of HSP was made according to the diagnostic criteria published by European League against Rheumatism and Pediatric Rheumatology European Society in 2006. INTERVENTIONS: In consideration of the recurrence of the Henoch Schönlein Purpura and the gastrointestinal involvement, we decided to start Mycophenolate Mofetil treatment. OUTCOMES: In both patients all clinical manifestations resolved in few days. LESSONS: In our cases of HSP with gastrointestinal involvement Mycophenolate Mofetil treatment has been very effective. This experience teaches us that immunosuppressive agents may be very useful to induce and maintain remission not only in renal involvement, but in all cases of persistent, recurrent, or complicated Henoch Schönlein Purpura in children.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/fisiopatologia , Recidiva
2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(1): 7-9, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444556

RESUMO

High-dose ionizing radiation used during cancer radiotherapy is associated with the induction of hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular injuries. In a recent Science issue, Guo et al. demonstrated that the gut microbiota-and its associated metabolites-play a central role in protecting against high-dose radiation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Radiação , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sobreviventes
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111569, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396098

RESUMO

Previous research has shown the absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the human gastrointestinal tract, but limited attention has been given to the influence of nutrients on PBDE absorption from food matrices. We investigated the effects of nutrients (oil, starch, protein, and dietary fiber) on the absorption and transport of PBDEs in a Caco-2 cell model and bioaccessibility of PBDEs by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method. The results showed that the accumulation ratios of PBDE congeners in Caco-2 cells were higher in the nutrient addition groups (oil: 26.7-50.6%, starch: 27.0-58.7%, protein: 12.1-44.1%, and dietary fiber: 28.2-55.1%) than the control group (7.17-36.1%), whereas the transport ratios were lower (oil: 2.30-7.20%, starch: 1.55-9.15%, protein: 1.04-8.78%, and dietary fiber: 0.85-7.04%) than control group (3.78-11.1%). Additionally, the PBDE bioaccessibility could be increased by adding the nutrients, particularly oil and starch. This study clarified the differences in PBDE absorption in the presence of nutrients using the in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model. The findings showed that nutrients were an important factor that promoted PBDE absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is important to focus on a novel dietary strategy of food consumption with contaminant compounds to protect human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Dieta , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nutrientes
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111064, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378966

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early reported symptoms include fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms. There were few reports of digestive symptoms. However, with COVID-19 spreading worldwide, symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain have gained increasing attention. Research has found that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Whether theoretically or clinically, many studies have suggested a close connection between COVID-19 and the digestive system. In this review, we summarize the digestive symptoms reported in existing research, discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and determine the possible mechanisms and aetiology, such as cytokine storm. In-depth exploration of the relationship between COVID-19 and the digestive system is urgently needed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Pandemias , /patogenicidade , /metabolismo , Anorexia/etiologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/virologia , /imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
7.
Br Poult Sci ; 62(1): 101-109, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835498

RESUMO

1. A trial was conducted to study the effects of additional dietary fibre (DF), resulting from partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with high-fibre sunflower meal (SFM), on egg production and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits in laying hens. 2. A total of 480 Nick Chick white laying hens (21 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments and fed for 24 weeks. The hens were fed either the control diet based on corn and SBM, which contained 30 g/kg crude fibre (CF) without SFM, or test diets containing 40 g more CF/kg from adding 47 g/kg SFM or 50 g more CF/kg from adding 97 g SFM/kg. Each dietary treatment was replicated eight times (20 hens per replicate). 3. Body weight (P < 0.05), egg production rate (P < 0.05), egg weight (P < 0.01) and egg mass (P < 0.01) linearly increased but feed conversion ratio linearly decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing SFM supplementation. Feed intake, cracked/broken egg ratios and shell less egg ratios were comparable amongst the groups. 4. The egg quality indices were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the Haugh units, which decreased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.05) when SFM was added. 5. Digestive organ size was not affected by the dietary treatments, but caecum length increased in hens fed SFM (P < 0.05). Digesta pH in the ileum and caecum was reduced linearly (P < 0.01) with SFM supplementation. 6. Small intestine morphology traits improved with 47 g SFM/kg supplementation, whereas negative effects were observed with 97 g SFM/kg. 7. Productive performance of laying hens improved with 40 or 50 g/kg more CF in feed, mostly from SFM supplementation. It was concluded that this performance increase was attributed mostly to the increase in fat content, rather than DF level, when high-fibre SFM was included in layer diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Helianthus , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal
8.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 283: 103548, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the current medical emergency for novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) leads to respiratory distress syndrome and death. PURPOSE: This review highlighted the effect of COVID-19 on systemic multiple organ failure syndromes. This review is intended to fill a gap in information about human physiological response to COVID-19 infections. This review may shed some light on other potential mechanisms and approaches in COVID -19 infections towards systemic multiorgan failure syndromes. FINDING: SARS-CoV-2 intervened mainly in the lung with progression to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) receptor. Depending on the viral load, infection spread through the ACE2 receptor further to various organs such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, endothelium, GIT, immune cell, and RBC (thromboembolism). This may be aggravated by cytokine storm with the extensive release of proinflammatory cytokines from the deregulating immune system. CONCLUSION: The widespread and vicious combinations of cytokines with organ crosstalk contribute to systemic hyper inflammation and ultimately lead to multiple organ dysfunction (Fig. 1). This comprehensive study comprises various manifestations of different organs in COVID-19 and may assist the clinicians and scientists pertaining to a broad approach to fight COVID 19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/imunologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia/imunologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Carga Viral
9.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(1): 48-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467320

