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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 615-646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006377

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms ranging from lack of social interaction and communication deficits to rigid, repetitive, and stereotypic behavior. It has also been associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, aggression, epilepsy, deficit in sensory processing, as well as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Apart from several behavioral and cognitive complications arising as a result of central nervous system dysfunction, there are various physiological comorbidities such as immune system deregulation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gastrointestinal complications which can worsen existing behavioral complications. There are no available treatments for these physiological comorbidities. The prevalence of gastrointestinal complications in ASD ranges from 9% to 70% and it correlates with behaviors consistent with the autistic endophenotype indicating that these are one of the major comorbidities associated with ASD. A strong connection of gut-brain cross talk occurs as a result of gut dysbiosis responsible for excessive production of short-chain fatty acids such as propanoic acid (PPA) by abnormal gut flora in ASD patients. This worsens behavioral, neurochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in ASD. These physiological comorbidities are responsible for the generation of free radical species that cause immune system dysfunction leading to synthesis of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This in turn causes activation of microglia. Dietary phytochemicals are thought to be safer and useful as an alternative neurotherapeutic moiety. These compounds provide neuroprotection by modulating signaling pathways such as Nrf2, NF-κB, MAPK pathway or Sirtuin-FoxO pathway. There has been recent evidence in scientific literature regarding the modulation of gut-brain cross talk responsible for behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as cellular and behavioral sensory alterations by dietary phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane. These dietary phytochemicals can be formulated in novel brain-targeted delivery systems which overcome their limitation of low oral bioavailability and short half-life leading to prolonged action. Till date, not much work has been done on the development of brain-targeted neurotherapeutics for ASD. In this chapter we discuss plausible mechanisms and evidence from our own and other scientific research for the utilization of curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane as neurotherapeutics for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos
3.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(1): 19-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739696

RESUMO

Introduction: The 18th Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society included a session dedicated to the assessment of drug safety on the gastrointestinal (GI) system.Areas covered: GI anatomy, physiology, adverse effects (AEs) of chemical and biological therapies, and approaches to mitigate them.Expert opinion: GI AEs, albeit common and generally of minor intensity, may prolong clinical development time and reduce patient compliance.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos
4.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113294, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585115

RESUMO

Motilin and ghrelin were identified in the pheasant by molecular cloning, and the actions of both peptides on the contractility of gastrointestinal (GI) strips were examined in vitro. Molecular cloning indicated that the deduced amino acid sequences of the pheasant motilin and ghrelin were a 22-amino acid peptide, FVPFFTQSDIQKMQEKERIKGQ, and a 26-amino acid peptide, GSSFLSPAYKNIQQQKDTRKPTGRLH, respectively. In in vitro studies using pheasant GI strips, chicken motilin caused contraction of the proventriculus and small intestine, whereas the crop and colon were insensitive. Human motilin, but not erythromycin, caused contraction of small intestine. Chicken motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus and ileum were not inhibited by a mammalian motilin receptor antagonist, GM109. Neither atropine (a cholinergic receptor antagonist) nor tetrodotoxin (a neuron blocker) inhibited the responses of chicken motilin in the ileum but both drugs decreased the responses to motilin in the proventriculus, suggesting that the contractile mechanisms of motilin in the proventriculus was neurogenic, different from that of the small intestine (myogenic). On the other hand, chicken and quail ghrelin did not cause contraction in any regions of pheasant GI tract. Since interaction of ghrelin and motilin has been reported in the house musk shrew, interaction of two peptides was examined. The chicken motilin-induced contractions were not modified by ghrelin, and ghrelin also did not cause any contraction under the presence of motilin, suggesting the absence of interaction in both peptides. In conclusion, both the motilin system and ghrelin system are present in the pheasant. Regulation of GI motility by motilin might be common in avian species. However, absence of ghrelin actions in any GI regions suggests the avian species-related difference in regulation of GI contractility by ghrelin.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Grelina/farmacologia , Motilina/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/química , Grelina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Motilina/química , Motilina/genética , Proventrículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Codorniz , Ratos , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia
6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 171-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476130

