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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 326-333, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549562

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) pathology is common in elasmobranchs; however, information regarding normal GI transit time and the effect of therapeutics on GI motility is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine baseline gastric emptying and GI transit times in cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) and whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) via radiographic barium sulfate contrast studies. Additionally, a pilot study was undertaken to determine the effect of metoclopramide on GI transit time in whitespotted bamboo sharks. Eight cownose rays and eight whitespotted bamboo sharks were administered a 98% w/w barium sulfate suspension at 8 ml/kg via orogastric tube. Post-contrast radiographs were obtained at 2 min, 3, 6, 12, and 23 hr for rays; and 2 min, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 25, 30, 36, and every 12 hr until complete gastric emptying occurred for sharks. In cownose rays, the mean and standard error were established for time of initial spiral colon filling (3.4 ± 0.4 hr), complete spiral colon opacification (12 ± 0 hr), initial spiral colon emptying (21.6 ± 1.4 hr), and complete gastric emptying (23 ± 0 hr). In bamboo sharks, the mean and standard error were established for time of initial spiral colon filling (5.3 ± 0.5 hr), complete spiral colon opacification (12.4 ± 1.3 hr), initial spiral colon emptying (22.5 ± 2.7 hr), and complete gastric emptying (39.9 ± 3.3 hr). Cownose rays had a significantly shorter time to spiral colon filling and complete gastric emptying compared with bamboo sharks (P < 0.05). Whitespotted bamboo sharks (n = 8) were administered metoclopramide (0.4 mg/kg orally once daily for 10 days) and the barium series was repeated. Complete gastric emptying time was significantly shorter in treated sharks compared with control (P < 0.05), suggesting that metoclopramide may be a useful therapeutic for GI motility disorders in elasmobranchs.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metoclopramida/administração & dosagem , Tubarões/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Rajidae/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(6): 616-624, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416862

RESUMO

Sleep quality and sleep disorders affect symptom manifestation and the pathogenesis of digestive diseases. Sleep is largely regulated by the light-dark cycle and associated circadian rhythms. These occurrences are closely regulated through several mechanisms with direct effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Misalignment of the circadian system is a common cause of sleep complaints, which play an important role in the presentation of many gastrointestinal disorders. This Review will focus on sleep disorders and how these alterations in sleep play an important role in many commonly encountered digestive diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therapeutic interventions focusing on resolving sleep disorders could optimise treatment and improve quality of life in these patients.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo
3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(22): 4505-4522, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424438

RESUMO

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an extensive network comprising millions of neurons and glial cells contained within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The major functions of the ENS that have been most studied include the regulation of local gut motility, secretion, and blood flow. Other areas that have been gaining increased attention include its interaction with the immune system, with the gut microbiota and its involvement in the gut-brain axis, and neuro-epithelial interactions. Thus, the enteric circuitry plays a central role in intestinal homeostasis, and this becomes particularly evident when there are faults in its wiring such as in neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we first focus on the current knowledge on the cellular composition of enteric circuits. We then further discuss how enteric circuits detect and process external information, how these signals may be modulated by physiological and pathophysiological factors, and finally, how outputs are generated for integrated gut function.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Neuroglia/imunologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255481

