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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1297-1305, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934761

RESUMO

The permeability of saponins and sapogenins from fenugreek and quinoa extracts, as well as dioscin and diosgenin, was evaluated by the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The effect of the digestion process on permeability was determined, with previous development of a gastrointestinal process coupled to PAMPA. Saponins from both seeds displayed a moderate-to-poor permeability (>1 × 10-6 cm/s), although the digestion enhanced their permeability values in the order of 10-5 cm/s (p < 0.001). Sapogenins exhibited a similar permeability to that of saponins, although the digestion enhanced the permeability of sapogenins from quinoa (1.14 ± 0.47 × 10-5 cm/s) but not from fenugreek (2.33 ± 0.99 × 10-6 cm/s). An overall positive impact of coexisting lipids on the permeability was evidenced. PAMPA is shown as a useful, rapid, and easy tool for assessing the permeability of bioactive compounds from complex matrices, with the previous gastrointestinal process being a relevant step.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/química , Saponinas/química , Transporte Biológico , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Digestão , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Biológicos , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 358-368, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815446

RESUMO

Nanoscale chitosan materials exhibit size-specific properties that make them useful in agri-food and biomedical applications. Chitosan nanoparticles (Chnps) are being explored as nanocarrier platforms to increase oral bioavailability of drugs and nutraceuticals, but little is known of their fate and transformations in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or of their potential toxicity. Here, the GIT fate and cytotoxicity of Chnps, soluble starch-coated Chnps (SS-Chnps), and bulk chitosan powder (Chp), were assessed using a 3-phase simulated digestion and an in vitro cellular small intestinal epithelium model. Physico-chemical characterization revealed dissolution of Chp, but not of Chnps or SS-Chnps, during the gastric phase of digestion, stability of the starch coating of SS-Chnps in the oral and gastric phases, and agglomeration of all materials during the small intestinal phase. A slight but significant (10%, p < 0.01) increase in cytotoxicity (LDH release) was observed with exposure to digested Chnps but not Chp or SS-Chnps.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Quitosana/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Quitosana/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula
3.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 171-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476130

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that α-lactalbumin inhibits the disruption of intestinal barrier function and liver cirrhosis by restoring gut-liver axis function in thioacetamide (TAA) -treated rats. Rat diets were supplemented with α-lactalbumin replacing 50% of dietary protein. After consuming α-lactalbumin for one week, rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA twice a week for 14 weeks. The α-lactalbumin-enriched diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hyaluronic acids. The supplement significantly reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide levels and increased occludin mRNA level. Hepatic fibrosis and regenerative nodules was developed and intestinal villi were shortened by TAA; α-Lactalbumin attenuated these histopathological changes. These results indicated that α-lactalbumin improved intestinal barrier function, suppressing endotoxin levels. These data also suggested that α-lactalbumin ameliorated the impairment of the gut-liver axis by TAA, inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactalbumina/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/dietoterapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Tioacetamida/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
4.
Food Chem ; 306: 125478, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610326

RESUMO

Mushrooms can accumulate toxic trace elements. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in dried mushrooms, to determine the effect of cooking on the contents of these elements, and to evaluate their bioaccessibility in the mushrooms ready for consumption. The results showed that Hg levels in Amanita ponderosa, Boletus edulis, Marasmius oreades, and Tricholoma georgii, as well as Cd levels in some samples of Amanita caesarea and T. georgii, exceeded the legislated limits. Cooking significantly reduced the levels of As (26-72%), whereas the reduction in levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb was much lower. However, the bioaccessibility of As (63-81%) was higher than the values obtained for the metals (<40%). Taking the effects of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion into account gives a more realistic estimate of the risk associated with the consumption of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Mercúrio/análise , Culinária , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
5.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 95-110, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626754