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that α-lactalbumin inhibits the disruption of intestinal barrier function and liver cirrhosis by restoring gut-liver axis function in thioacetamide (TAA) -treated rats. Rat diets were supplemented with α-lactalbumin replacing 50% of dietary protein. After consuming α-lactalbumin for one week, rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA twice a week for 14 weeks. The α-lactalbumin-enriched diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hyaluronic acids. The supplement significantly reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide levels and increased occludin mRNA level. Hepatic fibrosis and regenerative nodules was developed and intestinal villi were shortened by TAA; α-Lactalbumin attenuated these histopathological changes. These results indicated that α-lactalbumin improved intestinal barrier function, suppressing endotoxin levels. These data also suggested that α-lactalbumin ameliorated the impairment of the gut-liver axis by TAA, inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactalbumina/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/dietoterapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Tioacetamida/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 193-203, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789155

RESUMO

As small pieces of plastics known as microplastics pollute even the remotest parts of Earth, research currently focuses on unveiling how this pollution may affect biota. Despite increasing awareness, one potentially major consequence of chronic exposure to microplastics has been largely neglected: the impact of the disruption of the symbiosis between host and the natural community and abundance pattern of the gut microbiota. This so-called dysbiosis might be caused by the consumption of microplastics, associated mechanical disruption within the gastrointestinal tract, the ingestion of foreign and potentially pathogenic bacteria, as well as chemicals, which make-up or adhere to microplastics. Dysbiosis may interfere with the host immune system and trigger the onset of (chronic) diseases, promote pathogenic infections, and alter the gene capacity and expression of gut microbiota. We summarize how chronically exposed species may suffer from microplastics-induced gut dysbiosis, deteriorating host health, and highlight corresponding future directions of research.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , /toxicidade , Animais , Disbiose/veterinária , Ecotoxicologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simbiose , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13237-13246, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671945

RESUMO

The midgut cadherin has been described as one of the main functional receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera) are two major target pests of Bt toxins in China, and the roles of their cadherins in the action of Bt toxins have been only partially studied. Here, we expressed the two cadherins in Sf9 cells and their partial extracellular domains in Escherichia coli and tested them for Bt toxin binding, cellular toxicity, and synergism with toxins. Our results suggested that PxCad might function as a Cry1Ac receptor, although it showed lower binding levels to Cry1Ac and reduced cytotoxicity compared with HaCad. PxCad and HaCad are not receptors for Cry2A, Cry1B, Cry1C, and Cry1F toxins, although some of them can bind to the cadherins. The PxCad-TBR exhibits higher enhancement of Cry1Ac and weak enhancement of Cry1F toxicity in P. xylostella larvae, although it is not the receptor of Cry1F.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Caderinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética
9.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105186, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639608

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal mobilization and oral bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nonextractable residues (NERs) from soils remain unexplored, including associated incremental lifetime cancer risks. This study investigated the gastrointestinal mobilization of PAHs and their NERs from contrasting soils, using a physiologically based extraction test that incorporates a silicone-rod (Si-Org-PBET) as PAH sink. Associated cancer risks following soil ingestion were also evaluated. Four solvent-spiked and aged soils, and four long-term contaminated manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils, were utilized. Total-extractable PAH concentrations were measured after exhaustive solvent extractions of soils. We evaluated the PAH sorption efficiency of the silicone rods and associated sorption kinetics, using PAH-spiked silica sand as the contaminated matrix. We then assessed gastrointestinal mobilization of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene NERs from the solvent-spiked soils, and mobilization of six PAHs and their NERs from the MGP soils. PAH oral bioaccessibility was determined. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs), using Si-Org-PBET- and total-extractable PAH concentrations from the MGP soils, were calculated. Sorption kinetics modelling showed that 95% of mobilized PAHs sorbed to the silicone rods within 2-19 h, depending on PAH physico-chemical properties. Total-extractable and Si-Org-PBET extractable PAH concentrations exceeded health investigation levels (3 mg/kg based on benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent quotients) in soils. PAH oral bioaccessibility approached 100% for solvent-spiked soils, but only 24-36% for the MGP soils. Associated ILCRs exceeded target levels (10-5) for one MGP soil, particularly for 2-3 year olds, despite oral bioaccessibility considerations. In contrast, mobilized PAH NERs did not exceed health investigation and ILCR levels, as the NERs were highly sequestered, especially in the MGP soils. PAH nonextractable residues in long-term contaminated soils are unlikely to be mobilized in concentrations that pose cancer risks to humans following soil ingestion, and do not need to be considered in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Benzo(a)pireno , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4341-4348, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504581