RESUMO

A study was conducted to determine effects of reducing hindgut pH through dietary inclusion of high-amylose cornstarch (HA-starch) on growth performance, organ weights relative to live body weight (BW), blood thyroid hormone levels, and glucosinolate degradation products of nursery pigs fed cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC). A total of 240 pigs (initial BW: 7.1 kg), which had been weaned at 21 d of age, were housed in 40 pens (6 pigs per pen) and fed 4 diets (10 pens per diet) in a randomized complete block design for 28 d. Four diets were a basal diet with CPCC at 0 or 40%, and with HA-starch at 0 or 40% in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The diets were fed in two phases: Phase 1 from day 0 to 14 and Phase 2 from day 14 to 28 and were formulated to have the same net energy, standardized ileal digestible AA, Ca, and standardized total tract digestible P contents. Dietary inclusion of CPCC and HA-starch was achieved by a partial or complete replacement of corn, soybean meal, and soy protein. At the end of the study, one pig from each pen was euthanized to determine organ weights, blood parameters, hindgut pH, and glucosinolate degradation products. Dietary CPCC reduced (P < 0.05) overall average daily gain (ADG) by 15%; increased (P < 0.05) relative weights of liver and thyroid gland by 27% and 64%, respectively; and reduced (P < 0.05) serum tetraiodothyronine (T4) level from 30.3 to 17.8 ng/mL. Heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract weights; serum triiodothyronine level; and hindgut pH of pigs were unaffected by dietary CPCC. Dietary HA-starch reduced (P < 0.05) overall ADG, relative weight of thyroid gland, cecal, and colonic pH; but increased (P < 0.05) relative weight of colon; tended to increase (P = 0.062) serum T4 level. Dietary CPCC and HA-starch interacted (P = 0.024) on relative weight of thyroid gland such that dietary CPCC increased (P < 0.05) weight of thyroid gland for HA-starch-free diet (120 vs. 197 mg/kg of BW) but not for HA-starch-containing diet (104 vs. 130 mg/kg of BW). Dietary CPCC and HA-starch interacted (P = 0.001) on cecal isothiocyanate content such that dietary CPCC increased (P < 0.05) level of isothiocyanates for HA-starch-containing diet but not for HA-starch-free diet. In conclusion, dietary CPCC reduced growth performance, increased liver, size and interfered with thyroid gland functions of pigs. However, the negative effects of dietary CPCC on thyroid gland functions of nursery pigs were alleviated by dietary HA-starch.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica napus/química , Glucosinolatos/toxicidade , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Soja , Zea mays
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307532

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary complexity and l-Thr supplementation on energy and nutrient utilization in nursery pigs. Thirty-two nursery pigs (7.23 ± 0.48 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement based on diet complexity (complex vs. simple) with different levels of l-Thr supplementation. The complex diet contained animal protein sources (e.g., fish meal and plasma) and a dairy product (e.g., dried whey) to mimic a conventional nursery diet. The simple diet was formulated with corn, wheat, and soybean meal. Both diets were supplemented with l-Thr to contain either 100% or 115% (SUP Thr) of the estimated standardized ileal digestible Thr requirement for 9 kg body weight pigs (NRC, 2012). The pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed an experimental diet ad libitum for a 7-d adaptation period and 5 d of total but separate urine and fecal collection. On day 14, all pigs were euthanized to determine body composition. The diet complexity, l-Thr supplementation, and their interactions were considered main effects. Pigs fed the complex diet tended to exhibit greater (P < 0.10) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ash and urinary energy output than those fed the simple diet. The complex diet had greater (P < 0.05) digestible energy and net energy contents than the simple diet. Furthermore, the complex diet-fed pigs had lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea nitrogen concentration on day 14 than simple diet-fed pigs. The SUP Thr decreased (P < 0.05) ATTD of acid detergent fiber but trended (P < 0.10) toward a decrease in urinary nitrogen (N) output and an increase in N retention and body N mass. In conclusion, the simple diet for nursery pigs had lower digestible and net energy contents than a complex diet. The SUP Thr can improve N utilization and body protein deposition, irrespective of diet complexity.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Soja , Triticum , Zea mays
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271920

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to compare ruminal total tract digestibility, bacterial communities, and eating and rumination activity between Holstein and Angus steers fed grain- or forage-based diets. Six Holstein steers (average body weight [BW] = 483 ± 23 kg) and six Angus steers (average BW = 507 ± 29 kg), previously fitted with rumen cannulae, were fed in a crossover design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of four treatments: 1) Holsteins fed a grain-based diet, 2) Holsteins fed a forage-based diet, 3) Angus fed a grain-based diet, and 4) Angus fed a forage-based diet. Each period was 35 d with 26 d of diet adaptation and 9 d of sample collection. On days 1 and 2 of collection, feeding activity was recorded for 48 h. On day 3, rumen contents were sampled to measure ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 h after feeding. A portion of the strained ruminal fluid was subsampled at 0, 3, and 6 h for volatile fatty acids (VFA) analysis. Rumen contents were subsampled at 3 h for analysis of bacterial communities. From day 4 to 8, total fecal excretion, feed, and refusals samples were collected and analyzed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch. On days 8 and 9 (0 and 3 h post-feeding, respectively), total reticulorumen evacuation was conducted and contents were weighed. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures in SAS (v9.4 SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Repeated measures were used to analyze changes in ruminal pH and VFA over time. There were no interactions of diet × breed (P ≥ 0.07). While the main effects of diet were expected, unique to these data is the fact that bacterial diversity and richness were reduced (P < 0.01) in cattle fed grain-based diets. There was no main effect (P > 0.34) of breed on total tract DM, organic matter, and starch digestibility, but Angus cattle had greater (P = 0.01) NDF digestibility than Holsteins. The increased NDF digestibility may be associated with a numerical (P = 0.08) increased numbers of bacterial species in Angus steers compared with Holstein steers. Holstein steers also spent more time (P ≤ 0.05) ruminating than Angus steers. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of breed on reticulorumen content at feeding time; however, Holstein steers had greater (P = 0.04) reticulorumen content on a wet basis 3 h post-feeding. Although Holstein steers spent more time ruminating, Angus steers were better able to digest NDF when compared with Holsteins, regardless of basal diet, and this improvement may be related to changes in bacterial communities in the rumen or to rumination activity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280983