RESUMO

AIMS: The histopathological diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is associated with poor interobserver agreement and guidelines dictate expert review. To facilitate nationwide expert review in the Netherlands, a web-based digital review panel has been set up, which currently consists of eight 'core' pathologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate if other pathologists from the Dutch BO expert centres qualify for the expert panel by assessing their performance in 80 consecutive LGD reviews submitted to the panel. METHODS: Pathologists independently assessed digital slides in two phases. Both phases consisted of 40 cases, with a group discussion after phase I. For all cases, a previous consensus diagnosis made by five core pathologists was available, which was used as reference. The following criteria were used: (1) percentage of 'indefinite for dysplasia' diagnoses, (2) percentage agreement with consensus diagnosis and (3) proportion of cases with a consensus diagnosis of dysplasia underdiagnosed as non-dysplastic. Benchmarks were based on scores of the core pathologists. RESULTS: After phase I, 1/7 pathologists met the benchmark score for all quality criteria, yet three pathologists only marginally failed the agreement with consensus diagnosis (score 68.3%, benchmark 69%). After a group discussion and phase II, 5/6 remaining aspirant panel members qualified with all scores within the benchmark range. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch BO review panel now consists of 14 pathologists, who-after structured assessments and group discussions-can be considered homogeneous in their review of biopsies with LGD.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Patologistas , Idoso , Benchmarking , Biópsia , Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(4): 690-711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208932

RESUMO

Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds in plants and they are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet. Due to their considerable structural diversity, this largely influences their bioavailability. Since a large proportion of polyphenols remains unabsorbed along the gastrointestinal tract, they may accumulate in the large intestine, where most of them are extensively metabolized by the intestinal microbiota. The formation of bioactive polyphenol-derived metabolites may also benefit the health status of the subjects, although the mechanisms have not been delineated. This review aims to highlight the impact of polyphenols on gut health and the modes of action could be through modulation of intestinal barrier function, innate and adaptive immune response, signaling pathways, as well as the ability to modify gut microbiota composition. The review will conclude by presenting future perspective and challenges of polyphenols application in food products to be used for preventing or treating diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Dieta , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
11.
Clin Radiol ; 76(1): 74.e1-74.e14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109350

RESUMO

As the coronavirus pandemic evolves, the focus of radiology departments has begun to change. The acute phase of imaging a new disease entity whilst rationalising radiology services in the face of lockdown has passed. Radiologists are now becoming familiar with the complications of COVID-19, particularly the lung parenchymal and pulmonary vascular sequelae and are considering the impact follow-up imaging may have on departments already struggling with a backlog of suspended imaging in the face of reduced capacity. This review from the British Society of Thoracic Imaging explores both the thoracic and extra-thoracic complications of COVID-19, recognising the importance of a holistic approach to patient follow-up. The British Thoracic Society guidelines for respiratory follow-up of COVID-19 will be discussed, together with newly developed reporting templates, which aim to provide consistency for clinicians as well as an opportunity for longer-term data collection.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , /diagnóstico por imagem , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia , Reino Unido
12.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116099, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272805