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in diets for beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets with 0 or 15% CG (DM basis), to evaluate DM disappearance, VFA profiles, and gas production. There was a tendency for an interaction (P = 0.06) between diet fed to donor animals and substrate fed to in vitro system, and digestion was increased when CG was added to cultures with ruminal fluid from CG-fed animals. Total VFA were unaffected by diets or by substrate incubated. The CG increased production of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.01) while the gas production was unaffected (P = 0.16). In Exp. 2, 24 crossbred heifers (334.4 ± 0.9 kg BW) were fed the same diets as Exp. 1, for 35 d. Fecal grab samples were collected 3 times daily on day 7, 21, and 35, to evaluate total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and NDF. The CG improved digestibility of diet OM (P = 0.04), and DM followed a similar trend (P = 0.06), while the NDF digestibility was unaffected (P = 0.29). In Exp. 3, crossbred heifers (n = 374; 375.8 ± 36.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass traits when fed diets with 0, 7.5, or 15% CG, with or without added 0.3% salt. Heifers were assigned to 25 pens and were harvested on day 125. Removing salt from CG-based diets did not impact performance (P = 0.50). The CG did not influence average daily gain (P = 0.27), but decreased DM intake (P = 0.003), USDA Yield Grade (P = 0.01), and improved feed efficiency (P = 0.03), while tended to decrease USDA prime carcasses (P = 0.10). Carcass weight (P = 0.24), Longissimus muscle area (P = 0.63), and kidney, pelvic, heart fat (P = 0.59) were unaffected by CG. Twelfth-rib fat was less for heifers fed 15% CG without salt compared with the other treatments (P = 0.005), while marbling was less for heifers fed CG diets compared with the control-fed animals (linear, P = 0.004; quadratic, P = 0.02). In conclusion, GC can replace dry-rolled corn in diets for beef heifers when fed at 15% of diet DM, improving OM digestion, increasing ruminal propionate and butyrate without affecting greenhouse gas emissions. Feeding up to 15% CG improves feed efficiency but depresses marbling and tends to decrease Quality Grade. Removing supplemental salt from CG-diets has no impact on performance or carcass traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicerol/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(40): 36409-36419, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525949

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. Although nanomaterial-based drug delivery has been used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, inferior targeting ability of existing nanocarriers leads to inefficient treatment and side effects. Moreover, the majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials aggregate into the reticuloendothelial system, leaving a certain hidden risk to human health. All those problems gave great demands for further construction of well-performed and biocompatible nanomaterials for in vivo theranostics. In the present work, from a biomimetic point of view, Lactobacillus reuteri biofilm (LRM) was coated on the surface of trackable zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) near-infrared persistent luminescence mesoporous silica to create the bacteria bioinspired nanoparticles (ZGGO@SiO2@LRM), which hold the inherent capability of withstanding the digestion of gastric acid and targeted release 5-FU to colorectum. Through the background-free persistent luminescence bioimaging of ZGGO, the coating of LRM facilitated the localization of ZGGO@SiO2@LRM to the tumor area of colorectum for more than 24 h after intragastric administration. Furthermore, ZGGO@SiO2@LRM hardly entered the blood, which avoided possible damage to immune organs such as the liver and spleen. In vivo chemotherapy experiment demonstrated the number of tumors per mouse in ZGGO@SiO2@LRM group decreased by one-half compared with the 5-FU group (P < 0.001). To sum up, this LRM bioinspired nanoparticles could tolerate the digestion of gastric acid, avoid aggregation by the immune system, favor gut-oriented drug delivery, and targeted release oral 5-FU into colorectum for more than 24 h, which may give new application prospects for targeted delivery of oral drugs into the colorectum.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Luminescência , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Dióxido de Silício/química , Difração de Raios X
12.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 903-912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392633