RESUMO

Glycans are sequences of carbohydrates that are added to proteins or lipids to modulate their structure and function. Glycans modify proteins required for regulation of immune cells, and alterations have been associated with inflammatory conditions. For example, specific glycans regulate T-cell activation, structures, and functions of immunoglobulins; interactions between microbes and immune and epithelial cells; and malignant transformation in the intestine and liver. We review the effects of protein glycosylation in regulation of gastrointestinal and liver functions, and how alterations in glycosylation serve as diagnostic or prognostic factors, or as targets for therapy.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glicômica , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Hepatopatias/terapia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteômica , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 129-138, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capsaicin, as a major pungent ingredient of peppers, has many health benefits. However, the strong irritation effect of capsaicin inhibits its application in the food industry. Emulsions can be an effective approach to alleviate the irritation. RESULTS: In this study, we used tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as an emulsifier to prepare capsaicin emulsions through high-pressure homogenization. Capsaicin emulsions with a particle size of about 100 nm, -36.4 mV zeta potential, and 91.9% encapsulation efficiency were prepared successfully and showed better environmental stability and higher antioxidant activity. Emulsions reduced the cumulative release of capsaicin and had no toxic effect on buffalo rat liver (BRL-3A) cells. Moreover, the gastrointestinal injury model of rats showed that emulsions reduced the strong irritation of capsaicin. CONCLUSION: This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of irritant ingredients in food industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 315-324, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to utilize tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysate protein, which is normally discarded as industrial waste in the process of fish manufacture, we study the in vivo and in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the peptide Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP). The aim was to provide a pharmacological basis of the development of minimal side effects of ACE inhibitors by comparative analysis with captopril in molecular docking. RESULTS: This peptide from protein-rich wastes showed excellent ACE inhibitory activity (IC50  = 2.577 µmol L-1 ) and exhibited a mixed noncompetitive inhibitory pattern with Lineweaver-Burk plots. Furthermore, LSGYGP and captopril groups both showed significant decreases in blood pressure after 6 h and maintained good digestive stability over 4 h. Molecular bond interactions differentiate competitive captopril upon hydrogen bond interactions and Zn(II) interaction. The C-terminal Pro generates three interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions and Van der Waals interactions) in the peptide and effectively interacts with the S1 and S2 pockets of ACE. CONCLUSION: LSGYGP, with an IC50 value of 2.577 µmol L-1 , has an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Through comparison with captopril, this study revealed that LSGYGP may be a potential food-derived ACE inhibitory peptide and could act as a functional food ingredient to prevent hypertension. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Captopril/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos , Digestão , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cinética , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
8.
Food Chem ; 308: 125598, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648096

RESUMO

An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model was used to investigate the effects of milk matrix: skimmed milk (Sm), whole milk (Wm) and processing methods: pH adjustment, high pressure homogenization processing (HPHP), thermal treatment (TT) on the antioxidant capacity, phenolics bioaccessibility of coffee. Our findings showed that the antioxidant capacity of all the samples decreased or unchanged after in vitro digestion. The total phenolic bioaccessibility of coffee (C), coffee with whole milk (Cwm), and coffee with skimmed milk (Csm) decreased by 29.2%, 28.5%, 21.1% from the HPHP treatment and by 14.7%, 34.2%, and 33.8% from TT, respectively. pH adjustment had little effect on the total phenolic bioaccessibility of Cwm and Csm but significantly decreased that of C. Wm showed better protective effect on the phenolic bioaccessibility than Sm. These results may contribute to the optimization of formulations and processing methods in coffee beverage production, thereby increasing the health benefits of coffee.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 623-632, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846317

RESUMO

The combined effects of succinic anhydride (SA) succinylation and linear dextrin (LD) glycation on whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) and their stabilized emulsions were evaluated. Degree of succinylation (DS), degree of glycation (DG), and degree of browning of samples suggested that a competitive displacement of reactive groups existed when WPH reacted with SA and LD in different orders. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) indicated that the order of modification methods had a significant effect on secondary structures of WPH. Succinylation combined with glycation effectively reduced the surface hydrophobicity and increased the molecular flexibility of WPH. Meanwhile, the total free -SH content decreased, and the exposed free -SH content increased. Results of storage stability and gastrointestinal fate of the curcumin-loaded emulsion revealed that the modified WPH with higher DS was more effective for improving the curcumin bioaccessibility, while that with higher DG was more effective for enhancing the stability of the emulsion.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Anidridos Succínicos/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Dextrinas/química , Emulsões/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
10.
Food Chem ; 303: 125416, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472385