RESUMO

This research evaluated a feed additive (benzoic acid, eugenol, thymol, and piperine), associated or not with colistin, in weaned piglets feeding. The parameters evaluated were growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, diarrhea incidence, intestinal morphology, relative weights of digestive organs, microbial diversity, and the percentages of operational taxonomic units of microorganisms in the cecum content of pigs. One-hundred and eight crossbred piglets (5.3 ± 0.5 kg) were used in a three-phase feeding program (21 to 35, 36 to 50, 51 to 65 d of age) and fed a control diet with no inclusion of growth promoter feed additive, a diet with 40 ppm of colistin, a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive, and a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive and 40 ppm of colistin. The diets were based on corn, soybean meal, dairy products, and spray-dried blood plasma and formulated to provide 3.40, 3.38, and 3.20 Mcal of ME/kg and 14.5, 13.3, and 10.9 g/kg of digestible lysine, in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The piglets were housed three per pen, with nine replicates per diet, in a complete randomized block design based on initial BW. The data were submitted to ANOVA and means were separated by Tukey test (5%), using SAS. Pigs fed diets with the alternative feed additive had greater (P < 0.05) ADG (114.3 vs. 91.8 g) and ADFI (190.1 vs. 163.3 g) in phase 1 than pigs fed diets without the product. The alternative additive improved (P < 0.05) ATTD of crude protein (CP) in phase 1 (71.0% vs. 68.6%), gross energy in phases 1 (77.4% vs. 75.2%) and 3 (79.0% vs. 77.1%), and dry matter in phase 3 (79.1% vs. 77.1%). The antibiotic inclusion in the diets increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of CP in phase 1 (71.5% vs. 68.2%). The alternative feed additive tended (P = 0.06) to increase (46%) normal feces frequency, decreased (P < 0.05) goblet cells count (104.3 vs. 118.1) in the jejunum, and decreased (P < 0.05) small intestine (4.60% vs. 4.93%) and colon (1.41% vs. 1.65%) relative weights, compared with pigs not fed with the alternative additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a lower concentration of Escherichia-Shigella (1.46% vs. 3.5%) and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of Campylobacter (0.52% vs. 10.21%) in the cecum content of piglets fed diets containing essential oils and benzoic acid compared with pigs fed diets without the alternative feed additive. The alternative feed additive was effective in improving growth performance, diets digestibility, and gut health in piglets soon after weaning.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenol/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Soja , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Timol/farmacologia , Desmame , Zea mays
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300795