RESUMO

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economic insect of the Lepidoptera. Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) exposure results in reduced growth and development of B. mori and failure in cocooning, seriously affecting the development of sericulture. To study the mechanisms underlying the damage to silkworm caused by sublethal doses of CAP, we examined the oxidative damage, the activities of digestive enzymes in midgut, and the expressions of midgut-related genes at the mRNA level. We found that CAP exposure inhibited the growth of silkworm, decreased the body mass and caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [the levels of O2-, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were increased by 1.62-, 1.87- and 1.46-fold, respectively]. Moreover, we also found that the midgut cells were disintegrated, microvilli disappeared, the stroma became thinner, and the chromatin of nucleus became aggregated after CAP exposure by the analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the activities of digestive enzymes were dysregulated in midgut (the activities of α-amylase and trypsin were decreased 0.69- and 0.20-fold, respectively). Furthermore, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analysis revealed that the expressions of oxidative phosphorylation pathway and antioxidant defense system related genes in midgut were decreased, indicating that it was the oxidative damage in midgut caused by CAP that mainly affected the growth of silkworm, rather than the toxicological effects of CAP. Collectively, this study provided valuable insights into the toxic effects of CAP on insects.


Assuntos
Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , ortoaminobenzoatos/toxicidade , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4041-4052, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381760

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio in diets adequate in standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P on performance of 26- to 127-kg pigs fed diets with or without phytase. Pens of pigs (n = 1,134 in Exp. 1 and n = 1,215 in Exp. 2, initially 26.3 and 25.3 kg) were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 27 pigs per pen with 7 and 9 replicates per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Treatments were formulated to contain 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, 1.75:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 1, and 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 2. These correspond to a range of 0.96:1 to 2.67:1 and 0.95:1 to 2.07:1 STTD Ca:STTD P ratios in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Experiment 2 diets contained 1,000 phytase units of Ronozyme HiPhos 2500 (DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with release values of 0.132% STTD P, 0.144% total Ca, and 0.096% STTD Ca. Diets contained 122% of NRC (2012) STTD P estimates for the weight range across 4 phases. In Exp. 1, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI). Feed efficiency (G:F) worsened (quadratic, P < 0.05) at the highest ratio. Hot carcass weight (HCW) and bone ash increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) while carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.10) with increasing Ca:P ratio. The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.38:1, 1.25:1, and 1.93:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.82:1, 1.64:1, and 2.57:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. In Exp. 2, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) ADG and bone ash, and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.05). There was a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in HCW and decrease in carcass yield (P < 0.10). The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.63:1, 1.11:1 to 1.60:1, and 1.25:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.75:1, 1.28:1 to 1.71:1, and 1.40:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. Expressing ADG on a STTD Ca:STTD P basis provided a more consistent estimate of the ideal Ca:P ratio among the 2 studies than analyzed Ca to analyzed P ratio. A STTD Ca:STTD P ratio between 1.75:1 to 1.82:1 can be used for 26- to 127-kg pigs that are fed diets adequate in STTD P with or without added phytase to maximize growth rate without reducing bone ash.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109301, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443771