RESUMO

Calcium and vitamin D3 were co-encapsulated in three types of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions stabilized with biopolymers: gum arabic, sodium alginate (Alg) and chitosan (Ch). Three calcium salts with different solubility were used: calcium carbonate (CaC), tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and calcium gluconate (CaG). In order to study the bioavailability of calcium and vitamin D3, the W/O/W double emulsions were subjected to digestion in simulated conditions using in vitro gastrointestinal models. The size of the oil droplets of all double emulsions increased in oral phase and decreased in gastric and intestinal phases. In the intestinal phase, the average diameter of oil globules in the W/O/W(Alg) and W/O/W(Ch) was d23 = 6.56 ±â€¯0.09 and d23 = 5.33 ±â€¯0.01 and the electro-kinetic potential was: ζ ≈ -25 mV and ζ ≈ -17 mV, respectively. Presence of calcium ions in the intestinal fluid decreased the free fatty acids content and decreased the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 due to the inhibition of micellization process.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Colecalciferol/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Digestão , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Solubilidade , Água/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(51): 14027-14037, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771323

RESUMO

Wheat consumption has declined amid growing concerns about gluten-sensitivity. To determine if genetic manipulation of wheat contributes to systemic and localized gut inflammation, we compared the effects of the modern variety Gallagher and a blend of two heirloom varieties, Turkey and Kharkof, on measures of gut inflammation, structural characteristics, and barrier integrity under normal and Western diet (WD) conditions in C57BL/6 mice. Indicators of gut inflammation, including lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine expression, were largely unaffected by WD or wheat, although WD elevated interferon-γ (Ifng) and heirloom varieties modestly reduced interleukin-17 (Il17) in the context of WD. WD negatively affected jejunal villi structure, while the modern variety improved villi structure in the ileum. Relative mRNA and tight junction proteins and serum lipopolysaccharide binding protein were unaltered by WD or wheat. These findings indicate that the modern variety did not compromise barrier function or contribute to gut inflammation compared to its heirloom predecessor.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Interferon gama , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Triticum/classificação
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13237-13246, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671945

RESUMO

The midgut cadherin has been described as one of the main functional receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera) are two major target pests of Bt toxins in China, and the roles of their cadherins in the action of Bt toxins have been only partially studied. Here, we expressed the two cadherins in Sf9 cells and their partial extracellular domains in Escherichia coli and tested them for Bt toxin binding, cellular toxicity, and synergism with toxins. Our results suggested that PxCad might function as a Cry1Ac receptor, although it showed lower binding levels to Cry1Ac and reduced cytotoxicity compared with HaCad. PxCad and HaCad are not receptors for Cry2A, Cry1B, Cry1C, and Cry1F toxins, although some of them can bind to the cadherins. The PxCad-TBR exhibits higher enhancement of Cry1Ac and weak enhancement of Cry1F toxicity in P. xylostella larvae, although it is not the receptor of Cry1F.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Caderinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 565-581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705514

RESUMO

Psychobiotics are live bacteria that directly and indirectly produce positive effects on neuronal functions by colonizing into the intestinal flora. Preliminary studies, although in limited numbers, have found that these bacteria have anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. No research has yet been published on the antipsychotic efficacy of psychobiotics. However, these preliminary studies have opened up new horizons and raised the idea that a new class is emerging in psychopharmacology. About 70 years have passed since the discovery of chlorpromazine, and while the synaptic transmission is understood in almost all details, there seems to be a paradigm shift in psychopharmacology. In recent years, the perspective has shifted from synapse to intestinal microbiota. In this respect, germ-free and conventional animal experiments and few human studies were examined in a comprehensive manner. In this article, after a brief look at the history of contemporary psychopharmacology, the mechanisms of the gut-brain relationship and the evidence of metabolic, systemic, and neuropsychiatric activities of psychobiotics were discussed in detail. In conclusion, psychobiotics seem to have the potential for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in the future. However, there are many questions and we do not know the answers yet. We anticipate that the answer to these questions will be given in the near future.