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the impact of an F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge on growth performance, aspects of intestinal function, and selected immune responses of piglets, as well as to evaluate potential protective effects of direct-fed microbial (DFM) blends. Seventy-two weaned piglets (6.4 ± 0.2 kg body weight [BW]; ~21 d of age) were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) NC: Nonchallenged (n = 10), 2) positive challenged control (PC): F18 ETEC-challenged (n = 10), 3) PC + DFM1 (n = 8; three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; 7.5 × 105 colony-forming units [cfu]/g), or 4) PC + DFM2 (n=8; 2 strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and one strain of Bacillus subtilis; 1.5 × 105 cfu/g). Feed intake and BW were recorded on day 0, 7, and 17. Pigs were sham-infected either with 6 mL phosphate-buffered saline or inoculated with 6 mL F18 ETEC (~1.9 × 109 cfu/mL) on day 7 (0 d postinoculation [dpi]). All ETEC-challenged pigs were confirmed to be genetically susceptible to F18. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the 17-d trial. Fecal scores were visually ranked and rectal temperatures were recorded daily. To evaluate ETEC shedding, fecal swabs were collected on dpi 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Blood samples were collected on dpi 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Ileal tissues were collected at necropsy on dpi 10. All challenged treatments had lower final BW, decreased average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the 10-d postchallenge period (P < 0.01). The DFM2 treatment increased E. coli shedding on dpi 2 and decreased iton dpi 7 (P < 0.05) compared with the PC. Rectal temperature decreased across all challenged treatments (P < 0.01). Ileal mRNA abundance of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) decreased in PC and DFM1 compared with NC (P < 0.05). Pigs fed DFM2 had intermediate ileal mRNA abundance of OCLN and increased ZO-1 mRNA compared with pigs in PC (P < 0.05). Interleukin 8 (IL-8) increased in the plasma of PC and DFM2 on dpi 2 compared with NC (P < 0.05). Mucosal IL-8 increased in PC compared with NC (P < 0.05). All challenged treatments tended to have elevated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA abundance compared with NC (P < 0.10). Challenged pigs had reduced secretory immunoglobulin A and villus height compared with NC pigs (P < 0.05). The impact of an ETEC challenge on intestinal function and the immune system has been revealed, information critical to developing improved treatment regimes.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Probióticos/análise , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Dieta/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206781

RESUMO

Stress is a biological adaptive response to restore homeostasis, and occurs in every animal production system, due to the multitude of stressors present in every farm. Heat stress is one of the most common environmental challenges to poultry worldwide. It has been extensively demonstrated that heat stress negatively impacts the health, welfare, and productivity of broilers and laying hens. However, basic mechanisms associated with the reported effects of heat stress are still not fully understood. The adaptive response of poultry to a heat stress situation is complex and intricate in nature, and it includes effects on the intestinal tract. This review offers an objective overview of the scientific evidence available on the effects of the heat stress response on different facets of the intestinal tract of poultry, including its physiology, integrity, immunology, and microbiota. Although a lot of knowledge has been generated, many gaps persist. The development of standardized models is crucial to be able to better compare and extrapolate results. By better understanding how the intestinal tract is affected in birds subjected to heat stress conditions, more targeted interventions can be developed and applied.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Animais , Fazendas , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
10.
Dig Dis ; 38(4): 293-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactions between brain and gut have been suspected for centuries but our understanding of the neural centers and neurohormonal links that establish bidirectional regulatory communication between these 2 body systems has advanced significantly in the last decades. The label "brain-gut axis" designates a useful but deceivingly simple concept, since the mechanistic complexity of brain-gut interaction is enormous. SUMMARY: The significance of the brain-gut axis is perhaps best conceived as "a team" since both systems are physiologically coordinated to ensure a healthy status. However, under pathophysiological conditions, the axis also contributes substantially to distort homeostasis. For instance, normal signals emanating from the gut may be inappropriately received and interpreted by the central nervous system that responds by inadequately recruiting other brain structures and generate both symptoms and commands that disturb normal gut activity. Key Messages: Thus, at each end and in the brain-gut connecting routes, there is the potential for altering perceived and unperceived sensations and further impinging on normal function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1254-1266, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111303

