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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130723, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500352

RESUMO

The effects of the fat crystal structure on lipid droplets digestion behaviors were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. The crystalline oil-in-water emulsions containing the same solid fat content (SFC) with different fat crystal sizes and polymorphic forms were fabricated by different storage protocols: constant-temperature and inconstant-temperature storage. Oral and gastric processing led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the d4,3 values of the two emulsions, and the two emulsions underwent partial coalescence and flocculation/aggregation. The free fatty acid (FFA) release profiles showed that the lipolysis extent decreased due to a larger crystal size. In addition, the two emulsions showed differences in beta polymorphism. This work further demonstrated that the FFA release could be modulated by the physical properties of the fat.


Assuntos
Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 130980, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628238

RESUMO

Low bioavailability currently limits the potential of curcumin as a health-promoting dietary compound. This study therefore explored the potential of excipient emulsions to improve curcumin bioavailability. Oil-in-water excipient emulsions were prepared using different types of oils: corn oil, olive oil, and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). The excipient emulsions increased the transportation rate of curcumin across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and showed ability to protect curcumin from metabolism in the enterocytes, with the olive oil-based systems exhibiting the highest efficacy. In addition, most of curcumin metabolites were present as hexahydro-curcumin (HHC) and its conjugates. Our results show that excipient emulsions can improve curcumin bioavailability by increasing its trans-enterocyte absorption and reducing cellular metabolism. Moreover, they show that these effects depend on the type of oil used to produce them. These findings have important implications for the rational design of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability of hydrophobic nutraceuticals like curcumin.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Excipientes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Óleo de Milho , Curcumina/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Excipientes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 246-252, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460118

RESUMO

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several studies indicate that the digestive system can also be affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, patients with digestive symptoms should have a capsule endoscopy (CE). COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms who underwent CE were recruited from March 2020 to April 2020. We collected patients' data and performed a prospective follow-up study for 6 months. All 11 COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms who underwent CE presented gastritis. Eight cases (72.7%) had intestinal mucosa inflammation. Among them, two cases showed intestinal ulcers or erosions. Moreover, two cases displayed colonic mucositis. One case was lost during follow-up. At 3-6 months after hospital discharge, five patients underwent CE again, presenting gastrointestinal lesions. Five of the 10 cases had GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and others. Among these five cases, the GI symptoms of three patients disappeared at the last follow-up and two patients still presented diarrhea symptoms. Overall, we observed damaged digestive tract mucosa that could be caused by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, after discharge, some patients still presented intestinal lesions and GI symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(39): 6590-6600, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754154

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seems to employ two routes of entrance to the host cell; via membrane fusion (with the cells expressing both angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane peptidase/serine subfamily member 2/4 (TMPRSS2/4)) or via receptor-mediated endocytosis (to the target cells expressing only ACE2). The second mode is associated with cysteine cathepsins (probably cathepsin L) involvement in the virus spike protein (S protein) proteolytic activation. Also furin might activate the virus S protein enabling it to enter cells. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection is evident in a subset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting GIT symptoms, such as diarrhea, and presenting viral-shedding in feces. Considering the abundance and co-localization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the lower GIT (especially brush-border enterocytes), these two receptors seem to be mainly involved in SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the digestive tract. Additionally, in vitro studies have demonstrated the virions capability of infection and replication in the human epithelial cells lining GIT. However, also furin and cysteine cathepsins (cathepsin L) might participate in the activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contributing to the virus invasiveness within GIT. Moreover, cathepsin L (due to its involvement in extracellular matrix components degradation and remodeling, the processes enhanced during SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation) might be responsible for the dysregulation of absorption/ digestion functions of GIT, thus adding to the observed in some COVID-19 patients symptoms such as diarrhea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Catepsina L , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Internalização do Vírus
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 7000-7004, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790020

RESUMO

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread worldwide, there is still limited knowledge about this condition and its natural history. Children have been relatively spared during COVID-19 pandemic but a novel syndrome known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) has emerged, following a SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents. This syndrome can lead to shock and multiple organ failure requiring intensive care. Although COVID-19 clinical research focuses on respiratory symptoms, extrapulmonary involvement such as gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic manifestations should also be considered. In fact, GI and hepatic involvement play an important role among the most common presenting symptoms of both pediatric and adult COVID-19 and MIS-C. This involvement can not only be one of the most common presenting clinical features but also one of the sequelae of these syndromes. Abdominal ultrasonography monitoring could be very useful to identify a potential involvement of the GI tract and liver. Moreover, long-term follow-up is needed and would be essential to define the long-term outcomes of these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
7.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(10): 1122-1127, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619864