Assuntos
Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/metabolismo , Psicofarmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13247-13257, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707781

RESUMO

Dietary interventions alter the formation of the disease-associated metabolite, trimethylamine (TMA), via intestinal microbial TMA lyase activity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating microbial enzyme production are still unclear. Sequencing of the gut bacteria 16S rDNA demonstrated that dietary intervention changed the composition of the gut microbiota and the functional metagenome involved in the choline utilization pathway. Characterization of the functional profile of the metagenomes and metabonomics analysis revealed that a series of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthologous groups and enzyme groups related to accumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) and glycine were enriched in red meat diet-fed animals, whereas fiber-rich diet suppressed glycine formation via the MG-dependent pathway. Our observations suggest associations between choline-TMA lyase expression and MG formation, which are indicative of a novel role of the gut microbiota in choline metabolism and highlight it as a potential target for inhibiting TMA production.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Colina/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Carne Vermelha/análise
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1771-1786, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613203

RESUMO

Introduction. There is an ever present need to isolate and characterize indigenous bacterial strains with potential probiotic health benefits for humans.Aim. Lactobacillus fermentum of dairy origin was focused because of its propensity to adhere to the intestinal glycoprotein, mucin.Methodology. The lactobacillus strains were screened for mucin adhesion, resistance to low pH and bile, autoaggregation, hydrophobicity, and survival in an in vitro digestion model. The cholesterol-lowering and oxalate-degrading effects of selected strains were also determined. Safety was assessed for haemolytic, mucinolytic and gelatinase activity, biogenic amine production, antibiotic resistance and phenol resistance. Expression of the 32-mmub adhesion-related gene was also measured following strain exposure to simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion.Results. The selected mucin-adhesive strains were tolerant to acid (pH 3.0) and bile (0.25 %) and demonstrated >85 % survival following simulated human digestion in the presence of milk. The digestive treatment did not affect the adhesive potential of PL20, and PL27, regardless of the food matrix. The simulated digestion had less effect on their adhesion than on the type strain and it also did not correlate with the mmub gene expression level as determined by qPCR. The selected strains exhibited cholesterol removal (36-44 %) and degraded oxalate (66-55 %). Neither of these strains exhibited undesirable characteristics.Conclusion. These preliminary findings suggest a functionality in the two strains of L. fermentum with high colonization potential on GIT mucosal membranes and possible health-promoting effects. This prima facie evidence suggests the need for further studies to test these probiotic candidates as live biotherapeutic agents in vivo.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Laticínios/microbiologia , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Lactobacillus fermentum/fisiologia , Mucinas/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lactobacillus fermentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12245-12254, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613624

RESUMO

The pH-shift method is a simple approach for incorporating certain kinds of polyphenol-based nutraceuticals into already existing colloidal systems. The polyphenols can be loaded into hydrophobic particles due to the fact that their water-solubility is relatively high under alkaline conditions but low under acid or neutral conditions. In this study, it was demonstrated that bovine milk could be enriched with curcumin using this approach, without adversely affecting milk fat globule stability. The storage stability of the curcumin-enriched bovine milk was assessed when samples were incubated for 60 days at different pH values and temperatures. The pH-stability was determined by storing curcumin-enriched milk at 4 °C for 60 days at pH 6.5, 7.0, and/or 8.0. At this low storage temperature, all milk samples were stable to fat globule aggregation, creaming, curcumin degradation (<13% loss), and color loss. The temperature-stability was determined by storing curcumin-enriched milk at pH 7 for 15 days at 4, 20, 37, or 55 °C. Curcumin breakdown decreased with decreasing storage temperature: 55 °C (43%) > 37 °C (21%) > 20 °C (10%) > 4 °C (5%). Interestingly, the color of the curcumin-enriched milks incubated at 4, 20, and 37 °C remained similar to that of the initial samples, but the sample stored at 55 °C showed significant color fading. Curcumin bioaccessibility determined using an in vitro gastrointestinal tract was around 40%, which was attributed to some chemical degradation and binding of the curcumin reducing its stability and solubilization. This study shows that a hydrophobic nutraceutical (curcumin) can be loaded into dairy milk products using a simple method, which could facilitate the creation of novel functional foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Leite/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Bovinos , Curcumina/metabolismo , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4519-4531, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634399