RESUMO

Bats are poorly understood as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant strains; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus strains isolated from bat species from Poland. A multi-stage analysis based on targeted isolation of drug-resistant strains (selective media with tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin), determination of the phenotypic profile of drug-susceptibility using the disc diffusion method, and amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) was used for the isolation and differentiation of strains. The applied strategy finally allowed identification of E. faecalis resistant to at least one antimicrobial in 47.2% of the single-animal group and in 46.9% of the pooled samples of bat's guano. Out of the 36 distinct isolates, 69% met the criteria of multi-drug resistance, with a dominant combination of resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Simultaneously, 41.6% of the strains were high-level aminoglycoside resistant (HLAR). In most strains, phenotypic resistance was reflected in the presence of at least one gene encoding resistance to a given drug. Moreover, our research results show that some genes were detected simultaneously in the same strain statistically significantly more frequently. This may confirm that the spread of some genes (tetM and ermB or aph (3')-IIIa as well as gelE and aac (6')-Ie-aph (2″)-Ia or ant (6)-Ia) is associated with their common occurrence on the same mobile genetic element. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of multidrug-resistance among E. faecalis isolated from bats. Our research demonstrates that the One Health concept is not associated exclusively with food-producing animals and humans, but other species of wildlife animals should be covered by monitoring programs as well. We confirmed for the first time that bats are an important reservoir of multi-resistant E. faecalis strains and could have a great impact on environmental resistance.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia
13.
Life Sci ; 264: 118688, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130074

RESUMO

AIMS: Many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are developmental in origin and are caused by abnormal enteric nervous system (ENS) formation. Maternal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy affects multiple central nervous system developmental processes during embryogenesis and fetal life. Here, we evaluated whether maternal diet-induced VAD during pregnancy alone can cause changes in the ENS that lead to GI dysfunction in rat offspring. MAIN METHODS: Rats were selected to construct animal models of normal VA, VA deficiency and VA supplementation. The fecal water content, total gastrointestinal transmission time and colonic motility were measured to evaluate gastrointestinal function of eight-week-old offspring rats. The expression levels of RARß, SOX10, cholinergic (ChAT) and nitrergic (nNOS) enteric neurons in colon tissues were detected through western blot and immunofluorescence. Primary enteric neurospheres were treated with retinoic acid (RA), infection with Ad-RARß and siRARß adenovirus, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Our data revealed marked reductions in the mean densities of cholinergic and nitrergic enteric neurons in the colon and GI dysfunction evidenced by mild intestinal flatulence, increased fecal water content, prolonged total GI transit time and reduced colon motility in adult offspring of the VAD group. Interestingly, maternal VA supplementation (VAS) during pregnancy rescued these changes. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to appropriate doses of RA promoted enteric neurosphere differentiation into cholinergic and nitrergic neurons, possibly by upregulating RARß expression, leading to enhanced SOX10 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal VAD during pregnancy is an environmental risk factor for GI dysfunction in rat offspring.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Neurônios Nitrérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/biossíntese , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Neurônios Nitrérgicos/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/antagonistas & inibidores , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações
14.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128239, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035854

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of actinidin, a cysteine protease in kiwifruit, on the hydrolysis of gluten proteins and digestion-resistant gluten peptides (synthetic 33-mer peptide and pentapeptide epitopes) under static simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Actinidin efficacy in hydrolysing gliadin was compared with that of other gluten-degrading enzymes. Actinidin hydrolysed usually resistant peptide bonds adjacent to proline residues in the 33-mer peptide. The gastric degree of hydrolysis of gluten proteins was influenced by an interaction between pH and actinidin concentration (P < 0.05), whereas the pentapeptide epitopes hydrolysis was influenced only by the actinidin concentration (P < 0.05). The rate of gastric degree of hydrolysis of gliadin was greater (P < 0.05) by actinidin (0.8%/min) when compared to papain, bromelain, and one commercial enzyme (on average 0.4%/min), while all exogenous enzymes were able to hydrolyse the pentapeptide epitopes effectively. Actinidin is able to hydrolyse gluten proteins under simulated gastric conditions.


Assuntos
Actinidia/enzimologia , Biomimética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Hidrólise
15.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(1): 13-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many concerns still exist regarding the safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 and other diseases by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the safety of HCQ in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were retrieved starting from the establishment of the database till June 5, 2020. Literature screening, data extraction, and assessment of risk bias were performed independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: We identified 53 eligible studies involving 5496 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that the risk of adverse effects (AEs) in the HCQ group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group (RD 0.05, 95%CI, 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), and the difference was also statistically significant in the COVID-19 subgroup (RD 0.15, 95%CI, 0.07 to 0.23, P = 0.0002) as well as in the subgroup for other diseases (RD 0.03, 95%CI, 0.01 to 0.04, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: HCQ is associated with a high total risk of AEs compared with the placebo or no intervention in the overall population. Given the small number of COVID-19 participants included, we should be cautious regarding the conclusion stating that HCQ is linked with an increase incidence of AEs in patients with COVID-19, which we hope to confirm in the future through well-designed and larger sample size studies.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Viés de Publicação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(1): 41-50, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019. Some authors reported pieces of evidence that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could have direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and in symptomatic cases, gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain) could be very common. AREA COVERED: In this article, we reviewed current-published data of the gastrointestinal aspects involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including prevalence and incidence of specific symptoms, the presumptive biological mechanism of GI infection, prognosis, clinical management, and public health-related concerns on the possible risk of oral-fecal transmission. EXPERT OPINION: Different clues point to direct virus infection and replication in mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 could enter into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells by the Angiotensin-Converting enzyme two membrane receptor. These findings, coupled with the identification of viral RNA found in stools of patients, clearly suggest that direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is very likely. This can justify most of the gastrointestinal symptoms but also suggest a risk for an oral-fecal route for transmission, additionally or alternatively to the main respiratory route.