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, and diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics of extranodal nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) of the digestive system. Methods: Thirteen cases of ENKTCL in the digestive system were collected at the Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China, from August 2000 to August 2020. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization features were analyzed, as well as those of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in some cases. The patients were followed up. Results: There were 11 males and 2 females. The age ranged from 28 to 80 years (median=53 years). Seven cases were present in the colorectum, and 3 cases were present in the small intestine. The other three cases were in stomach, gallbladder and liver (one case each). The main clinical symptoms were fever, and abdominal pain, often accompanied by fatigue, diarrhea, hematochezia, elevated serum albumin, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and increased peripheral blood EB virus DNA copy. Histologically, the tumor accompanied by a heavy admixture of inflammatory cells (small lymphocytes, plasma cells and histiocytes). There was diffuse dense tumor cell infiltrate, with prominent coagulative necrosis. The lymphomatous infiltrate had angiocentric and angio-necrotic changes. Immunohistochemically, lymphoid cells expressed CD3 in all cases. Some of them showed weakened/absent other T cell markers, while all of them expressed CD56 except 1 case. A few of the cases showed CD4-/CD8+ killer T cell phenotypes. In situ hybridization showed EB virus encoded RNA (EBER) was positive in all cases. Clonal TCR gene rearrangement was not detected in all 7 cases tested. The median survival time was 9 months. Conclusions: ENKTCL of the digestive system is extremely rare. It often predisposes the patients to acute abdomen such as perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment outcomes are dismal, and the prognosis is poor. Clinical and imaging studies are often non-specific. It is also easy to be misdiagnosed as non-specific ulcers. Combined with immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and TCR gene rearrangement analysis and better understanding of this tumor's clinicopathological characteristics can help improve its diagnosis and early treatment.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Linfoma de Células T , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Células Matadoras Naturais , Linfoma de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 160(5): 193-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674533

RESUMO

Stoma formation is an important component of many surgical procedures performed for a wide range of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Ostomy-related complications remain common and are associated with significant morbidity as well as costs. In 21st century stoma patient care is a dynamically developing field of medicine worldwide. Pouching system production is focused on different physical profiles of population in regards to inequality of the abdominal wall and skin lashes. In many cases it can cause leakage of the pouching system and underflowing of stoma effluent underneath the ostomy device resulting in peristomal skin complications. There is a clear trend of care in patients with inequality of the abdominal wall towards production and distribution of convex ostomy pouching systems. Convex systems of different sizes and depths for patients with ileostomies and colostomies are available on the market. In this way enterostomal therapist has the possibility to use an adequate pouching system (soft, mild and deep convex systems). The authors will review common local complications of stoma creation, detail measures to prevent them and outline recommendations for management including nursing procedures of stoma therapist.


Assuntos
Estomia , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Colostomia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Ileostomia , Estomas Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) is one of the dietary fibers that may have a beneficial effect on cholesterol and/or glucose metabolism, but its efficacy and mode of action remain unclear. METHODS: In the present study, we examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect of α-CD after oral loading of glucose and liquid meal in mice. RESULTS: Administration of 2 g/kg α-CD suppressed hyperglycemia after glucose loading, which was associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion and enhanced hepatic glucose sequestration. By contrast, 1 g/kg α-CD similarly suppressed hyperglycemia, but without increasing secretions of GLP-1 and insulin. Furthermore, oral α-CD administration disrupts lipid micelle formation through its inclusion of lecithin in the gut luminal fluid. Importantly, prior inclusion of α-CD with lecithin in vitro nullified the anti-hyperglycemic effect of α-CD in vivo, which was associated with increased intestinal mRNA expressions of SREBP2-target genes (Ldlr, Hmgcr, Pcsk9, and Srebp2). CONCLUSIONS: α-CD elicits its anti-hyperglycemic effect after glucose loading by inducing lecithin inclusion in the gut lumen and activating SREBP2, which is known to induce cholecystokinin secretion to suppress hepatic glucose production via a gut/brain/liver axis.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/fisiologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598273