RESUMO

Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, with its performance-enhancing effects replicated across a variety of exercise types. Caffeine exerts its performance-benefits through many mechanisms, including acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist, and serving to reduce sensations of fatigue and pain. One potential mechanism that is currently underexplored is whether caffeine's bitter taste mediates some of its ergogenic effects, which is discussed in this article. Previous research has demonstrated that bitter tastants have the ability to enhance performance, and this effect is mediated by bitter taste receptors in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, the ability to detect bitter tastes is subject to individual variation, raising the potential that the demonstrated inter-individual response to a standardised caffeine dose is potentially driven by differences in taste response. Finally, it appears that some of caffeine's performance-enhancing effects are driven by expectancy. As bitter taste may serve as a signal that caffeine has been ingested, it is possible that some of the expectancy effects of caffeine ingestion are driven by its bitter taste. These aspects all have potentially important implications for future research, as well as for how athletes and coaches utilise caffeine around competition, both of which are explored in depth here.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar , Antecipação Psicológica , Desempenho Atlético , Variação Biológica Individual , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/química , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Antissépticos Bucais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/genética
15.
Nature ; 572(7771): 665-669, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435014

RESUMO

Intestinal commensal bacteria can inhibit dense colonization of the gut by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections1,2. A four-strained consortium of commensal bacteria that contains Blautia producta BPSCSK can reverse antibiotic-induced susceptibility to VRE infection3. Here we show that BPSCSK reduces growth of VRE by secreting a lantibiotic that is similar to the nisin-A produced by Lactococcus lactis. Although the growth of VRE is inhibited by BPSCSK and L. lactis in vitro, only BPSCSK colonizes the colon and reduces VRE density in vivo. In comparison to nisin-A, the BPSCSK lantibiotic has reduced activity against intestinal commensal bacteria. In patients at high risk of VRE infection, high abundance of the lantibiotic gene is associated with reduced density of E. faecium. In germ-free mice transplanted with patient-derived faeces, resistance to VRE colonization correlates with abundance of the lantibiotic gene. Lantibiotic-producing commensal strains of the gastrointestinal tract reduce colonization by VRE and represent potential probiotic agents to re-establish resistance to VRE.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Probióticos , Resistência a Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactococcus lactis/química , Lactococcus lactis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactococcus lactis/fisiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiota/genética , Nisina/química , Nisina/farmacologia , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112166, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421184

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hawthorn is a traditional Chinese medicine for high-calorie-diet-induced dyspepsia (HC-DID) for thousands of years old. Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and clinical and non-clinical trials, its stir-frying processed product, charred hawthorn, possesses better effect. At present, most research mainly focuses on chemical constituents of hawthorn before and after stir-frying process, but there is no relevant action-mechanism study about fragrant odor promoting HC-DID during the stir-frying process of the hawthorn. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study is to research on mechanism of hawthorn decoction coupled with odor of charred hawthorn on digestive in rats with HC-DID. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SPF Kunming (KM) mice and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: control group, model group, cisapride group, hawthorn group (HT), charred hawthorn group (CHT), odor of charred hawthorn (OCHT), CHT + OCHT group. The rats were modeled as HC-DID, whose treatment by intragastric administration and odor administration. Obvious symptoms of HC-DID were observed. Gastrointestinal motility were detected. Histopathology was performed in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract. Related brain-gut peptides were assayed in serum, hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract. Illumina Miseq platform was used for 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing to detect the intestinal flora structure of the caecum of rats. RESULTS: Traditional Chinese medicine decoction of hawthorn (HT and CHT) regulated the body weight, food intake, gastrointestinal motility and abnormal secretion of brain-gut peptides in rats with HC-DID, and the odor of charred hawthorn also had good curative effect for it. Moreover, the intestinal dysbiosis was induced by high-calorie diet in rats with dyspepsia, and hawthorn decoction could ease this trend. CONCLUSION: The above study showed that hawthorn decoction coupled with the odor of charred hawthorn effectively alleviate HC-DID in rats by regulating the "Brain-Gut" axis and gut flora. Odor treatment of hawthorn could be a potential therapeutic approach for HC-DID.