RESUMO

Pioneer colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by bacteria is thought to have major influence on neonatal tissue development. Previous studies have shown in ovo inoculation of embryos with saline (S), species of Citrobacter (C, C2), or lactic acid bacteria (L) resulted in an altered microbiome on day of the hatch (DOH). The present study investigated GIT proteomic changes at DOH in relation to different inoculations. Embryos were inoculated in ovo with S or ∼102 cfu of C, C2, or L at 18 embryonic days. On DOH, the GIT was collected, and tissue proteins were extracted for analysis via tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 493 proteins were identified for differential comparison with S at P ≤ 0.10. Different levels were noted in 107, 39, and 78 proteins in C, C2, and L groups, respectively, which were uploaded to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to determine canonical pathways and biological functions related to these changes. Three members of the cytokine family (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL6, and Oncostatin M) were predicted to be activated in C2, indicated with Z-score ≥ 1.50, which suggested an overall proinflammatory GIT condition. This was consistent with the activation of the acute-phase response signaling pathway seen exclusively in C2 (Z-score = 2.00, P < 0.01). However, activation (Z-score = 2.00) of IL-13, upregulation of peroxiredoxin-1 and superoxide dismutase 1, in addition to activation of nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system of the L treatment may predict a state of increased antioxidant capacity and decreased inflammatory status. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response (Z-score = 2.00, P < 0.01) was predicted to be upregulated in C which suggested that chicks were in an inflammatory state and associated oxidative stress, but the impact of these pathways differed from that of C2. These changes in the proteome suggest that pioneer colonizing microbiota may have a strong impact on pathways associated with GIT immune and cellular development.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219327

RESUMO

Rendered products from the meat industry can provide economical quality sources of proteins to the animal and feed industry. Similar to lipids, rendered proteins are susceptible to oxidation, yet the stability of these proteins is unclear. In addition, interest in understanding how oxidative stress can impact efficiency in production animals is increasing. Recent studies show that consumption of oxidized lipids can lead to a change in the oxidative status of the animal as well as decreases in production efficiency. To date, little is known about how consumption of oxidized proteins impacts oxidative status and growth performance. The objectives of this study were to determine if feeding diets high in oxidized protein to growing pigs would: 1) impact growth performance and 2) induce oxidative stress. Thirty pigs (42 d old; initial body weight [BW] 12.49 ± 1.45 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments with increasing levels of oxidized protein. Spray-dried bovine plasma was used as the protein source and was either unheated upon arrival, heated at 45 °C for 4 d, or heated at 100 °C for 3 d. Diets were fed for 19 d and growth performance was measured. Blood plasma (days 0 and 18), jejunum, colon, and liver tissues (day 19) were collected to analyze for markers of oxidative stress (e.g., protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, DNA damage, and glutathione peroxidase activity). Average daily gain (ADG;P < 0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI;P < 0.01) had a positive linear relationship to increased protein oxidation, but there was no effect on gain to feed ratio. Furthermore, protein (P = 0.03) and fat (P < 0.01) digestibility were reduced with increased protein oxidation in the diet. Crypt depth showed a positive linear relationship with dietary protein oxidation levels (P = 0.02). A trend was observed in liver samples where pigs fed the plasma heated to 45 °C had increased lipid oxidation compared with pigs fed the plasma either unheated or heated to 100 °C (P = 0.09). DNA damage in the jejunum tended to have a linear relationship with the dietary protein oxidation level (P = 0.07). Even though results suggest dietary oxidized protein did not induce oxidative stress during short-term feeding, differences in performance, gut morphology, and digestibility are likely a result of reduced protein availability.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 56: 100931, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203883

RESUMO

The spatial organization of digestion, which corresponds to the steps by which the ingested food is hydrolyzed in the different regions of the gut, was described in insects from the major insect orders. The pattern of digestion and absorption in the midgut shows a strong phylogenetic influence, modulated by adaptation to particular feeding habits. Based on this, basic digestive patterns were recognized and were proposed to represent the major ancestors from which the different orders evolved. The putative ancestors chosen to represent different points in the evolution from basal Neoptera to more derived orders were: Neoptera, Polyneoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera-Panorpoidea (Diptera-Lepidoptera), Lepidoptera, and Cyclorrhapha. The basic plan of Neoptera was supposed to be alike that of Polyneoptera, which was hypothesized from studies performed in grasshoppers, crickets and from stick insects. For Holometabola, the basic plan was initially proposed from studies carried out in beetles, bees, nematocerous flies, common flies and also from moths. This review updates the physiological data supporting the putative midgut basic patterns by discussing available data on insects pertaining to different taxa and details the evolutionary trends of midgut function among the major insect orders. Furthermore, by using recent genomic and transcriptome data, this review discusses the few insects for which the spatial organization of midgut absorption is known.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Digestão , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 741-756, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008133