RESUMO

It is hypothesized that heat processing may increase P digestibility in different protein sources fed to growing pigs. A study was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in soybean expeller (SBE) produced from oil extraction using dry extrusion and expelling and to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the ATTD and STTD of P in SBE, canola meal (CM), and canola expeller (CE) fed to growing pigs. Thirty-six growing barrows with an initial body weight of 19.0 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental design was a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement including three oilseed meals with or without heat treatment. The diets were formulated to contain non-autoclaved or autoclaved (at 121 °C for 60 min) SBE, CM, and CE as the sole source of P. Limestone was included in diets to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.3:1 across diets. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 12 d, including 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. Pigs were offered their daily ration at 2.8 times their maintenance energy requirement. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of P. Pigs fed the SBE diets had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P than pigs fed CM and CE diets. For the autoclaved ingredients, the values of STTD of P were 49.4%, 23.2%, and 25.8% for SBE, CM, and CE, respectively, whereas STTD of P in non-autoclaved SBE, CM, and CE were 48.5%, 20.2%, and 22.5%. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of Ca. In conclusion, heat treatment increased ATTD and STTD of P and ATTD of Ca in SBE, CM, and CE fed to growing pigs. The ATTD and STTD of P in SBE determined in the current study were 41.0% and 48.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Temperatura Alta , Refeições , Fósforo , Soja , Suínos
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 684605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594323

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been widely exploited in several industrial domains as well as our daily life, raising concern over their potential adverse effects. While in general ENMs do not seem to have detrimental effects on immunity or induce severe inflammation, their indirect effects on immunity are less known. In particular, since the gut microbiota has been tightly associated with human health and immunity, it is possible that ingested ENMs could affect intestinal immunity indirectly by modulating the microbial community composition and functions. In this perspective, we provide a few pieces of evidence and discuss a possible link connecting ENM exposure, gut microbiota and host immune response. Some experimental works suggest that excessive exposure to ENMs could reshape the gut microbiota, thereby modulating the epithelium integrity and the inflammatory state in the intestine. Within such microenvironment, numerous microbiota-derived components, including but not limited to SCFAs and LPS, may serve as important effectors responsible of the ENM effect on intestinal immunity. Therefore, the gut microbiota is implicated as a crucial regulator of the intestinal immunity upon ENM exposure. This calls for including gut microbiota analysis within future work to assess ENM biocompatibility and immunosafety. This also calls for refinement of future studies that should be designed more elaborately and realistically to mimic the human exposure situation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Imunidade Adaptativa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunomodulação
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638577

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Details regarding the pathogenesis of IBS remain largely unknown, though the dysfunction of the brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axis is a major etiological factor, in which neurotransmitters serve as a key communication tool between enteric microbiota and the brain. One of the most important neurotransmitters in the pathology of IBS is serotonin (5-HT), as it influences gastrointestinal motility, pain sensation, mucosal inflammation, immune responses, and brain activity, all of which shape IBS features. Genome-wide association studies discovered susceptible genes for IBS in serotonergic signaling pathways. In clinical practice, treatment strategies targeting 5-HT were effective for a certain portion of IBS cases. The synthesis of 5-HT in intestinal enterochromaffin cells and host serotonergic signaling is regulated by enteric resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can trigger IBS development, potentially through aberrant 5-HT signaling in the BGM axis; thus, the manipulation of the gut microbiota may be an alternative treatment strategy. However, precise information regarding the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-mediated intestinal serotonergic pathway related to the pathogenesis of IBS remains unclear. The present review summarizes current knowledge and recent progress in understanding microbiome-serotonin interaction in IBS cases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
14.
Nat Protoc ; 16(11): 5171-5192, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663962

RESUMO

Human epithelial organoids-3D spheroids derived from adult tissue stem cells-enable investigation of epithelial physiology and disease and host interactions with microorganisms, viruses and bioactive molecules. One challenge in using organoids is the difficulty in accessing the apical, or luminal, surface of the epithelium, which is enclosed within the organoid interior. This protocol describes a method we previously developed to control human and mouse organoid polarity in suspension culture such that the apical surface faces outward to the medium (apical-out organoids). Our protocol establishes apical-out polarity rapidly (24-48 h), preserves epithelial integrity, maintains secretory and absorptive functions and allows regulation of differentiation. Here, we provide a detailed description of the organoid polarity reversal method, compatible characterization assays and an example of an application of the technology-specifically the impact of host-microbe interactions on epithelial function. Control of organoid polarity expands the possibilities of organoid use in gastrointestinal and respiratory health and disease research.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Trato Gastrointestinal , Organoides , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Camundongos
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112228, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649354