Assuntos
/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , /fisiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/citologia , Humanos , Incidência , Náusea/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Vômito/epidemiologia
18.
Gen Dent ; 69(1): 62-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350958

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting communication, behavior, and socialization in a large number of children and adults. In addition to the classically considered features of autism, individuals with this disorder also often present with multiple significant medical comorbidities that affect dental treatment. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic, psychiatric, and gastrointestinal issues and explores their relevance to dental care. It is incumbent on dentists and members of the dental team to be familiar with the features and comorbidities of autism spectrum disorder and effectively use this knowledge to provide care for patients with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Comunicação , Comorbidade , Assistência Odontológica , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
19.
Food Chem ; 338: 128142, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092002

RESUMO

The aim was to study the in vitro starch digestibility, the free and bound polyphenol profile and their bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of durum wheat semolina spaghetti added with two types of persimmon flour concentrates ("Rojo Brillante" flour and "Triumph" flour) at two concentrations (3 and 6%). Results obtained showed that persimmon flour improves the polyphenol profile of spaghetti by addition gallic acid and coumaric acid-o-hexoside, and increasing 2-fold and around 3-fold its content in spaghetti with 3% and 6% persimmon flours, respectively. Cooked process and digestion affected more to free polyphenol content than bound. Furthermore, 3% persimmon flour enriched spaghetti reduce kinetic of starch digestion, while 6% enriched spaghetti increased it. In conclusion, persimmon flours (Rojo Brillante and Triumph) at low concentrations could be used to develop spaghetti with more polyphenol content and less starch digestibility than traditional spaghetti.


Assuntos
Culinária , Digestão , Diospyros/química , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Frutas/química , Cinética , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química
20.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115715, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069042

RESUMO

Dietary exposure to chemicals alters the diversity of microbiome communities and can lead to pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal system. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is a persistent environmental contaminant that bioaccumulates in fatty tissue of aquatic organisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether environmentally-relevant doses of dieldrin altered gastrointestinal morphology and the microbiome of zebrafish. Adult zebrafish at ∼4 months of age were fed a measured amount of feed containing either a solvent control or one of two doses of dieldrin (measured at 16, and 163.5 ng/g dry weight) for 4 months. Dieldrin body burden levels in zebrafish after four-month exposure were 0 (control), 11.47 ± 1.13 ng/g (low dose) and 18.32 ± 1.32 ng/g (high dose) wet weight [mean ± std]. Extensive histopathology at the whole organism level revealed that dieldrin exposure did not induce notable tissue pathology, including the gastrointestinal tract. A repeated measure mixed model analysis revealed that, while fish gained weight over time, there were no dieldrin-specific effects on body weight. Fecal content was collected from the gastrointestinal tract of males and 16S rRNA gene sequencing conducted. Dieldrin at a measured feed dose of 16 ng/g reduced the abundance of Firmicutes, a phylum involved in energy resorption. At the level of class, there was a decrease in abundance of Clostridia and Betaproteobacteria, and an increase in Verrucomicrobiae species. We used a computational approach called predicted relative metabolomic turnover (PRMT) to predict how a shift in microbial community composition affects exchange of metabolites. Dieldrin was predicted to affect metabolic turnover of uroporphyrinogen I and coproporphyrinogen I [enzyme]-cysteine, hydrogen selenide, selenite, and methyl-selenic acid in the fish gastrointestinal system. These pathways are related to bacterial heme biosynthesis and selenium metabolism. Our study demonstrates that dietary exposures to dieldrin can alter microbiota composition over 4 months, however the long-term consequences of such impacts are not well understood.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Selênio , Animais , Dieldrin/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal , Heme , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Peixe-Zebra
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