RESUMO

Reduction in diversity of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis) is being identified in many disease states, and studies are showing important biologic contributions of microbiome to health and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is being evaluated as a way to reverse dysbiosis in diseases and disorders in an attempt to improve health. The published literature was reviewed to determine the value of FMT in the treatment of medical disorders for which clinical trials have recently been conducted. FMT is effective in treating recurrent C. difficile infection in one or two doses, with many healthy donors providing efficacious fecal-derived products. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), FMT may lead to remission in approximately one-third of moderate-to-severe illnesses with one study suggesting that more durable FMT responses may be seen when used once medical remissions have been achieved. Donor products differ in their efficacy in treatment of IBD. Combining donor products has been one way to increase the potential value of FMT in treating chronic disorders. FMT is being explored in a variety of clinical settings affecting different organ systems outside CDI, with positive preliminary signals, in treatment of functional constipation, immunotherapy-induced colitis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as prevention of cancer-related disorders like graft versus host disease and decolonization of patients with recurrent urinary tract infection due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Currently, intense research is underway to see how the microbiome products like FMT can be harnessed for health benefits.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/tendências , Humanos , Doadores Vivos
15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 686-694, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016821

RESUMO

Understanding how health-promoting microbiota are established and their beneficial interactions with the host is of critical biomedical importance. The current high throughput data acquisition technologies allow for integrating components of the gut ecosystem. The richness of data types and large number of measured variables involved underscores the critical importance of the appropriate choice of analytical and computational methods that can be used to model this complex ecosystem. This review outlines currently used approaches to perform analyses of data obtained as a result of interrogation of the gut-microbiota ecosystem and the challenges associated with these methodological and computational efforts. The problem of large dimensionality versus small numbers of samples is explained with discussions of clustering, dimensionality reduction, and statistical testing. Predictive modeling and data integration specific to the gut ecosystem are also discussed.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional/tendências , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Metabolômica/tendências
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 695-705, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067143

RESUMO

The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains communities of microbes (bacteria, fungi, viruses) that vary by anatomic location and impact human health. Microbial communities differ in composition based on age, diet, and location in the gastrointestinal tract. Differences in microbial composition have been associated with chronic disease states. In terms of function, microbial metabolites provide key signals that help maintain healthy human physiology. Alterations of the healthy gastrointestinal microbiome have been linked to the development of various disease states including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and colorectal cancer. While the definition of a healthy GI microbiome cannot be precisely identified, features of a healthy gut microbiome include relatively greater biodiversity and relative abundances of specific phyla and genera. Microbes with desirable functional profiles for the human host have been identified, in addition to specific metabolic features of the microbiome. This article reviews the composition and function of the healthy human GI microbiome, including the relative abundances of different bacterial taxa and the specific metabolic pathways and classes of microbial metabolites contributing to human health and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia
17.
Sci Adv ; 6(3): eaay0065, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010768

RESUMO

Triggerable materials capable of being degraded by selective stimuli stand to transform our capacity to precisely control biomedical device activity and performance while reducing the need for invasive interventions. Here, we describe the development of a modular and tunable light-triggerable hydrogel system capable of interfacing with implantable devices. We apply these materials to two applications in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: a bariatric balloon and an esophageal stent. We demonstrate biocompatibility and on-demand triggering of the material in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Moreover, we characterize performance of the system in a porcine large animal model with an accompanying ingestible LED. Light-triggerable hydrogels have the potential to be applied broadly throughout the GI tract and other anatomic areas. By demonstrating the first use of light-degradable hydrogels in vivo, we provide biomedical engineers and clinicians with a previously unavailable, safe, dynamically deliverable, and precise tool to design dynamically actuated implantable devices.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hidrogéis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Esôfago/fisiologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Stents , Suínos
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052008