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a respiratory illness associated with high mortality, has been classified as a pandemic. The major obstacles for the clinicians to contain the disease are limited information availability, difficulty in disease diagnosis, predicting disease prognosis, and lack of disease monitoring tools. Additionally, the lack of valid therapies has further contributed to the difficulties in containing the pandemic. Recent studies have reported that the dysregulation of the immune system leads to an ineffective antiviral response and promotes pathological immune response, which manifests as ARDS, myocarditis, and hepatitis. In this study, a novel platform has been described for disseminating information to physicians for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19. An adjuvant approach using compounds that can potentiate antiviral immune response and mitigate COVID-19-induced immune-mediated target organ damage has been presented. A prolonged beneficial effect is achieved by implementing algorithm-based individualized variability measures in the treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Informática Médica/métodos , Algoritmos , COVID-19/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684585

RESUMO

Adipokines and gastrointestinal tract hormones are important metabolic parameters, and both epigenetic factors and differential gene expression patterns may be associated with the alterations in their concentrations in children. The function of the FTO gene (FTO alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase) in the regulation of the global metabolic rate is well described, whereas the influence of protooncogene PLAG1 (PLAG1 zinc finger) is still not fully understood. A cross-sectional study on a group of 26 children with various BMI values (15.3-41.7; median 28) was carried out. The aim was to evaluate the dependencies between the level of methylation and expression of aforementioned genes with the concentration of selected gastrointestinal tract hormones and adipokines in children. Expression and methylation were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear DNA by a microarray technique and a restriction enzyme method, respectively. All peptide concentrations were determined using the enzyme immunoassay method. The expression level of both FTO and PLAG1 genes was statistically significantly related to the concentration of adipokines: negatively for apelin and leptin receptor, and positively for leptin. Furthermore, both FTO methylation and expression negatively correlated with the concentration of resistin and visfatin. Cholecystokinin was negatively correlated, whereas fibroblast growth factor 21 positively correlated with methylation and expression of the FTO gene, while FTO and PLAG1 expression was negatively associated with the level of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1. The PLAG1 gene expression predicts an increase in leptin and decrease in ghrelin levels. Our results indicate that the FTO gene correlates with the concentration of hormones produced by the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract, and PLAG1 gene may be involved in adiposity pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Criança , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684635

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity, and its comorbidities, particularly type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and hepatic disease and certain cancers, continues to rise at an alarming rate worldwide [...].


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107672, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597621

RESUMO

Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian pathogen that lives in the midgut ventricular cells of all known honey bee Apis species. We suspect that N. ceranae may also cause energetic stress in the giant honey bee because this parasite is known to disrupt nutrient absorption resulting in energetic stress in the honey bee species Apis mellifera. To understand how N. ceranae impacts the energetic stress of the giant honey bee, A. dorsata, we measured the hemolymph trehalose levels of experimentally infected giant honey bees on days three, five, seven, and fourteen post infection (p.i.). We also measured the hypopharyngeal gland protein content, the total midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, honey bee survival, infection ratio, and spore loads comparing infected and uninfected honey bees across the same time frame. Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees had significantly lowered survival, trehalose levels, hypopharyngeal gland protein content, and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity. We found an increasing level of parasitic loads and infection ratio of N. ceranae-infected bees after inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that the giant honey bee suffers from energetic stress and limited nutrient absorption from a N. ceranae infection, which results in lowered survival in comparison to uninfected honey bees. Our findings highlight that other honey bee species besides A. mellifera are susceptible to microsporidian pathogens that they harbor, which results in negative effects on health and survival. Therefore, these pathogens might be transmitted at a community level, in the natural environment, resulting in negative health effects of multiple honey bee species.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Nosema/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Absorção Fisiológica , Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Longevidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
20.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 471-476, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524198

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and its significance as the origin of viral entry have assisted in comprehending the pathophysiology of extrapulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the clinical significance of gastrointestinal manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: The global pandemic, a result of the widespread implications of SARS-CoV-2, remains a significant burden to current healthcare systems. Fever, dyspnea, and tussive symptoms have primarily been recognized as the most common presenting signs/symptoms. During the past one year our scope of practice has transcended beyond the management of the respiratory system to incorporate other varying systemic manifestations such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The outcomes reported by recent studies suggest an association between the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and important clinical factors such as delay in presentation, disease severity, and mortality. SUMMARY: We provide a summarization of the most recent in-depth investigations of coronavirus disease 2019 with gastrointestinal manifestations and their conclusions. Although the pathophysiology remains an area of evolving interest, a better understanding of this disease process may allow for early recognition, efficient triage, and improved prognostication for those presenting with gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
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