Assuntos
Culinária , Crataegus , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Odorantes , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encéfalo , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Volatilização
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112155, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449858

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Indian medicine has utilized Aeglemarmelos (L.) Corr. commonly called as bael in several indigenous systems against various diseases. Bioactive components isolated from various plant parts of A. marmelos were used in ethno-medicine. More precisely they are known for its antiviral property against various human and animal viruses. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was conducted to investigate the antiviral activity of A.marmelos against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the various crude extracts tested, hexane extracts of leaves of A. marmelos with promising anti-BmNPV activity was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation based on column chromatography. Out of 40 fractions obtained from the fractionation, fractions showing similar TLC profiles were pooled into 14 fractions. A fraction with potential activity was used to purify a molecule with anti-BmNPV activity. This molecule was characterized through structural and functional analyses. RESULTS: The functionally and structurally characterized molecule in the fraction with prospective anti-BmNPV activity revealed a single crystal compound 'seselin' (8, 8-dimethyl pyrido oxazine-2-one). CONCLUSION: It is therefore understood that this seselin compound could be used as a natural medicine for the management of NPV infection in the silkworm larvae under commercial conditions after suitable field evaluations.


Assuntos
Aegle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bombyx/virologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/virologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5767-5777, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287890

RESUMO

We studied the influence of pre-hatch egg weight (EW) and the inclusion of oat hulls (OH) in the diet on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits and growth performance of pullets reared under stress conditions early in life. There were 14 treatments organized as a 7 × 2 factorial with 7 EW groups (47.0 to 54.0 g differing in 1 g between groups) and 2 inclusion levels of OH in the diet (0 vs. 3%). The pullets were reared under a series of stresses early in life (no access to feed for extended time post-hatching, reduced accessibility to feed and water at arrival to the farm, reduced ambient temperature at night, low light intensity, and hot-blade beak trimming at 18 D of age). Feed intake, BW gain, and FCR were measured by period (0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 16 wk of age) and cumulatively. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with EW and OH inclusion as main effects. In addition, EW effect was partitioned into linear and quadratic components. The stress conditions applied affected similarly the growth and GIT development of the pullets, independent of EW. An increase in EW increased BW at hatch and at 5 wk of age linearly (P < 0.05), but no effects were detected thereafter. Oat hulls inclusion increased ADFI and impaired FCR (P < 0.05) from 0 to 5 wk of age but did not affect energy efficiency at any age. At 5 wk of age, the relative weight (% BW) of the GIT decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increases in EW and increased with OH inclusion (P < 0.05). Oat hulls inclusion increased the relative weight of the gizzard at all ages (P < 0.01). In conclusion, egg weight did not affect pullet growth from hatch to 16 wk of age. Independent of the initial BW of the pullets, OH inclusion improved gizzard development at all ages without affecting growth performance.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão , Sementes/química , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4330-4338, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273366

RESUMO

The search for new in vitro modular bioreactors to simulate flow-mediated transport and absorption of chemical substances is a very important issue in toxicology and in drug and bioactive delivery research. The possibility of setting up a dynamic microenvironment leads to experimental conditions that may more closely resemble the in vivo model, especially to measure acute or chronic intake of compounds. We propose a novel millifluidic-based gastrointestinal model as an evolution of the common in vitro methods, to evaluate the exposure to exogenous methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde responsible for the formation of advanced glycation end products involved in a number of chronic diseases. Gastric and intestinal cells were seeded into two different chambers, creating a multi-compartmental system where fluids dynamically interact with human gastric stromal and intestinal cells. MGO was tested at concentrations simulating different MGO food intakes (meal, daily, and hypothetically weekly). Cell viability was measured over time, and simultaneously, extracellular MGO was quantified by a validated RP-HPLC-DAD method to evaluate its absorption/metabolization. This new platform gives the opportunity to connect different compartments, allowing studying kinetic and metabolic profiles of different substances and representing a very promising alternative to animal models, at least in preliminary investigations.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia , Reatores Biológicos , Células CACO-2 , Caspases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/instrumentação , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos
20.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(7): 541-546, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333204

RESUMO

Medications that reduce gastric acid secretion are commonly prescribed for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, several studies have shown that these medications are not very effective, and are associated with adverse effects. This article discusses the physiology of gastric acid secretion, clinical indications and pharmacology of acid suppressing medications, and possible adverse effects of these medications.


Assuntos
Antiácidos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Trato Gastrointestinal , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neonatologia/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos
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