RESUMO

Prebiotics and dietary fibers are nondigestible ingredients that may confer benefits to the host by selectively stimulating beneficial intestinal bacteria and microbial-derived metabolites that support gut and host health. This experiment evaluated the effects of a blend of prebiotics and dietary fibers on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and fecal metabolites related to gastrointestinal health in adult dogs. Four diets containing either 5% cellulose (control; CT), 5% dietary fiber and prebiotic blend (FP), 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (SE), or 5% fiber blend plus 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (FSE) were formulated to meet or exceed the AAFCO (2017) nutritional requirements for adult dogs. Eight adult female beagles (mean age 4.2 ± 1.1 yr; mean BW = 10.8 ± 1.4 kg; mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.6) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 14 d (10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of total and fresh fecal and total urine collection). All animals remained healthy throughout the study, with serum metabolites being within reference ranges for adult dogs. All diets were well accepted by the dogs, resulting in similar (P > 0.05) daily food intakes among treatments. Likewise, fecal output and scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among dietary treatments, with the latter being within the ideal range (2.5-2.9) in a 5-point scale. All diets were highly digestible and had similar (P > 0.05) ATTD of dry matter (81.6%-84.4%), organic matter (86.4%-87.3%), and crude protein (86.6%-87.3%). However, total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility was greater for dogs fed the FSE diet (P < 0.05) in contrast with dogs fed the CT and SE diets, whereas dogs fed FP diets had intermediate TDF digestibility, but not different from all other treatments. Fecal acetate and propionate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for dogs fed FP and FSE diets. Fecal concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were greater for dogs fed CT (P < 0.05) compared with dogs fed the other three treatments. No shifts in fecal microbial richness and diversity were observed among dietary treatments. Overall, the data suggest that dietary supplementation of fiber and prebiotic blend was well tolerated by dogs, did not cause detrimental effects on fecal quality or nutrient digestibility, and resulted in beneficial shifts in fecal metabolites that may support gut health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarina/administração & dosagem
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12796-12805, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659898

RESUMO

Whole-grain dietary fiber is rich in bound-form phenolics, and the biological activity of this special structural feature has attracted increasing attention. In this study, rice bran dietary fiber (RBDF) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to investigate the liberation of bound phenolics and their potential activities. Bound phenolics were released at a higher ratio during colonic fermentation (27.57%) than gastrointestinal digestion (2.68%). Nine phenolic compounds were detected from the fermentation supernatants. The released phenolics showed radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.11 µg GAE/mL). Compared with phenolics-removed RBDF (PR-RBDF), RBDF had a significantly stronger prebiotic effect on the microbes associated with diabetes (Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). These findings indicate that bound phenolics may act as important functional components that could contribute to the health benefits of whole-grain dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13228-13236, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610115

RESUMO

In this study, a novel plant-protein-based nanoparticle delivery system was developed to encapsulate and stabilize curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with different polarities. The strongly hydrophobic curcumin was embedded within the hydrophobic cores of zein nanoparticles using an antisolvent method, while the weakly hydrophobic EGCG was adsorbed to the region between the zein core and caseinate shell. The physicochemical properties, structure, and stability of the core-shell particles were characterized using dynamic light scattering, particle electrophoresis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bioaccessibility of curcumin in the core-shell nanoparticles was determined using a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Mean particle diameters around 100-200 nm could be produced by modulating the mass ratio of curcumin to zein. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin in the core-shell nanoparticles was higher (96.2%) in the presence of EGCG than in its absence (77.9%). Moreover, the water dispersibility and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity of the nanoparticles were significantly improved in the presence of EGCG. The simulated gastrointestinal tract experiments indicated that curcumin had a high bioaccessibility in the optimized core-shell nanoparticles. Overall, our findings suggest that EGCG can be used to improve the functional properties of curcumin-loaded zein-caseinate nanoparticles, which may increase their use in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/química , Zeína/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12283-12292, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610118

RESUMO

In this study, the binding mechanism, morphological, and conformational analysis of the complex of a sea cucumber ovum derived octapeptide (EDLAALEK) with Ca2+ as well as its calcium delivery behavior via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were investigated. The Ca2+ specifically bound to two carboxyl oxygen atoms of C-terminal Glu and Asp on the EDLAALEK peptide at a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. Calcium coordination induced the self-assembly of the EDLAALEK peptide, resulting in the formation of a nanocomposite with a crystal structure. Furthermore, the formed nanocomposite went through dissociation and self-assembly during in vitro GI digestion, accompanied by the release and rechelation of Ca2+, which was related to changes in their secondary structure. Nevertheless, the GI digests of the EDLAALEK-calcium complex could significantly enhance Ca2+ absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The findings suggest that the sea cucumber ovum derived peptide has the potential as an efficient nanocarrier to transport calcium through the GI system.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óvulo/química , Peptídeos/química , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Cálcio/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos
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