RESUMO

The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to detect external markers on processed or unprocessed cattle and sheep fecal specimens to estimate apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was evaluated. Exp. 1: ruminally cannulated Angus-crossbred steers (n = 7; BW = 520 ± 30 kg) were individually fed ad libitum for 21 d in a completely randomized design (CRD). Markers (Cr2O3 and TiO2) were placed inside the rumen twice daily (7.5 g of each marker). Fecal samples were collected twice daily from day 14 to 21. Exp. 2: crossbred wethers (n = 8; BW = 68 ± 3 kg) were individually fed ad libitum for 21 d in a CRD. During this period, 2 g of Cr2O3 and TiO2 were top-dressed onto the feed twice daily. Sheep were housed in metabolism crates for 5 d for total fecal collection. Concentration of markers was determined on diets, refusals, and fecal specimens (fresh, dry-only, and dried/ground) using atomic absorption to detect Cr and spectrophotometry for Ti. Concentration of both markers was also determined via the PXRF spectrometer. Delta between ATTD estimated by wet chemistry and PXRF was not different from zero (P ≥ 0.14) when using cattle fresh fecal specimens for both markers, whereas ATTD estimated by PXRF with dry-only and dried/ground fecal specimens were 3.6 and 1.1 percent units lower (P ≤ 0.04), respectively, than ATTD estimated by wet chemistry for Cr and Ti, respectively. Regardless of the fecal sample preparation method on cattle specimens, Ti concentration was similar (P = 0.39) among methodologies, while Cr was underestimated (P < 0.01) by 13% when PXRF was used in dry-only or dried/ground samples. The ATTD of sheep was underestimated (P < 0.01) by 2.4 percent units compared with control when Cr was measured by PXRF in dry-only samples. The Cr concentration in dry-only fecal specimens of sheep tended (P = 0.09) to be lower compared with wet chemistry analysis. Fresh and dry/ground sheep fecal samples assessed for Cr, and dry-only assessed for Ti were not (P ≥ 0.49) affected by detection method. The Cr fecal recovery tended (P = 0.10) to be the lowest for dry-only, the greatest for wet chemistry, intermediate for fresh and dry/ground sheep-fecal specimens; while not affected (P = 0.40) for Ti. The PXRF is an accurate technology to detect Cr and Ti in fresh cattle fecal samples to estimate ATTD. For fresh and dry/ground, the technology was effective for determining the concentration of Cr, or dry-only fecal specimens when detecting Ti in sheep specimens.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
19.
J Fish Biol ; 96(4): 986-1003, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060920

RESUMO

The Mekong Delta is host to a large number of freshwater species, including a unique group of facultative air-breathing Anabantiforms. Of these, the striped snakehead (Channa striata), the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), the giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) and the snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) are major contributors to aquaculture production in Vietnam. The gastrointestinal responses to feeding in these four species are detailed here. Relative intestinal length was lowest in the snakehead, indicating carnivory, and 5.5-fold greater in the snakeskin, indicating herbivory; climbing perch and giant gourami were intermediate, indicating omnivory. N-waste excretion (ammonia-N + urea-N) was greatest in the carnivorous snakehead and least in the herbivorous snakeskin, whereas the opposite trend was observed for net K+ excretion. Similarly, the more carnivorous species had a greater stomach acidity than the more herbivorous species. Measurements of acid-base flux to water indicated that the greatest postprandial alkaline tide occurred in the snakehead and a potential acidic tide in the snakeskin. Additional findings of interest were high levels of both PCO2 (up to 40 mmHg) and HCO3 - (up to 33 mM) in the intestinal chyme of all four of these air-breathing species. Using in vitro gut sac preparations of the climbing perch, it was shown that the intestinal net absorption of fluid, Na+ and HCO3 - was upregulated by feeding but not net Cl- uptake, glucose uptake or K+ secretion. Upregulated net absorption of HCO3 - suggests that the high chyme (HCO3 - ) does not result from secretion by the intestinal epithelium. The possibility of ventilatory control of PCO2 to regulate postprandial acid-base balance in these air-breathing fish is discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Água Doce , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Sódio/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Vietnã
20.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 818-828, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056091

RESUMO

While there are numerous medical comorbidities associated with ASD, gastrointestinal (GI) issues have a significant impact on quality of life for these individuals. Recent findings continue to support the relationship between the gut microbiome and both GI symptoms and behavior, but the heterogeneity within the autism spectrum requires in-depth clinical characterization of these clinical cohorts. Large, diverse, well-controlled studies in this area of research are still needed. Although there is still much to discover about the brain-gut-microbiome axis in ASD, microbially mediated therapies, specifically probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation have shown promise in the treatment of GI symptoms in ASD, with potential benefit to the core behavioral symptoms of ASD as well. Future research and clinical trials must increasingly consider complex phenotypes in ASD in stratification of large datasets as well as in design of inclusion criteria for individual therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/tendências , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
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